==History==
[[File:0417.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Rustic prospect-arbor,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 460, fig. 87.]]
One of the earliest advertisements for the nursery, published in New York’s the ''New-York Evening Post'' on June 6, 1825, describes the location of the garden at the intersection of Jamaica and Flatbush turnpikes—which, at the time, was just outside the village of Brooklyn.<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> The site, according to one period commentator, was originally “one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island,” but was transformed by [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] industry into a richly stocked [[nursery]], laid out according to the principles of “[[picturesque]] gardening.”<ref>“Rural Scenery,” ''New England Farmer'' 6, no. 24 (January 4, 1828): 187, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/INS7XKSI/q/rural%20scenery view on Zotero].</ref> It featured winding, sinuous [[walk|walking paths]] and, most notably, a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[belvedere]] (and was occasionally referred to as an [[arbor]]) [Fig. 1] that allowed for “a view of the whole garden and the surrounding scenery . . . including Staten Island, the Bay, Governor’s Island, and the city of New York.”<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref> Although the primary business of the [[nursery]] was to sell plants—with a focus on grape vines, fruit trees, and roses—it also served a dual purpose as a place for public enjoyment.<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): , p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> Indeed, many of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] sales were made through the post or through agents, such as the seedsman Grant Thorburn, and the Horticultural and Botanical Garden functioned more as promotional tool, drawing visitors and modeling how they might lay out the plants acquired there.<ref>Grant Thorburn, a Scottish-born seedsman and author, is identified as an agent in numerous advertisements for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden. Other agents mentioned in various advertisements include the grocers Charles Swan, Harvey Spencer, and John J. Moore.</ref> To that end, [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] also offered his services as a landscape designer, and was identified by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] as “the only practitioner . . . of any note” in the United States. Downing described his [[nursery]] as having offered “a specimen of the [[natural style]] of laying out grounds, . . . and contributed not a little to the dissemination of a taste for the [[natural style|natural mode]] of [[landscape gardening]].”<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York & London: Wiley and Putnam; Boston: C. C. Little & Co., 1841), 21–22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QDVESTBX/q/treatise%20on%20the%20theor view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0064.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, ''Map of [[André Parmentier|Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s]] Horticultural & Botanic Garden, at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.]]
In about 1828 [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] published a broadside of his Horticultural and Botanical Garden featuring a map of the grounds, offering a most detailed view of the layout and design of his [[nursery]] [Fig. 2]. The vineyards and rose [[shrubbery|shrubs]] were enclosed by meandering [[walk]]s that led to the “[[rustic style|Rustic]] [[arbor|Arbour]]” and “French Saloon” at the east corner of the [[plot]] (situated at the upper left on the map), and straight [[alley]]s, lined with fruit trees, divided his [[orchard]]s. Along the eastern edge of the nursery, abutting the Jamaica Turnpike, was a small cluster of buildings that included the barn, [[greenhouse]]s, tool and work houses, as well as the Parmentier family’s home and living quarters for laborers; adjacent to these buildings were hot [[bed]]s and an herbaceous plant garden.<ref>The close quarters may have led to a dispute in July 1830, when one of his laborers beat another with a garden hoe. Newspaper reports are mute on what precipitated the attack but noted that the victim, George Fuller, died shortly thereafter. His attacker, Owen Redden, was tried for murder but eventually acquitted by reason of insanity. See “Outrage,” ''New-York Morning Herald'' (July 9, 1830): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/SZ2JVFV8 view on Zotero], and “Oyer and Terminer,” ''American'' (June 17, 1831): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VCM3W7RT view on Zotero].</ref>The broadside is likely the document Parmentier sent to the Société d’Horticulture de Paris in 1829, and it was later reprinted, with some alterations, in the February 1832 issue of ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement''.<ref>The editor of the ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' noted that Parmentier sent a map of his nursery, along with a letter on the propagation of fruit trees in America; see “Sur les Arbres fruitiers d’Amérique,” ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' 4 (1829): 352, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WRFUH5XB view on Zotero]. For the 1832 reprint of the map, see ''Gardener's Magazine'' (February 1832): 71, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref>
The article that accompanied the 1832 publication of the map was intended to aid in the sale of the Horticultural and Botanical Garden. [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] had died in November 1830 after a prolonged illness, and his widow, Sylvie, endeavored to maintain the property following his death under increasingly difficult circumstances. In March 1831 parts of the property, including a barn and outhouses, were destroyed by arson, and in September of that year the Parmentiers’ son Léon died at the age 12.<ref>For information on the fire at Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden, see ''American'' (March 17, 1831): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/TNER2ST7 view on Zotero], and for the death notice of Léon Ghislain Leopold Parmentier, see ''American'' (September 20, 1831): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R2NERJC5 view on Zotero].</ref> Sylvie Parmentier subsequently put the nursery up for sale in November 1831. Finding no immediate buyers, she continued to oversee the garden until November 1833, when she sold it to Dr. Adrian Vanderveer of nearby Flatbush. Vanderveer paid $53,000 for the garden, which he divided into lots and sold them at auction for nearly $70,000.<ref>Some papers cite the original sale price as $57,000; see “Price of Farms,” ''New-York American'' (November 22, 1833), p. 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ZB28JDE7 view on Zotero]. For additional details of the sale and subsequent auction, see “Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (October 23, 1833), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CSXXMK56/q/parmentier's%20garden view on Zotero], “All in the Wrong,” ''Commercial Advertiser'' (November 9, 1833), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/4AV8M7X3 view on Zotero], and ''New-York American'' (November 19, 1833), p. 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CQZTHBC6 view on Zotero].</ref>
—''Elizabeth Athens''
==Texts==
*Anonymous, June 6, 1825, advertisement for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden (''New-York Evening Post'' [New York])<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): , p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[André Parmentier|ANDREW PARMENTIER]] has established himself in America with a view to Horticulture, and has already set on foot a [[nursery]] of considerable extent and variety, of ornamental & fruit-bearing trees, at the cross-roads formed by the intersection of the Jamaica & Flatbush turnpikes. . . . He has also a fine collection of [[shrubbery|shrubs]] and flowers, in [[pot]]s, for sale.
*Anonymous, March 4, 1826, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens” (''New-York Evening Post'' [New York])<ref>“On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (March 4, 1826): , p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QW4A64CE view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[André Parmentier|Mr. ANDREW PARMENTIER]], lately from Europe, where these gardens are generally adopted, has made at his place, at the division of the Jamaica and Flatbush turnpike, at Brooklyn, L. I. a garden of this kind, which will be the more interesting on account of the great variety of foreign trees and plants he has there introduced. —It is but half an hour’s walk from New York.
*Anonymous, May 19, 1827, “Mr. Parmentier’s Garden” (''New-York Evening Post'' [New York])<ref>“Mr. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (May 19, 1827): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XT8G5JP2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At the [[greenhouse|green houses]] in Mr. Parmentier’s Horticultural Garden in Brooklyn . . . the admirers of flowers may see many rare and elegant varieties of roses, together with many other curious and beautiful flowers now in blossom. . . . [[André Parmentier|Mr. Parmentier]] has introduced into this country the species of rose with red petals emitting the perfume of tea, sometimes called the red tea rose of Florence; this is also in flower. The Napoleon rose, and the Maria Louisa rose, with a number of others, will also be in bloom in a few days. As these plants are cultivated in [[pot]]s, their transportation may be safely effected at any season.”
*Anonymous, March 17, 1831, describing an act of arson at Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanic Garden (''New-York American'' [New York])<ref>''New-York American'' (March 17, 1831): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R6RNKXMT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We regret to be obliged to state, that the barn and outhouses attached to Madame Parmentier’s garden, near Brooklyn, were destroyed last night by fire, together with carts, garden tools and a horse. . . . [W]e are authorized by one of Mrs. Parmentier’s neighbors to offer a reward of one hundred dollars for the apprehension and conviction of the incendiary.”
*Anonymous, November 26, 1831, advertisement for the sale of Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden (''Commercial Advertiser'' [New York])<ref>Advertisement, ''Commercial Advertiser'' (November 26, 1831): , p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/6B8X5KFK view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Horticultural Garden of the Late [[André Parmentier|Andrew Parmentier]], Is Offered For Sale. The reputation of this establishment is not confined to the vicinity of New-York, but is well known throughout the United States, and different parts of Europe. It is situated two miles from the city of New-York, at Brooklyn, Long Island, at the junction of the Jamaica and Flatbush Roads, and contains 24 acres.
*Anonymous, June 20, 1833, “Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden” (''New-York Spectator'')<ref>“Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Spectator'' (June 20, 1833): , p. 1, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ARQEVA2S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Those ladies and gentlemen who have not entirely yielded themselves to languor and repose during the brightest hours of the morning, would find themselves richly repaid by a visit to the “garden of roses” (as we must be permitted to call it) of Mrs. Parmentier. . . . A lady’s taste is visible in the neatness and floral embellishments of Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden, and though there is a large domain to superintend, and though a vast variety of trees and [[Shrubbery]] for the ornament and for use, call for attention in the liberal department of the [[nursery]], yet nothing is neglected—all is equally subject to the most assiduous care and preserving industry.”
*Anonymous, October 23, 1833, “Parmentier’s Garden” (''New-York Evening Post'' [New York])<ref>“Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (October 23, 1833): , p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CSXXMK56 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We learn that Mrs. Parmentier has recently disposed of, at private sale, the ground now occupied by her as a Garden, for the sum of ''fifty-three thousand dollars''. . . . The rage for speculation in Brooklyn, has enabled Mrs. Parmentier to retire from active life, with a competency for herself and interesting daughters—the just reward of virtuous and well-spent lives.”

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