[[File:1738.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Batty and Thomas Langley, “A Square Umbrello,” in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 50.]]
[[File:0990_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Birch]], ''Southeast View of “Sedgeley Park,” the Country Seat of James Cowles Fisher, Esq.'', c. 1819.]]
A free-standing structure in the garden that provided shelter from the sun or rain was often called a summerhouse. It was found in both [[public garden|public]] and private gardens throughout colonial and early republican America. <span id="Nicholson_cite"></span>As early as 1696 Governor Francis Nicholson, who laid out the colonial capitals of Annapolis, Maryland, and Williamsburg, Virginia, suggested a summerhouse for the [[public ground]]s ([[#Nicholson|view citation]]). Examples were plentiful in 18th-century publications and pattern books, and they exhibited a broad stylistic range: classical [<span id="Fig_16_cite"></span>[[#Fig_16|See Fig. 16]]], Gothic [Fig. 1], and [[Chinese manner|Chinese]] [<span id="Fig_17_cite"></span>[[#Fig_17|See Fig. 17]]], to name a few. Historic evidence corroborates that summerhouses were constructed in a rich variety of styles, such as the Gothic example at [[Sedgeley]], near Philadelphia [Fig. 2]; the classical [[temple]] style at [[Charles Willson Peale|Charles Willson Peale's]]’s [[Belfield]] in Germantown, Pennsylvania [<span id="Fig_10_cite"></span>[[#Fig_10|See Fig. 10]]]; and the Georgian summerhouse at the garden of William Paca in Annapolis, Maryland [<span id="Fig_4_cite"></span>[[#Fig_4|See Fig. 4]]].
[[File:1806.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, Anonymous, ''The Lilacs'', Residence of Thomas Kidder [perspective rendering, landscape], c. 1810.]]
From New England to South Carolina, “summerhouse” seems to have been used as an umbrella term, which subsumed more specific terms for a variety of garden structures such as “[[hermitage]],” “kiosk,” “[[temple]],” “[[pavilion]],” and “[[Chinese manner|Chinese]] [[seat]].” The materials and scale ranged widely. At the high end was the summerhouse at the [[Elias Hasket Derby Farm]] in Peabody, Massachusetts. This extant building, designed by Samuel McIntire (1795), is a well-documented example of federal-period architecture [<span id="Fig_7_cite"></span>[[#Fig_7|See Fig. 7]]]. <span id="Cutler_cite"></span>[[Manasseh Cutler]] in 1778 described a richly decorated summerhouse that had three rooms and contained a large library, works of art, and a piano ([[#Cutler|view citation]]). <span id="Connor_cite"></span>The summerhouse described by Juliana Margaret Connor (1827), which was constructed of eight cedar trees chained together, presented a very different type of structure ([[#Connor|view citation]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the ''Horticulturist'', [[A. J. Downing]] referred to this variety of types when he explained that structures ranged from light wooden frames covered in painted canvas to highly finished, fanciful structures, such as those illustrated in his journal ([[#Downing|view citation]]). He echoed many earlier writers who concluded that summerhouses served three purposes: first, they provided shelter and resting places; second, they were sited to command the finest points of view [Fig. 3]; and third, they provided the termination of a [[view]] or [[prospect]].
Some summerhouses had additional utilitarian functions, such as those which surmounted cellars and vaults. <span id="Vassall_cite"></span>An [[icehouse]] under the summerhouse was reported in 1791 at the [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]] ([[#Vassall|view citation]]). Both [[Pleasant Hill]] in Charlestown, Massachusetts, and [[Charles Willson Peale|Charles Willson Peale's]]’s [[Belfield]] had summerhouses that incorporated [[hothouse]]s. The summerhouse at John Burgwin’s [[Hermitage (Willington NC)|Hermitage in Wilmington, North Carolina]], served as a tool shed. <span id="Sillman_cite"></span>At [[Monte Video]], according to Benjamin Silliman (1824), the summerhouse was used to shelter a boat ([[#Sillman|view citation]]). These and other examples capitalized on a favorable spot and ornamented an otherwise strictly utilitarian feature.
—''Therese O'Malley''
===Usage===
*<div id="Nicholson"></div> Nicholson, Gov. Francis, 1696, describing Annapolis, MD (quoted in Sarudy 1989: 120)<ref>Barbara Wells Sarudy, “Eighteenth-Century Gardens of the Chesapeake,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 9, no. 3 (July–September 1989): 104–59, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PGSNXHMJ view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Nicholson_cite|back up to history]]
:“requested to have a Certain parcell of land in the publick pasture according to the Demencons thereof mentioned and layd down in the [[plat|Platt]] of the Town for planting or makeing a Garden, Vineard, or '''Somerhouse''' or other use”
*Thomas, Gabriel, 1698, describing the residence of Edward Shippen, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Watson 1857: 1:368–69)<ref>John Fanning Watson, ''Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania in the Olden Time; Being a Collection of Memoirs, Anecdotes, and Incidents of the City and Its Inhabitants, and of the Earliest Settlements of the Inland Part of Pennsylvania, from the Days of the Founders'', 2 vols. (Philadelphia: E. Thomas, 1857), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5PTKBUW2 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Edward Shippen, who lives near the capital city, has an [[orchard]] and gardens adjoining to his great house that equals any I have ever seen, being a very famous and pleasant '''summer house''', erected in the middle of his garden, and abounding with tulips, carnations, roses, lilies, &c., with many wild plants of the country besides.”
*Beverley, Robert, 1705, describing [[Westover]], seat of [[William Byrd II]], on the James River, VA (quoted in Beverley 1947: 298–99)<ref>Robert Beverley, ''The History and Present State of Virginia'', ed. Louis B. Wright (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2TWMNCBA/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Have you pleasure in a Garden? . . . Colonel ''Byrd'', in his Garden [at [[Westover]]], which is the finest in that Country, has a '''Summer-House''' set round with the ''Indian'' Honey-Suckle.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], February 15, 1772, describing a portrait of [[William Paca]], including his garden in Annapolis, MD (Miller et al., eds., 1983: 1:113)<ref name="Miller et al">Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Charles Willson Peale'', vol. 1, ''Artist in Revolutionary America, 1735–1791'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“I have spent some time about [[William Paca|Mr. Paca’s]] whole lenght [''sic''] . . . if you remember the action he is resting on a pedestal on which I have introduced the Bust of Tully but believe [I] will be obliged to put some other in its [ ] place in the distance is a View of his '''Summer house'''.” [Fig. 4]
*Bucktrout, Benjamin, September 1, 1774, advertisement in the ''Virginia Gazette'' (quoted in Martin 1991: 206, fn. 24)<ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[will build] all sorts of ''[[Chinese manner|Chinese]]'' and ''Gothick'' PALING for gardens and '''summer houses'''.”
*<div id="Cutler"></div>[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], August 16, 1778, describing a garden in Rhode Island (1987: 1:68–69)<ref>William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9/ view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Cutler_cite|back up to history]]
:“At the lower end of the aisle is a large '''summerhouse''', a long square containing three rooms&mdash;the middle paved with marble and hung with landscapes and other pictures. On the right is a very large private library adorned with very curious carvings. The collection of French and English authors, maps, etc., is valuable. The room is furnished with a table, chairs, etc. . . . The room on the left in the '''summer-house''', beautifully prepared and designed for music, contains a spinnet.”
[[File:0928.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, Charles Saunders, ''The survey of a tract of Land in Cambridge. And a perspective delineation of the Summer house theron'', Mathematical Thesis, 1802.]]
*<div id="Vassall"></div>Hunnewell, Mr., 1790–91, describing the [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 160)<ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Vassall_cite|back up to history]]
:“the Vault under the '''Summerhouse''' is equal to any spot for the Construction of an [[icehouse]] & the distance (from the mansion house) is no obstacle in the least&mdash;as on occasion you may keep ice in the Cellar three days.” [Fig. 5]
*Bentley, William, June 12, 1791, describing [[Pleasant Hill]], seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (1962: 1:264)<ref>William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Was politely received at dinner by Mr Barrell, & family, who shewed me his large & elegant arrangements for amusement, & philosophic experiments. . . .His Garden is beyond any example I have seen. . . . The [[Chinese manner]] is mixed with the European in the '''Summer house''' which fronts the House, below the [[flower garden|Flower Garden]]. Below is the [[hothouse|Hot House]]. In the apartment above are his flowers admitted more freely to the air, & above a '''Summer House''' with every convenience. . . . No expense is spared to render the whole amusing, instructive, & friendly.” [Fig. 6]
<div id="Fig_4"></div>[[File:0011.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Samuel McIntire, Elevation of the summer house designed for the Elias Hasket Derby Farm, n.d. [[#Fig_7_cite|Back up to history.]]]]
*McIntire, Samuel, June 8, 1795, describing a statement of account with Elias Hasket Derby (quoted in Kimball 1940: 74)<ref name="Kimball">Fiske Kimball, ''Mr. Samuel McIntire, Carver, the Architect of Salem'' (Portland, ME: Southworth-Anthoensen, 1940), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I9J3RBHB view on Zotero].]</ref>
:{|
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*Brown, Charles Brockden, 1798, describing the fictional estate of Wieland, near Philadelphia, PA (1798: 9)<ref>Charles Brockden Brown, ''Wieland, or The Transformation, An American Tale'' (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1798), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5CB78G5T view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“At the distance of three hundred yards from his house, on the top of a rock whose sides were steep, rugged, and encumbered with dwarf cedars and stony asperities, he built what to a common eye would have seemed a '''summer-house'''. . . . It was no more than a circular area, twelve feet in diameter, whose flooring was the rock, cleared of moss and shrubs, and exactly levelled, edged by twelve Tuscan [[column]]s, and covered by an undulating dome. My father furnished the dimensions and outlines, but allowed the artist whom he employed to complete the structure on his own plan. It was without [[seat]], table, or ornament of any kind.”
*Anonymous, July 6, 1799, describing in ''The Spectator'' [[Vauxhall Garden]], New York, NY (quoted in Eberlein and Hubbard 1944: 171)<ref>Harold Donaldson Eberlein and Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, “The American ‘Vauxhall’ of the Federal Era Article Stable,” ''The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 68, no. 2 (April 1944): 150–74, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RVGSTS36 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“His beautiful garden was opened at 6 o'clock in the morning, and the colours were hoisted under a discharge of 16 guns. The 16 '''summer houses''' being the names of the Sixteen United States, each were decorated with the Emblematical Colours belonging to each State, and ornamented with Flowers and Garlands. At 5 o'clock in the evening, the sixteen colours of each '''Summer-house''' were carried, at the sound of the music, to the Grand [[Temple]] of Independence, which is 20 feet diameter, and 20 feet high . . . in the middle of which was presented, the Bust of the great Washington as large as life, and near him a Grand Gold [[Column]], representing the Constitution, and below the said [[Column]] the Figure of Fame, 6 feet high, presenting to him with one hand a Crown of Laurel, and with the other holding a Trumpet, announcing to the public that she crowns Real Merit. Round the Pedestal were seen Military Trophies. The sixteen colours above-mentioned were placed round the Pedestal, at the sound of Martial Music&mdash;and at each colour being placed round the Bust it was announced by the firing of cannon.“
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing the garden of the recitation room and inspector’s study in Nazareth, PA (1800: 46)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The strait and circular [[walk]]s, the windings up the hill, the [[falling garden]]s ascended by steps, the banks, '''summer-houses''', [[seat]]s, trees, herbs, fruits, vegetables and flowers are seen in great variety.
[[File:0012.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[Samuel McIntire]], Plan of summer house designed for Elias Hasket Derby Farm, n.d.]]
*[[Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin]] (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the [[Hermitage (Wilmington NC)|Hermitage]], seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 125–26)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The Gardens were large, and laid out in the [[English style]]&mdash;a Creek wound thro' the largest, upon its banks grew native [[shrubbery]]; in this Garden were several [[Alcove]]s, '''Summer Houses''', a [[hothouse]]&mdash;an Octagon '''summer house''' high and a Gardener’s tool house beneath&mdash;a [[pond|fishpond]], communicating with the Creek, both producing abundance of fish&mdash;The Second Garden was ornamental, and in front&mdash;The ‘Cook’s Garden,’ was on the opposite side to the large. . . . These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and '''summer houses''' at the termination of each [[walk]], [[seat]]s under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], June 12, 1804, describing the [[Carroll Garden]], Annapolis, MD (Miller et al., eds., 1988: 2:704)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Charles Willson Peale'', vol. 2, ''Charles Willson Peale: The Artist as Museum Keeper 1791–1810'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“at each end of the [[wall]] is an octagon Building projecting beyond it, one is a [[summerhouse|''Summer'' House]] & probably the other is a [[Temple]], it is locked up, & at first sight they might be thought to be intended for such purposes but on finding that one has no holes, People are naturally led to believe that the internal structure is similar, since the outsides are perfectly so.”
[[File:0292.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, William Matthew Prior, ''Washington’s Tomb at Mount Vernon'', c. 1855.]]
*Cuming, Fortesque, 1810, describing a home in Pittsburgh, PA (1810: 227)<ref>Fortescue Cuming, ''Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country'' (Pittsburgh: Cramer, Spear and Eichbaum, 1810), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EFUIGI3M view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Still continuing to turn to the right, the next prominent object is the house of Mr. James Ross, an emanent [''sic''] lawyer, which he purchased from a Mons. Marc, a Frenchman, who had taken great pains to cultivate a good garden, which Mr. Ross does not neglect, and in which, on the top of an ancient Indian tumulus or barrow, is a handsome octangular '''summer house''' of lattice work, painted white, which forms a conspicuous and pleasing object.”
*Gerry, Elbridge, Jr., July 1813, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (1927: 174)<ref>Elbridge Gerry Jr., ''The Diary of Elbridge Gerry, Jr.'' (New York: Brentano’s, 1927), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8P4QSRIF view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Back of the mansion is a '''summer house''', which commands an elegant [[view]] of the Potomac.” [Fig. 9]
<div id="Fig_10"></div>[[File:0044.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[Charles Willson Peale]], ''View of the garden at Belfield'', 1816. [[#Fig_10_cite|Back up to history.]]]]
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], August 2, 1813, in a letter to his daughter, Angelica Peale Robinson, describing [[Belfield]], estate of [[Charles Willson Peale]], Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 1991: 3:202)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Charles Willson Peale'', vol. 3, ''The Belfield Farm Years, 1810–1820'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“We are now beginning to ornament about the House Our Garden is much admired, Franklin is shewing his taste in neat workmanship. He has built an Elligant '''Summer House''' on that commanding spot which you may remember being pointed out to you. It is a hexicon base with 6 well turned [[Pillar]]s supporting a circular Top & dome on which is placed a bust of Genl. Washington, it would have been more appopriate [''sic''] to have had 13 [[pillar]]s, but I did not want so large a building, and it was work enough for Franklin to turn those 6 [[pillar]]s which he was able to execute will [with] the layth in the mill.” [Fig. 10]
[[File:0009_detail2.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, [[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at Belfield [detail], November 22, 1815.]]
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], November 22, 1815, in a letter to his daughter, Angelica Peale Robinson, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 43)<ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, "The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield" (honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The objects in sight, are the road ascending to the Dwelling, Stone wall & Thorn [[hedge]] on it inclosing the Garden, The Garden [[Gate]] at the [[Fountain]], [[Greenhouse|Green House]], '''Summer house''' a doom supported by 6 [[Pillar]]s, and bust of Washington crowning it&mdash;beyond that an [[Obelisk]]; the Hay barracks; Barn with the wind-mill on top of it to pump water for the stock, stables; Mantion-House, Wash-House and connecting [[piazza|Piaza]]; Carriage House; Spring House, [[bathhouse|Bath-House]] and cover of the [[icehouse|Ice-house]].” [Fig. 11]
[[File:1051.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, Daniel Wadsworth, “Monte Video, Approach to the House,” in Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (1824), pl. opp. 16.]]
*<div id="Sillman"></div>Silliman, Benjamin, 1824, describing [[Monte Video]], property of Daniel Wadsworth, Avon, CT (1824: 12)<ref>Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (New Haven, CT: S. Converse, 1824), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B5VWTWM5 view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Sillman_cite|back up to history]]
:“It [the path] then gradually passes down the north extremity of the [[lake]], where it unites with other paths, at a white [[picturesque]] building, overshadowed with trees, standing on the edge of the water, commanding a [[view]] of the whole of it, and open on every side during the warm weather, forming at that season, a delightful '''summerhouse''', and in the winter being closed, it serves as a shelter for the boat.” [Fig. 12]
[[File:0536.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, George Lehman, ''Fairmount Waterworks. From the Forebay'', 1833.]]
*Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing [[Fairmount Waterworks]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Delightful [[seat]]s, surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing '''summer houses''', [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your view in almost every direction.” [Fig. 13]
*[[Martineau, Harriet]], May 4, 1835, describing New Orleans, LA (1838: 1:274)<ref>Harriet Martineau, ''Retrospect of Western Travel'', 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“All the rest [of the villas] were an entertainment to the eye as they stood, white and cool, amid their flowering magnolias, and their blossoming [[alley]]s, [[hedge]]s, and [[thicket]]s of roses. In returning, we alighted at one of these delicious retreats, and wandered about, losing each other among the thorns, the ceringas, and the [[wilderness]] of shrubs. We met in a [[grotto]], under the '''summer-house''', cool with a greenish light, and veiled at its entrance with a tracery of creepers. There we lingered, amid singing or silent dreaming. There seemed to be too little that was real about the place for ordinary voices to be heard speaking about ordinary things.”
[[File:1104.jpg|thumb|Fig. 15, Anonymous, “Ladies’ Summer House. Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane,” in Thomas Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane'' (1851), frontispiece of "Report for 1849."]]
*Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (1840: 2:261)<ref>Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery, or Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'', 2 vols. (Barre, MA: Imprint Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5CMW67U view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“About two hundred yards from the house, in a southerly direction, stands a '''summer-house''', on the edge of the river-bank, which is here lofty and sloping, and clothed with wood to the water’s edge. The '''summer-house''' commands a fine [[prospect]] of the river and the Maryland shore; also of the White House, at a distance of five or six miles down the river, where an engagement took place with the British vessels which ascended the river during the last war.” [Fig. 14]
*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the pleasure grounds and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''The American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The '''summer-houses''', [[rustic style|rustic]]-[[seat]]s, exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the woods, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 15]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], June 13, 1848, in a letter to Cora L. Barton, describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], Newburgh, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 33–34)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“I have also been making some little improvements in my own garden&mdash;and especially building a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''summer house''' which we call the '[[hermitage]],' and which I think is so much in your own taste that I should be heartily glad to show it to you.”
<div id="Fig_17"></div>[[File:1742.jpg|thumb|Fig. 17, William and John Halfpenny, “A Summer House upon a Rock partly in the Chinese Taste,” in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 10. [[#Fig_17_cite|Back up to history.]]]]
*Halfpenny, William and John, 1755, ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755; repr., 1968: 7)<ref>William and John Halfpenny, ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755; repr., Bronx, NY and London: Benjamin Blom, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9JKMEXVU view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“PLATE X. Represents the Plan and Elevation of an Octagon '''Summer-house''', 14 Feet Diameter, and 14 Feet high from the Floor to the Cieling [''sic''], elevated on an artificial Rock, in which a Cellar, or [[Grotto]], may be made. The Walls may be Brick, Stone, or Timber, and the Ornaments cut in Stone or Wood, and the Rails of the Steps Lattice Work. This Building, not including the Rock, may be executed, in a good Manner, for about 230 l.” [Fig. 17]
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . .'', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''SUMMERHOUSE''', sum'-mer-hous. s. An appartment in a garden used in the summer.”
*[[G. (George) Gregory|Gregory, G. (George)]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, First American, from the second London edition, considerably improved and augmented'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), vol. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“GARDENING. . . .
*[[Sayers, Edward]], 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838: 18)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“In many [[flower garden]]s, [[trellis|trellises]], [[arbor]]s, and '''summer houses''', may be introduced to a very good purpose for concealing offices and unseemly appendages.”
*Anonymous, February 1848, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (''Horticulturist'' 2: 363)<ref>Anonymous, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): 363–65, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4H34XQXX view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“It must be a very highly finished scene, and a garden where all the details are in a very decided and ornate style of art, in which marble [[temple]]s, [[statue]]s, or even highly finished [[pavilion]]s and '''summer-houses''', may be introduced with harmony and propriety.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 458)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“There is no limit to the variety of forms and patterns in which these [[rustic style|rustic]] [[seat]]s, [[arbor]]s, '''summerhouses''', etc., can be constructed by an artist of some fancy and ingenuity. After the frame-work of the structure is formed of posts and rough boards, if small straight rods about an inch in diameter, of hazel, white birch, maple, etc., are selected in sufficient quantity, they may be nailed on in squares, diamonds, medallions, or other patterns, and have the effect of a ''mosaic'' of wood.”
[[File:0940.jpg|thumb|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Kiosques or Summer Houses,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 7, no. 7 (July 1852): pl. opp. 296.]]
*[[William H. Ranlett|Ranlett, William H.]], 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:33)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', vol. 1 (1849: repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Design V.&mdash;Elevations, plans, details, ground [[plot]] and scenic view of a cottage in the Tudor style, designed for a country residence on the bank of the Bronx river, in Weschester County, N. Y. The tenement comprises ten acres of ground, lying on both sides of the river, and mostly covered by forest trees. The premises will contain a gardener’s lodge, '''summer-house''', stone [[bridge]], coach-house, [[bathhouse|bath-house]], and outbuildings, screened by ornamental [[shrubbery]].”
*Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 36)<ref>George Jaques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A man of refinement would in these days, scarcely tolerate a geometrical arrangement of grounds of this extent. Such places admit of a winding carriage-way, leading through a fine [[lawn]] studded with groups of trees, irregularly circuitous [[walk]]s, bordered with various [[shrubbery]]; here and there a massive forest tree, standing in its full development singly upon the [[lawn]]; a '''summerhouse''' embowered in the midst of a little retired [[grove]]; arabesque forms of flower [[bed]]s occasionally inserted in the midst of the smooth green of a grass-[[plot]]; a [[vase]], pretty even when empty, but better over-flowing with water, which it costs not much to bring in a leaden pipe from some neighboring hill:&mdash;such are among the charms which almost seem to make a little paradise of home.”
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], July 1852, "Domestic Notices: Kiosques or Summer Houses" (''Horticulturist'' 7: 339)<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “Domestic Notices: Kiosques or Summer Houses,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 7 (July 1852): 339, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/URTGJE3S view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:“In the warm climates of the East, the delight of gardens seems to be enjoyed more by looking at them from '''summer houses''', than rambling about in them, and examining them in detail. Accordingly there is a great deal of fancy and considerable taste exercised in the East in these buildings&mdash;usually of wood, built in light and pleasing forms. The roof may be covered with canvass [''sic''], stretched over a wooden frame; when well painted, this forms the most durable covering. Its surface being smoother than one of wood, it may be made ornamental by being prettily tinted in subdued and delicate shades. '''Summer houses''', in a somewhat finished and elaborate style, like these [shown in the accompanying frontispiece], are better suited for the more ornate grounds of a country residence, where there is a considerable degree of finish and keeping, than [[rustic style|rustic]] [[arbors]] and '''summer houses'''. In long [[walk]]s, structures of this kind afford more agreeable resting places, and, when erected in any fine points of view, they serve the double purpose of calling the attention to the best position for seeing it, and affording shade and rest while enjoying the outstretched landscape. In all buildings of this kind, the design should be rather simple than complex, and the roof-outline is one which should receive most attention&mdash;particularly if the building is seen from any distance.” [Fig. 18]

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