'''Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden''' was a nursery founded in 1825 by the Belgian-born horticulturist, [Summary statement needed here[André Parmentier]], who immigrated with his family to Brooklyn in May 1824. Clearly [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] had designs of creating a nursery in the United States even before departing Belgium; in the notice of his election to the New-York Horticultural Society in June 1824, he is described as having brought with him “an extensive collection of fruit trees, rare plants, and seeds.”<ref>“Horticultural Memoranda,” ''American'' [New York] (June 28, 1824): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XQW7ZAR4/q/horticultural%20memoranda view on Zotero].</ref> He was recognized almost immediately in the horticultural press for introducing several rose species into this country.<ref>“Mr. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''Evening Post'' [New York] (May 19, 1827): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XT8G5JP2 view on Zotero].</ref>
==Overview==
==History==
'''Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden''' was a nursery founded in 1825 by the Belgian-born horticulturist, [[André Parmentier]], who immigrated with his family to Brooklyn in May 1824. Clearly [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] had designs of creating a nursery in the United States even before departing Belgium; in the notice of his election to the New-York Horticultural Society in June 1824, he is described as having brought with him “an extensive collection of fruit trees, rare plants, and seeds.”<ref>“Horticultural Memoranda,” ''American'' [New York] (June 28, 1824): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XQW7ZAR4/q/horticultural%20memoranda view on Zotero].</ref> He was recognized almost immediately in the horticultural press for introducing several rose species into this country.<ref>“Mr. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''Evening Post'' [New York] (May 19, 1827): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XT8G5JP2 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
[[File:0417.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Rustic prospect-arbor,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 460, fig. 87.]]
One of the earliest advertisements for the nursery, published in New York’s ''Evening Post'' on June 6, 1825, describes the location of the garden at the intersection of Jamaica and Flatbush turnpikes—at the time, just outside the village of Brooklyn.<ref>Advertisement, ''Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> The site, according to one period commentator, was originally “one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island,” but was transformed by [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] industry into a richly stocked [[nursery]], laid out according to the principles of “[[picturesque]] gardening.”<ref>“Rural Scenery,” ''The New England Farmer'' 6, no. 24 (January 4, 1828): 187, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/INS7XKSI/q/rural%20scenery view on Zotero].</ref> It featured winding, sinuous [[walk|walking paths]] and, most notably, a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[belvedere]] (occasionally referred to as an [[arbor]]) [Fig. 1] that allowed for “a view of the whole garden and the surrounding scenery . . . including Staten Island, the Bay, Governor’s Island, and the city of New York.”<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref> Although the primary business of the [[nursery]] was to sell plants—with a focus on grape vines, fruit trees, and roses—it also served a dual purpose as a place for public enjoyment.<ref>Advertisement, ''Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> Indeed, many of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] sales were made through the post or through agents, such as the seedsman Grant Thorburn, and the Horticultural and Botanical Garden functioned more as promotional tool, drawing visitors and modeling how they might lay out the plants acquired there.<ref>Grant Thorburn, a Scottish-born seedsman and author, is identified as an agent in numerous advertisements for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden. Other agents mentioned in various advertisements include the grocers Charles Swan, Harvey Spencer, and John J. Moore.</ref> To that end, [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] also offered his services as a landscape designer, and was identified by [[A. J. Downing]] as “the only practitioner . . . of any note” in the United States. Downing described his [[nursery]] as having offered “a specimen of the [[natural style]] of laying out grounds, . . . and contributed not a little to the dissemination of a taste for the [[natural style|natural mode]] of [[landscape gardening]].”<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York & London: Wiley and Putnam; Boston: C. C. Little & Co., 1841), 21–22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QDVESTBX/q/treatise%20on%20the%20theor view on Zotero].</ref>

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