==Overview==
'''Alternate Names:''' Public Grounds<br/>
'''Site Dates:''' 1791&ndash;to present<br/>
'''Site Owner(s):''' U.S. National Park Service<br/>
'''Associated People:''' [[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant]] (1754&ndash;1825, urban designer); [[Robert Mills]] (1781&ndash;1855, architect); [[Andrew Jackson Downing]] (1815&ndash;1852, landscape designer)<br/>
==History==
[[File:04140071.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.]] [[File:0071.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Thomas Jefferson, Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.]]The origins of the National Mall can be traced to a preliminary plan for the city of Washington sketched by [[Thomas Jefferson]] in March 1791. [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] laid out the city in a gridiron formation, envisioning the Capitol building and the President’s House as opposite ends of a prominent east-west axis connected by "public [[walk]]s" [Fig. 21].<ref>Richard W. Stephenson, ''“A Plan Whol[l]y New”: Pierre Charles L’Enfant’s Plan of the City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1993), 17&ndash;19, see also 38&ndash;43, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q3WX7W32 view on Zotero]; Therese O’Malley, “Art and Science in American Landscape Architecture: The National Mall, Washington, DC 1791&ndash;1852,” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1989, 15&ndash;21, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> Over the next several months, the military engineer [[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant]] expanded upon [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson's]] ideas in his official plan for the city, which adapted abstract geometry to the natural topography of the site, which featured a [[park]]-like setting of rolling hills, a wooded terrain, and proximity to the Potomac River. <span id="LEnfant_Grand_cite"></span>Influenced by recent developments in French urban planning, [[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant’s]] ambitious design called for a “Grand [[Avenue]], 400 feet in breadth, and about a mile in length” leading from “the Congress Garden” on Jenkins Hill (now Capitol Hill) to the “President’s [[park]]” and a “well-improved field” near the banks of the Potomac, which would be the site of a projected equestrian [[statue]] of [[George Washington]] ([[#LEnfant_Grand|view citationtext]]). The [[view]] from that point back to the Capitol would feature a [[cascade]] falling from a height of forty feet down to a [[canal]] running alongside the Mall to the Potomac. <span id="LEnfant_resort_cite"></span>[[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant]] conceived of the wide urban [[avenue]] as a social as well as a scenic space: a “place of general resort,” bordered by gardens and the stately residences of the city’s elite, as well as playhouses, assembly rooms, academies, “and all such sort of places as may be attractive to the l[e]arned and afford diver[s]ion to the idle” ([[#LEnfant_resort|view citationtext]]).<ref>Michael J. Lewis, “The Idea of the American Mall,” in ''The National Mall: Rethinking Washington’s Monumental Core'', ed. Nathan Glazer and Cynthia R. Field (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 13&ndash;15, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/96G2E377 view on Zotero]; Pamela Scott, “‘This Vast Empire’: The Iconography of the Mall, 1791&ndash;1848,” in ''The Mall in Washington'', ed. Richard Longstreth, Studies in the History of Art, Center for Advanced Studies in the Visual Arts, Symposium Papers, XIV (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1991), 39&ndash;40 and 55, n.20, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; O’Malley 1989, 26&ndash;48, 95&ndash;97,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero]; H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), 151&ndash;53, 157&ndash;59, 163&ndash;65, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> [[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant]] would later remark that he “changed the whole face of the city ground, from a savage wilderness into a compleat heden [''sic''] garden.”<ref>O’Malley 1989, 50, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0414.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.]] Development of the Mall stalled over the next several decades while a variety of alternative plans were advanced. [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], then Supervising Architect of the United States Capitol, proposed a design in 1815 that called for a [[canal]] originating in a circular basin at the foot of the Capitol and running the full length of the Mall to a [[cascade]] and lagoon at the opposite end [Fig. 12]. Nothing came of this proposal, nor of others advanced by the architects Charles Bulfinch (in 1822) and [[Robert Mills]] (in 1831).<ref>Scott 1991, 46&ndash;50, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero].</ref> Sections of the Mall were cultivated on a piecemeal basis; for example, in 1821 the [[Columbian Institute]] began carrying out improvements on five acres at the Mall’s east end for a [[botanical garden]], which included cultivating a [[hedge]] enclosure, excavating an elliptical [[pond]] with an island, laying out gravel [[walk]]s, and planting [[border]]s with specimens of native and exotic trees and shrubs.<ref>Scott 1991, 46, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; Therese O’Malley, “‘Your Garden Must Be a Museum to You’: Early American Botanic Gardens,” ''Huntington Library Quarterly'' 59 (1996): 218&ndash;20, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB view on Zotero]; O’Malley, 1989, 122&ndash;36,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref>
<div id="Fig_3"></div>[[File:0033.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Robert Mills, ''Plan of the Mall'', Washington, DC, 1841. [[#Fig_3_cite|Back to texts]]]]
In 1841, as part of his design for the building that would ultimately house the Smithsonian Institution, [[Robert Mills]] submitted a comprehensive plan for a great public [[park]] extending from the [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington Monument]] to the Capitol. As conceived by [[Robert Mills|Mills]], the Mall would be laid out as a [[picturesque]] assemblage of gardens of contrasting styles: informal plantings and serpentine paths in the [[English style]] surrounding the [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington Monument]] and [[botanic garden]]s would be contrasted with more formal, [[Geometric style|geometric]] plantings near the Capitol [Fig. 3]. [[Robert Mills|Mills’s]] design was novel for its holistic integration of architecture and landscape, as well as for its botanical emphasis, which reflected the influence of the contemporary English theory of the [[gardenesque]] formulated by [[J. C. Loudon]].<ref>O’Malley 1989, 150&ndash;51, 158&ndash;61, 169&ndash;72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> At the same time, [[Robert Mills|Mills’s]] design was consistent with the long-held objective of locating a publicly accessible [[botanic garden]] in the nation’s capital&mdash;an idea first broached in the 1790s by influential advocates including [[George Washington]] and [[Thomas Jefferson]].<ref>O’Malley 1996, 213&ndash;26, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB view on Zotero]; Scott 1991, 48&ndash;49, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; O’Malley 1989, 98&ndash;105, 112, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> [[Robert Mills|Mills’s]] plan had little immediate impact on the landscaping of the Mall, which remained in a undeveloped state in 1845, when a member of the Smithsonian Institution Building Committee “urged the expediency and policy of rescuing the Mall from its present state of degradation and of ornamenting it at least with the different trees of this country, and protecting it with a decent enclosure.”<ref>Quoted in O’Malley 1989, 181, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> That same year, 2,000 indigenous trees (representing 200 species and varieties) were planted on the Mall, and additional plantings and enclosures were added in the years that followed.<ref>O’Malley 1989, 180&ndash;82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> [[Robert Mills]]'s]] conception of the Mall as a locus for scientific inquiry and display, and his adoption of the romantic aesthetic of [[natural style|naturalism]] set the tone for future landscaping of the area.
[[File:1967.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan showing proposed method of laying out the public grounds at Washington'', 1851.]]
<span id="Downing_cite"></span>Botanical interests informed the landscape plan designed in 1851 by the architect and horticulturalist [[Andrew Jackson Downing]], who conceived of the Mall as “a national [[park]]” and a “public museum of living trees and shrubs” that would both influence taste by providing an example of the [[natural style]] of landscape gardening (illustrated by a sequence of contrasting landscape “scenes”), and educate visitors to the popular and scientific names, habits, and growth of botanical specimens suited to Washington’s climate ([[#Downing|view citationtext]]) [Fig. 4].<ref>Thomas J. Schlereth, “Early North American Arboreta,” ''Garden History'' 35 (2007): 211&ndash;13, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z265TMPB view on Zotero]; Kirk Savage, ''Monument Wars: Washington, DC, the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial'' (Berkeley, Los Angelos: University of California Press, 2005), 70&ndash;73, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; Therese O’Malley, “‘A Public Museum of Trees’: Mid-Nineteenth Century Plans for the Mall,” in Longstreth, 1991, 65&ndash;72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IV2DGE4I view on Zotero]; O’Malley 1989, 196&ndash;98, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> Rather than carry out [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing's]] plan systematically, individual federal agencies developed portions of the Mall on an ad hoc basis, creating a loosely connected network of meandering [[walk]]s, gardens, and [[grove]]s.<ref>Savage 2005, 75, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; David C. Streatfield, “The Olmsteds and the Landscape of the Mall,” in Longstreth, 1991, 117&ndash;18, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DF93A3NA view on Zotero]; O’Malley 1991, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IV2DGE4I view on Zotero].</ref> Under the McMillan Plan of 1902, the existing landscape was cleared and leveled in order to create a more unified, open space with unobstructed [[vista]]s in keeping with the spirit of [[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant's]] original plan. Landscape and hardscape construction projects continue to reshape the Mall and its surroundings into the 21st century. <ref>Peter R. Penczer, ''The Washington National Mall'' (Arlington, VA: Oneonta Press, 2007), 21&ndash;121, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UCQQK7BW view on Zotero]; Sue Kohler and Pamela Scott, eds., ''Designing the Nation’s Capital: The 1901 Plan for Washington, DC'' (Washington, DC: U. S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2006), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4MKGI88M view on Zotero]; Savage 2005, 147&ndash;313, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; Therese O’Malley, “The Mall: 1992&ndash;2002,” in Longstreth, 2002, ix&ndash;xii, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CFKB97I4/q/2002 view on Zotero].</ref>
—''Robyn Asleson''
==Texts==
[[File:2095.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, ''Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t[he] United States'', 1791.]]
*<div id="LEnfant_resort"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], June 22, 1791, describing in a report to [[George Washington]] his plans for Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 151&ndash;53)<ref>Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT/ view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to history]]
:“I placed the three grand Departments of State contigous to the principle Palace and on the way leading to the Congressional House the gardens of the one together with the [[park]] and other improvement on the dependency are connected with the publique [[walk]] and [[avenue]] to the Congress house in a manner as most [must] form a whole as grand as it will be agreeable and convenient to the whole city which form [from] the distribution of the local [locale] will have an early access to this place of general resort and all along side of which may be placed play houses, room of assembly, accademies and all such sort of places as may be attractive to the learned and afford diversion to the idle.” [Fig. 5] [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to History]]
[[File:1134.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Facsimile reproduction of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant’s ''Plan of the City intended for the Permanent Seat of the Government of the United States'', made in 1887.]]
*<div id="LEnfant_Grand"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], January 4, 1792, from notes on “Plan of the City” describing Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 163–65)<ref>Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to history]]
:“F. Grand [[Cascade]], formed of water from the sources of the Tiber.
:“I. President’s [[park]] and the
:“K. well-improved field. . . .” [Fig. 6] :[[#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to History]]
*Anonymous, January 2, 1808, describing in the ''Washington Expositor'' the National Mall, Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 99–100)<ref>O’Malley 1989, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJ3JTTJB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, more beneficial to the poor citizens, than their culture in the ordinary courses. . . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample [[walk]]s open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the public, it will give to the city, much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable [[promenade]]s, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places.”
*[[Robert Mills|Mills, Robert]], February 23?, 1841, in a letter to Joel R. Poinsett, describing his design for the National Mall, Washington, DC (Scott, ed., 1990: n.p.)<ref> Scott 1990, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CEBJWW8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Agreeably to your requisition to prepare a plan of improvement to that part of the [[Mall]] lying between 7th and 12th Street West for a [[botanic garden]] . . . I have the honor to submit the following Report. . . .
:“Drawing No. 1 presents a general plan of the entire [[Mall]], including that annexed to the President’s house, with the particular improvement proposed of that part intended for the Institution and its objects. . . .[<span id="Fig_3_cite"></span>[[#Fig_3|See Fig. 3]]]
:“The relative position of the Capitol, President’s House, and other public buildings are laid down, as also the position of the proposed buildings for the Institution; the adjacent streets and [[avenue]]s are also shown, with the line of the [[Canal]] which courses through the City, at the foot of the Capitol hill to the Eastern Branch near the Navy Yard, thus making of the south western section, a complete island. . . .
:“The principle upon which this plan is founded is two fold, one is to provide suitable space for a [[Botanic garden]], the other to provide locations for subjects allied to agriculture, the propagation of useful and ornamental trees native and foreign, the provision of sites for the erection of suitable buildings to accommodate the various subjects to be lectured on and taught in the Institution. . . .
:“The [[Botanic garden]] is laid out in the centre fronting and opening to the south. On each side of this the grounds are laid out in serpentine [[walk]]s and in [[picturesque]] divisions forming [[plat]]s for grouping the various trees to be introduced and creating shady [[walk]]s for those visiting the establishments. . . .
:“A range of trees is proposed to surround three sides of the [[square]] which is intended to be laid open by an iron or other railing, the north side to be enclosed with a high brick wall to serve as a shelter and to secure the various [[hothouse|hot houses]] and other buildings of inferior character.
:“The main building for the Institution is located about 300 feet south of the [[wall]] fronting the [[Botanic garden]], from which it is separated by a circular road, in the centre of which is a [[fountain]] of water from the [[basin]] of which pipes are led underground thro’ the [[walk]]s of the garden, for irrigating the same at pleasure, the [[fountain]]s may be supplied from the [[canal]] flowing near the north [[wall]] of inclosure. . . .
:“By means of Groups and [[vista]]s of trees, [[picturesque]] [[view]]s may be obtained of the various buildings and other such objects as may be of a monumental character and thus there would be an attraction produced which would draw many of our citizens and strangers to partake of the pleasure of promenading here.”
*Mudd, Ignatius, 1849, describing the grounds of the United States Capitol and the reconstruction of the National Mall, Washington, DC (U.S. Congress, 31st Congress, 1st Session, doc. 30)
:“A disposition on the part of Congress to make the [[public ground|public grounds]] what they were originally designed to be. . . . An ornament and attraction to the capital of the nation.”
[[File:0023.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.]]
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1851, describing plans for improving the [[public ground|public grounds]] in Washington, DC (quoted in Washburn 1967: 54&ndash;55)<ref>Wilcomb E. Washburn, “Vision of Life for the Mall,” ''AIA Journal'' 47, no. 3 (March 1967): 52&ndash;59. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TA59MHC7 view on Zotero]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:“My object in this Plan has been three-fold:
:“This comprises the open Ground directly south of the President’s House. Adopting suggestions made me at Washington I propose to keep the large area of this ground open, as a place for parade or military reviews, as well as public festivities or celebrations. A circular carriage [[drive]] 40 feet wide and nearly a mile long shaded by an [[avenue]] of Elms, surrounds the Parade, while a series of foot-paths, 10 feet wide, winding through [[thicket]]s of trees and shrubs, forms the boundary to this [[park]], and would make an agreeable shaded [[promenade]] for pedestrians.
:“I propose to take down the present small stone [[gate]]s to the President’s Grounds, and place at the end of Pennsylvania Avenue a large and handsome [[arch|Archway]] of marble, which shall not only form the main entrance from the City to the whole of the proposed new Grounds, but shall also be one of the principal Architectural ornaments of the city; inside of this [[arch]]-way is a semicircle with three [[gate]]s commanding three carriage roads. Two of these lead into the Parade or President’s [[Park]], the third is a private carriage-[[drive]] into the President’s grounds; this [[gate]] should be protected by a Porter’s lodge, and should only be open on reception days, thus making the President’s grounds on this side of the house quite private at all other times. . . .
:“2nd: Monument [[Park]].
:“This comprises the fine [[plot]] of ground surrounding the [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington monument]] and bordered by the Potomac. To reach it from the President’s [[Park]] I propose to cross the [[canal]] by a wire suspension [[bridge]], sufficiently strong for carriages, which would permit vessels of moderate size to pass under it, and would be an ornamental feature in the grounds. I propose to plant Monument [[Park]] wholly with ''American'' trees, of large growth, disposed in open groups, so as to al[l]ow of fine [[vista]]s of the Potomac river. . . .
:“4th: Smithsonian [[Park]] or [[pleasure ground|Pleasure Grounds]].
:“6th: The [[Botanic Garden]].
:“This is the spot already selected for this purpose and containing three [[greenhouse|green-houses]]. It will probably at some future time, be filled with a collection of hardy plants. I have only shown how the carriage-[[drive]] should pass through it (Crossing the [[canal]] again here) and making the exit by a large [[gateway]] opposite the middle [[gate]] of the Capitol Grounds. . . .
:“The pleasing natural undulations of surface, where they occur, I propose to retain, instead of expending money in reducing them to a level. The surface of the [[Park]]s, generally, should be kept in grass or [[lawn]], and mown by the ''mowing machine'' used in England, by which, with a man and horse, the labor of six men can be done in one day. . . .
:“A national [[Park]] like this, laid out and planted in a thorough manner, would exercise as much influence on the public taste as [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] near Boston, has done. Though only twenty years have elapsed since that spot was laid out, the lesson there taught has been so largely influential that at the present moment the United States, while they have no public [[park]]s, are acknowledged to possess the finest rural [[cemetery|cemeteries]] in the world. The [[public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington treated in the manner I have here suggested, would undoubtedly become a Public School of Instruction in every thing that relates to the tasteful arrangement of [[park]]s and grounds, and the growth and culture of trees, while they would serve, more than anything else that could be devised, to embellish and give interest to the Capital. The straight lines and broad [[Avenue]]s of the streets of Washington would be pleasantly relieved and contrasted by the beauty of curved lines and natural groups of trees in the various [[park]]s. By its numerous public buildings and broad [[Avenue]]s, Washington will one day command the attention of every stranger, and if its un-improved [[public ground|public grounds]] are tastefully improved they will form the most perfect background or setting to the City, concealing many of its defects and heightening all its beauties.”[[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
<hr>
Image:0071.jpg|Thomas Jefferson, Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.
Image:2095.jpg|Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, ''Plan of the city intended for the permanent [[seat ]] of the government of t[he] United States'', 1791.
Image:1134.jpg|Facsimile reproduction of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant’s ''Plan of the City intended for the Permanent [[Seat ]] of the Government of the United States'', made in 1887.
Image:0414.jpg|Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.
Image:0033.jpg|Robert Mills, ''Plan of the Mall'', Washington, DC, 1841.
Image:1835.jpg|Robert Mills, ''Sketch of the [[Washington_Monument_(Washington,_DC)|Washington Nat’l. Monumt.]]'', 1845.
Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:0428.jpg|Edward Weber, ''[[View ]] of Washington City and Georgetown'' [detail], 1849.
Image:0025.jpg|Robert P. Smith, ''[[View ]] of Washington'', c. 1850.
Image:0111.jpg|Seth Eastman, ''[[Washington_Monument_(Washington,_DC)|Washington’s Monument]], Under Construction'', November 16, 1851.
Image:1967.jpg|A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington'', 1851.
Image:0023.jpg|A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.
Image:0042.jpg|Benjamin Franklin Smith Jr., ''Washington, DC with projected improvements'', c. 1852.

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