The term grove referred to both natural and planted arrangements of trees, as indicated by [[Noah Webster]]’s definition of 1828. American gardeners such as [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) realized the potential of indigenous vegetation and simply thinned existing trees to create so-called “natural” groves. Trees could also be planted where none existed to create “artificial” groves. Whether natural or artificial, groves of trees were an important element in the ornamental landscape, serving aesthetic and agricultural purposes. As [[Samuel Deane]] explained in the ''New-England Farmer'' (1790), groves could provide shade and windbreaks as well as syrup, firewood, and fruit. As a formal element, groves defined [[border]]s of gardens, created backdrops, and, as seen in the sketch of St. Augustine’s orange grove [Fig. 1], offered sites for collecting specific plants.
While generally composed of trees, groves sometimes included [[shrub]]s and flowers. These plants were also found in [[wood]]s, [[shrubberies]], and [[wilderness]]es, thus blurring the lines of distinctions between these features—several treatise writers and lexicographers defined groves, for example, as small [[wood]]s. The overlapping and indistinct uses of the terms “grove,” “[[wilderness]],” and “[[shrubbery]]” are exemplified by [[George Washington]]’s notations on the garden at [[Mount Vernon]]. In 1782, he wrote that he would immediately plant groups of “[[shrub]]s and ornamental trees,” and decide later which constituted “the grove and which the [[wilderness]],” implying that the grove would ultimately be the less thickly planted of the two. To add to the confusion, [[George Washington|Washington]] on another occasion referred to the arrangement of trees and [[shrub]]s just south of his house as both a grove and a [[shrubbery]]. Texts from the 19th-century texts mentioned [[shrub]]s and flowers in groves less frequently, because these types of plants were increasingly associated with [[shrubberies]]. Thus, as time passed, the distinction between the terms became more clearly drawn.
[[File:0018.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, Pierre Pharoux, Plan of Sperenza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common Ground.”]]
[[File:0972.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Pierre Pharoux, “General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben’s Mannor” [detail], c. 1793.]]
The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]]’s inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, groves fitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Thomas Jefferson]], in his 1807 account of [[Monticello]], described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees in his grove, composed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, “so as to give the appearance of open ground,” suggesting an “open” grove [Fig. 2]. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney]], in 1742, evoked the sense of a “closed” grove when she delineated her collection of trees and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 [[George Washington]] suggested a similar type of grove for [[Mount Vernon]], which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and evergreens underplanted with flowering [[shrub]]s.
[[George Washington|Washington]]’s account of this “closed” grove also provides a significant clue as to the arrangement of plants. In his 1776 letter to Lund Washington, he specified that the trees “be Planted without any order or regularity,” an aesthetic in keeping with the recommendations of [[Batty Langley|Langley]], whose treatises were owned by [[George Washington|Washington]]. The texts of [[Batty Langley|Langley]] and [[Philip Miller|Miller]] exemplify the gradual shift away from formal or rectilinear arrangements of trees toward more irregular or “[[natural style|natural]]” designs. 17th-century groves might be planted in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]], or otherwise such patterned figures as “the star, the direct Cross, St. Andrew’s Cross,” described by [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]] (1712). By contrast, [[Batty Langley|Langley]] insisted that groves be planted with “regular Irregularity; not planting them . . . with their Trees in straight Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they had receiv’d their Situation from Nature itself.” In contrast to authors of earlier treatises, 19th-century American writers, including [[Samuel Deane]] (1790), [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) and the anonymous author of the ''New England Farmer'' (1828), advocated regular arrangements. Few if any signs, however, indicate that Americans made “closed” groves in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]] figures, such as those described in James. Pierre Pharoux’s unexecuted plans for the new town Sperenza, New York[Fig. 3], and for Baron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, New York [Fig. 4], are rare exceptions.
*Norris, Isaac, 22 June 1743, describing Fairhill, seat of Isaac Norris, near Philadelphia , PA (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Norris Letter Book, 1719–56)
:“. . . opening my [[wood]]s into '''groves''', enlarging my fishponds and beautifying my springs.”
*Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country [[seat]] of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia , PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)<ref>H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial '''groves'''. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with [[seat]]s.”
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing the [[State House Yard]], Philadelphia , PA (1987: 1:262)<ref name="Cutler">William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].
</ref>
:“It was so lately laid out in its present form that it has not assumed that air of grandeur which time will give it. The trees are yet small, but most judiciously arranged. The artificial [[mound]]s of earth, and depressions, and small '''groves''' in the [[square]]s have a most delightful effect.”
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 14, 1787, describing [[Gray's Garden|Gray’s Tavern]], Philadelphia , PA (1987: 1:275–77)<ref name="Cutler"></ref>
:“As we were walking on the northern side of the Garden, upon a beautiful glacis, we found ourselves on the borders of a '''grove''' of wood and upon the brow of a steep hill. . . . At a distance, we could just see three very high arched [[bridge]]s, one beyond the other. . . . We saw them through the '''grove''', the branches of the trees partly concealing them, which produced the more romantic and delightful effect. As we advanced on the brow of this hill, we observed a small foot-path, which led by several windings into the '''grove'''. We followed it; and though we saw that it was the work of art, yet it was a most happy imitation of nature. It conducted us along the declivity of the hill, which on every side was strewed with flowers in the most artless manner, and evidently seemed to be the bounty of nature without the aid of human care. At length we seemed to be lost in the [[wood]]s, but saw in the distance an antique building, to which our path led us. . . . At this [[hermitage]] we came into a spacious graveled [[walk]], which directed its course further along the '''grove''', which was tall [[wood]] interspersed with close thickets of different growth. As we advanced, we found our gravel [[walk]] dividing itself into numerous branches, leading into different parts of the '''grove'''. We directed our course nearly north, though some of our company turned into the other [[walk]]s, but were soon out of sight, and thought proper to return and follow us. We at length came to a considerable [[eminence]], which was adorned with an infinite variety of [[bed]]s of flowers and artificial '''groves''' of flowering [[shrub]]s. On the further side of the eminence was a [[fence]], beyond which we perceived an extensive but narrow opening. When we came to the [[fence]], we were delightfully astonished with the [[view]] of one of the finest [[cascade]]s in America. . . . The distance we judged to be about a quarter of a mile, which being seen through the narrow opening in the tall '''grove''', and the fine mist that rose incessantly from the rocks below, had a most delightful effect.”
*Adams, Abigail, November 21, 1790, describing Bush Hill, estate of Lt. Gov. James Hamilton, near Philadelphia , PA (1841: 2:207)<ref>Abigail Adams, ''Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams'', ed. Charles Francis Adams, 3rd ed. (Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1841), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5USKR5MS view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Bush Hill, as it is called, though by the way there remains neither bush nor [[shrub]] upon it, and very few trees, except the pine '''grove''' behind it,— yet Bush Hill is a very beautiful place.”
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], January 2, 1802, describing [[The Woodlands]], [[seat]] of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia , PA (1987: 2:145)<ref name="Cutler"></ref>
:“We then walked over the [[pleasure ground]]s in front and a little back of the house. It is formed into [[walk]]s, in every direction, with [[border]]s of flowering [[shrub]]s and trees. Between are [[lawn]]s of green grass, frequently mowed to make them convenient for walking, and at different distances numerous copse of native trees, interspersed with artificial '''groves''', which are set with trees collected from all parts of the world.”
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], July 22, 1810, describing [[Belfield]], estate of [[Charles Willson Peale]], Germantown, PA (Miller, Hart, and Wardet al., eds., 1991: 3:51)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', 5 volsvol. 3, ''The Belfield Farm Years, 1810–1820 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983–20001991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I am often pleased with the solemn '''groves''' skirting [[meadow]]s in majestic silence and cool appearance.”
*Anonymous, April 17, 1829, “Neglected Grave Yards” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 307)<ref>“Neglected Grave Yards,” ''The New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 39 (April 17, 1829): 307, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BRBQGV63 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I wish to call your attention to the subject of repairing, clearing, and ornamenting the burial grounds of New England. These enclosures are commonly neglected by the sexton, and present to the curious traveller, an ugly collection of slate slabs, of weeds, and rank or dried grass. A small effort in each sexton or clergyman, would suffice to awaken attention, to bring to the recollection of some, and to the fancy of all, a scene which every village should present, a '''grove''' sacred to the dead and to their recollection, to calm religious conversation, and to melancholy musing—inclosed with [[shrubbery]], and evergreen, and dignified by the lofty maple, and elm, and oak, and guarded by a living [[hedge]] of hawthorn.
:“Every sexton should procure some oak, elm, and locust seed, and make it a part of his vocation to scatter it for chance growth.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], November 1839, describing Elfin Glen, residence of P. Dodge, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 404)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In front of the cottage, and extending to the limits of the garden, on the west, ornamental [[shrub]]s and forest trees are thickly planted, and are making a rapid and healthy growth; in a few years they will form a dense and shady '''grove'''.”
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
*[[Thomas S. Kirkbride|Kirkbride, Thomas S.]], April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground]]s and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia , PA (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 348)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''The American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The remainder of the grounds on this side of the [[deer-park]] is specially appropriated to the use of the male patients. In this division is a fine '''grove''' of large trees, several detached [[clump]]s of various kinds and a great variety of single trees standing alone or in [[avenue]]s along the different [[walk]]s, which, of brick, gravel or tan, are for the men, more than a mile and a quarter in extent. The '''groves''' are fitted up with seats and [[summer house]]s, and have various means of exercise and amusement connected with them. . . .
:“The work-shop and lumber-yard are just within the main entrance on the west—adjoining which is a fine '''grove''', in which is the gentlemen’s ten-pin alley.” [Fig. 11]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], March 1849, describing the residence of Gen. Elias W. Leavenworth, Syracuse, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 15: 98)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to Several Gardens & Nurseries in Western New York,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 15, no. 3 (March 1849): 97–105, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/T6A833UU, view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . this [the fruit garden] and the house occupy about half of the ground: the other half has been made a most beautiful '''grove'''; this was done by a judicious cutting away of whole trees in some places, and by pruning and thinning the branches in others, leaving the whole a [[picturesque]] mass, which years of time and labor could not have produced.”
*Gordon, Alexander, June 1849, describing the residence of Mr. Valcouraam, near New Orleans, LA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 15: 247–48)<ref>Alexander Gordon, “Remarks on Gardens and Gardening in Louisiana,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 15, no. 6 (June 1849): 245–49, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HNZQV4FE/q/gardens%20and%20gardening view on Zotero].</ref>
:“For instance, within a few minutes walk from where I now write, I could find magnificent '''groves''' of magnolias (now in full bloom,) with an abundance of choice trees and [[shrub]]s. All that would be required to form the scene into a perfect ''facsimile'' of an English [[shrubbery]] would be to introduce [[walk]]s, and judiciously thin out and regulate the mass.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], August 1851, “The New-York Park” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 346–47)<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “The New-York Park,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): 345–49, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2XEW44DT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“That because it is needful in civilized life for men to live in cities,—yes, and unfortunately too, for children to be born and educated without a daily sight of the blessed horizon,—it is not, therefore, needful for them to be so miserly as to live utterly divorced from all pleasant and healthful intercourse with gardens and green fields. He [Mayor Kingsland] informs them that cool umbrageous '''groves''' have not forsworn themselves within town limits, and that half a million of people have a ''right'' to ask for the ‘greatest happiness’ of [[park]]s and [[pleasure ground]]s, as well as for paving stones and gas lights. . . .
:“In the broad area of such a verdant zone would gradually grow up, as the wealth of the city increases, winter gardens of glass, like the great Crystal Palace, where the whole people could luxuriate in '''groves''' of the palms and spice trees of the tropics, at the same moment that sleighing parties glided swiftly and noiselessly over the snow covered surface of the country-like [[avenue]]s of the wintry park without.”
===Citations===
[[File:1054.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[Michael van der Gucht]], “Designs of Groves of a Middle Height,” [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 4c, n.p. ]]
*[[A.Antoine-J. Dézallier Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville|[Dézallier Dezallier d’Argenville, A.Antoine-J.Joseph]], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 48–49)<ref>A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens'', trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''The French'' call a '''Grove''' ''Bosquet'', from the ''Italian'' Word ''Bosquetto'', a little [[Wood]] of small Extent, as much as to say, a Nosegay, or Bunch of Green.
:“''[[WOOD]]S'' and '''Groves''' make the ''Relievo'' of Gardens, and serve infinitely to improve the flat Parts, as [[Parterre]]s and [[Bowling-green]]s. Care should be taken to place them so, that they may not hinder the Beauty of the [[Prospect]]. . . .
[[File:1183.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Groves, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 943, figs. 629a and b.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C.(John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 942–43)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]. </ref>
:“6813. ''With respect to the disposition of the trees within the [[plantation]]'', they may be placed regularly in rows, [[square]]s, parallelograms, or quincunx; irregularly in the manner of groups; without undergrowths, as in '''''groves''''' (''fig. 629. a, b''); with undergrowths, as in [[wood]]s (''c''); all undergrowths, as in ''[[copse]]-[[wood]]s'' (''d''). Or they may form ''[[avenue]]s'' ''(fig. 630. a''); double [[avenue]]s (''b''); [[avenue]]s intersecting in the manner of a Greek cross (''c''); of a martyr’s cross (''d''); of a star (''e''); or of a cross patée, or duck’s foot (''patée d’oye'') (''f'').” [Fig. 14]
*Anonymous, December 26, 1828, “Groves” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 181)<ref>Anonymous, “Groves,” ''The New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 22 (December 26, 1828): 181, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/PFNNIWBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''GROVES'''.
:“These are both ornamental and useful. To plant heights of ground, the sides and tops of which are generally not very good for tillage or pasture, adds much to the beauty of a landscape; and is at the same time highly useful, as it regards the quantities of firewood which may be produced from such spots. Planting rows of trees along highways is also pleasant for shade to the traveller, and profitable to the owner of the soil. The same may be observed, in regard to lanes, and to passages from the highway to the mansion-house. Sugar-maple trees, planted round the [[border]]s of [[meadow]]s, and some straggling ones in them, are very pleasant and profitable, as they do no injury to the growth of the grass. Wherever trees can be planted in pastures and along [[fence]]s, without doing injury to the growths of the adjoining fields by their shade, this part of rural economy ought never to be omitted.”

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