[[File:0662.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, Rose-Lawn, residence of Edgar M. Vanderburgh, c. 1830-40, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, p. 296.]]
*[[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 21, 1823, describing Rose Hill, home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, MD (1976: 158)<ref name="Forman 1976">Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814–1845'' (Wilmington: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The hedger, Mr. Green, arrived here this evening, he laid a part of the Apple '''hedge''' and all the thorn '''hedge'''.” [Fig. 7]
*Waln, Robert, Jr., 1825, describing the [[Friends Asylum for the Insane]], near Frankford, PA (1825: 231–32)<ref>Robert Jr. Waln, “An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia,” ''Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences'' 1 (new series) (1825): 225–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D39BHTPH/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The [[flower garden]], extending from the vestibule to a dark green '''hedge''' of cedar, which separates it from the [[kitchen garden]], offers a rich repast to the eye. . . .
:“About twenty acres of the farm are in a state of cultivation; the rest is woodland. It is separated from the road which passes in front of it, by a flourishing thorn-'''hedge'''.”
*Derby, Ezekiel Hersey, 1828, in a letter to Thomas Green Fessenden, describing his use of the buckthorn in constructing hedges (quoted in Fessenden 1828: 57)<ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/M8WDX2P7 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“After trying several kinds of trees, for the purpose of making a '''hedge''', without much success, I was induced to try this [buckthorn], which has afforded a most beautiful [[fence]], so much so as to attract the attention of every person who has seen it. It divides my garden, is about three hundred feet in length, the plants set nearly a foot apart, is five feet high, and two feet wide at top, which is cut nearly level. It shoots early in the spring, makes a handsome appearance, and continues its verdure till very late in the fall. It has not so much spine as either the English or American hawthorn, but I think sufficient to protect it from cattle. . . . You will observe that Miller speaks of it as not so proper for '''hedges''' as the hawthorn or crab, which may be the case in England, but I cannot agree with him as it respects America.”
*Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a “bungalow” in Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389)<ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ed., ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange '''hedges''', all in flower.”
*Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a [[plantation]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, SC, to Savannah, GA (quoted in Jones 1957: 98)<ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“From the top of the bank, on which the house stood, we could see over a '''hedge''' into the rice fields which lay beyond, and stretched over the plain for several miles, their boundary line being the black edge of the untouched forest.”
*Anonymous, April 17, 1829, “Neglected Grave Yards” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 307)<ref>Anonymous, “Neglected Grave Yards,” ''The New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 39 (April 17, 1829): 307, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BRBQGV63 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“I wish to call your attention to the subject of repairing, clearing, and ornamenting the [[burial ground]]s of New England. These enclosures are commonly neglected by the sexton, and present to the curious traveller, an ugly collection of slate slabs, of weeds, and rank or dried grass. A small effort in each sexton or clergyman, would suffice to awaken attention, to bring to the recollection of some, and to the fancy of all, a scene which every village should present, a [[grove]] sacred to the dead and to their recollection, to calm religious conversation, and to melancholy musing—inclosed with [[shrubbery]], and evergreen, and dignified by the lofty maple, and elm, and oak, and guarded by a living '''hedge''' of hawthorn.
:“Every sexton should procure some oak, elm, and locust seed, and make it a part of his vocation to scatter it for chance growth.”
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing Sweet Briar, seat of [[Samuel Breck]], vicinity of Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 425)<ref name="Boyd 1929">James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827–1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[[Samuel Breck|Mr. Breck]] has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate.”
*[[H. A. S. Dearborn|Dearborn, H. A. S.]], 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Harris 1832: 82–83)<ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''Hedges''', used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a mere [[parterre]], a buisson of roses, or a [[bed]] of hyacinths. To look even beautiful, '''hedges''', of all kinds, require constant attention; they must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by a skilful hand.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], June 1835, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last,” ''American Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201–6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The object of a '''hedge''' is generally to keep from the grounds cattle and other animals; though in some instances, they are only set to obscure one part of the garden from the other, or to hide some disagreeable object from the eye.”
*[[Harriet Martineau|Martineau, Harriet]], 1835, describing Charleston, SC (1838: 1:228)<ref>Harriet Martineau, ''Retrospect of Western Travel'', 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The country is flat and sandy, and the only objects are planters’ mansions, surrounded with evergreen [[wood]]s, the gardens exhibiting the tropical yucca, and fenced with '''hedges''' of the Cherokee rose.”
*Derby, Ezekiel Hersey, January 1, 1836, “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges” (''Horticultural Register'' 2: 28)<ref>Ezekiel Hersey Derby, “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges,” ''The Horticultural Register and Gardener’s Magazine'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P93RF7HA view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The rapid increase of our population, and the consequent vast consumption of timber for other and more valuable purposes, by increasing the relative cost of the old fashioned wooden [[fence]]s, must eventually render the introduction of '''hedges''' here, advantageous, if not absolutely essential, from motives of utility and economy; while the lover of rural scenery will hail with pleasure the [[picturesque]] charm of their verdant beauty.
:“It is now about thirtytwo [''sic''] years, since I first attempted the formation of a live '''hedge''' as a boundary for my own pleasure-grounds.”
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to history]]
:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
:“In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable.”
*Kemble, Fanny, March 24–28, 1839, in a letter to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, describing an estate on St. Simon’s Island, GA (1961; repr., 1984: 284–85)<ref>Frances Anne Kemble, ''Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839'', ed. John A. Scott (1961; repr., Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UWZQAT2D view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Hamilton struck me very much—I mean the whole appearance of the place; the situation of the house, the noble water [[prospect]] it commanded, the magnificent old oaks near it, a luxuriant vine [[trellis]], and a splendid '''hedge''' of Yucca gloriosa, were all objects of great delight to me.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], October 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 363)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 10 (October 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Passing into a straight [[walk]] which leads from the [[conservatory]], by the [[flower garden]], (which is screaned by a [[hedge]] from the [[lawn]] front,).”
[[File:0878_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s Botanic Gardens and Nurseries [detail],” in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.]]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1841, “Select Villa Residences,” describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[Andrew Jackson Downing]], Newburgh, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . . Under the arbor vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer.
:“19. '''Hedge''' or screen of arbor vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The arbor vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years.” [Fig. 8]
[[File:1047.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844.]]
*Longfellow, Samuel, September 3, 1845, in a letter to Annie Pierce, describing [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 40)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A buckthorn '''hedge''' has been made between us & Mr. Hastings, and Mr. Worcester not satisfied with the rustic open [[fence]] which separates between us demands a '''hedge''' there also which will cover up entirely the glimpse that I get from my western window and which I do not at all like to loose [''sic''].” [Fig. 9]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], August 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens.”
*Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1847, excerpt from “Walden” (Clarke, ed., 1993: 2:47)<ref>Graham Clarke, ed., ''The American Landscape: Literary Sources and Documents'', 3 vols. (East Sussex, England: Helm Information, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TRGJ9W95/].</ref>
:“Self-sown my stately garden grows;
::The winds and wind-blown seed,
*Lyell, Sir Charles, 1849, describing Natchez, MS (1849: 2:153)<ref>Sir Charles Lyell, ''A Second Visit to the United States of North America'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Many of the country-houses in the neighborhood are elegant, and some of the gardens belonging to them laid out in the English, others in the [[French style]]. In the latter are seen [[terrace]]s, with [[statue]]s and cut evergreens, straight [[walk]]s with [[border]]s of flowers, terminated by [[view]]s into the wild forest, the charms of both being heightened by contrast. Some of the '''hedges''' are made of that beautiful North American plant, the Gardenia, miscalled in England the Cape jessamine, others of the Cherokee rose, with its bright and shining leaves.”
===Citations===
*[[John Parkinson|Parkinson, John]], 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (1629; repr., 1975: 5)<ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (Norwood, NJ: W. J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“To forme it [the garden] therfore with [[walk]]s, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with '''hedges''', with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge.”
*Smith, John, 1629, ''Advertisement for the Unexperienced Planters'' (quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963: 2:399)<ref>Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson, eds., ''The Puritans'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9XGR26VH view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“. . . you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s . . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”
*[[Richard Bradley|Bradley, Richard]], 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28)<ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical . . .'' 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719–20), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[vol. 1] They [ever-greens] are so ornamental where they are rightly managed, that I think no Garden can be compleat without ’em; they make beautiful and useful '''Hedges'''. . . .
:“It [the Yew-Tree] is of great use for '''Hedges''', and make most agreeable Divisions in Gardens; it is customary to [[fence]] in the [[Quarter]]s of [[Wilderness]] Works with these Plants, where they have a very good Effect. . . .
[[File:1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III.]]
[[File:1383.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, [[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House . . . ,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X.]]
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728: vii–ix, xiii)<ref name="Langley">Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley et al.,1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AN26GF5X view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Plate III. is the Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner, . . .
:“The '''Hedges''' that are planted between the aforesaid Trees which form the Sides of the [[Walk]]s are of ''English'', ''Dutch'' and ''French Elms'', ''Lime'', ''Hornbeam'', ''Maple'', ''Privet'', ''Yew'', ''Holly'', ''Arbutus'', ''Phillyrea'', ''Norway Fir'', ''Ilex'', ''Bay'', ''Laurel'', ''Laurus-Tinnus'', ''Piracantha'', ''Juniper'', and the ''English Furze''; and indeed, a beutiful [[Plantation]] should not only be adorned with entire [[Walk]]s and '''Hedges''' of Trees of all Sorts, as well as Fruit as others; but intermix’d together in many parts, as if Nature had placed them there with her own Hand. . . . [Fig. 10]
*[[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . . .'', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[[espalier|ESPALIER]]. . . .
:“As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . . .
*[[Samuel Johnson|Johnson, Samuel]], 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1755: 1:n.p.)<ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''HEDGE'''. ''n.s''. [. . . Saxon.] A [[fence]] made round grounds with prickly bushes.”
*<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 641, 645),<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to history]]
:“When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . .
:“A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety.”
*Hale, Thomas, 1758, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry'' (1758: 1:209–10, 230)<ref>Thomas Hale, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry Containing Rules for Performing, in the Most Profitable Manner, the Whole Business of the Farmer and Country Gentleman'', 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: T. Osborne, 1758), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KRKU9TFT view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Where the soil is too barren for the growth of an '''hedge''', there is often stone ready for a [[wall]]. . . .
:“In the dry pastures '''hedges''' are the proper [[fence]]s. They are of great service; beside their sheltering the cattle, they defend the grass from the summer heats, and shelter it in the spring from the drying winds. . . . The '''hedges''' also are of value for their produce in useful [[wood]]. . . .
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.p.)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard . . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[After a description of the types of trees used in '''hedges''', Miller notes that] '''[h]edges''' are either planted to make [[fence]]s around enclosures, or to part off or divide several parts of a Garden; when they are designed as outward [[fence]]s, they are planted either with Hawthorne, Crabs, or Blackthorn, which is slow; but those '''hedges''' which are planted in Gardens, either to surround [[Wilderness]] [[Quarter]]s, or to screen the other parts of a Garden from Sight, are planted with various Sorts of plants, according to the fancy of the Owner some preferring Evergreen '''Hedges''', in which case the Holly is best, next to the Yew, then Laurel, &c. . . .
:“The taste in Gardening having been greatly altered of late Years for the better, these clipped '''Hedges''' have been almost excluded; and it is hoped that a little Time will entirely banish them out of English gardens, as it has done by the shorne evergreens, which a few years since were esteemed the greatest beauties in gardens. The latter was introduced by the Dutch Gardeners, and that of tall '''Hedges''' with Trellage work was in imitation of the French gardens; in some of which of the Iron Trellage to support the trees which composed their cabinets, [[portico]]s, [[bower]]s, [[pavilion|Pavilons]], and other pieces of rural architecture, amounted to a very great sum.”
*Squibb, Robert, 1787, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' (1787: 51)<ref>Robert Squibb, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' (Charleston, SC: Samuel Wright and Co., 1787), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JHHVPH9K view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“If you plant the orange trees for a '''hedge''', about ten feet will be a good distance; but if intended for an [[orchard]] or a [[grove]], twenty feet will not be too much.”
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (1790: 91–92)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to history]]
:“[[FENCE]]. . . .
:“In some places it is best to make '''hedge''' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds of [[fence]] that go by this name, dead '''hedge''', and quickset '''hedge'''.
*Main, Thomas, September 28, 1807, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants'' (1807: 15, 37)<ref>Thomas Main, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants, Preparative to Their Being Set in Hedges, with Some Practical Observations on the Method of Plain Hedging'' (Washington, DC: A. G. and Way, 1807), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UEDDDN6J view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A row of suitable shrubs or trees, planted at a proper distance from each other, on the plain cultivated surface of the ground, in order to form a [[fence]] is what here is meant by plain hedging, to distinguish it from the common method used in Britain, called '''hedge''' and ditch. . . . Those who are curious to understand the manner of conducting this old way of hedging, will find in Mr. [[Bernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]]’s 'American Gardener’s Callender [''sic''],' a clear and excellent description thereof, with much other useful information in this art, as well as in the various departments of horticulture, &c. . . .
:“A promiscuous assemblage of several different kinds of plants in a '''hedge''' cannot be recommended; such a heterogeneous composition will neither make a good [[fence]] nor look handsome.”
*Neil, William, November 28, 1812, “On Hedging and Ditching, by William Neill, Delaware County, Pennsylvania” (quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 146)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818">John Gardiner and David Hepburn, ''The American Gardener'', expanded ed. (Georgetown: Joseph Milligan, 1818), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RISZAN8M/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Where I became first acquainted with '''hedges''', unless around [[kitchen garden]]s, or towns, or villages, where lots were small, you would not see one in five hundred trimmed. They, in general, let them grow till ten, twelve, or perhaps twenty years old, then, with a sharp handsaw, take them off a few inches above the bank, when you would immediately have a more formidable [[fence]] then ever, and so on for ages.”
*[[G. (George) Gregory|Gregory, G. (George)]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', 1st American ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“GARDENING. . . .
:“Yet the fall of the leaves by autumnal winds is troublesome, and a high [[wall]] is therefore advisable. Spruce firs have been used in close-shorn '''hedges'''; which, as evergreens, are proper enough to plant for a screen in a single row, though not very near to the [[wall]]; but the best evergreens for this purpose are the evergreen oak and the cork-tree. . . .
*Taylor, John, 1817, ''Arator'' (1817: 147)<ref>John Taylor, ''Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political'' (Georgetown: J. M. and J. B. Carter, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RG7QHU4 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“If these '''hedges''' are cultivated properly, and the land is strong, they will form an elegant live ever-green [[fence]], in a shorter time, than is necessary to raise a thorn [[fence]] in England, according to the books.”
*Cobbett, William, 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819a: 22, 28–29)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“38. Yet, with all these circumstances in my favour, I proceed with faultering accent to propose, even for a garden, a live [[fence]], especially when I have to notice, that I know not how to get the plants, unless I, in the outset, bring them, or their seeds, ''from England!'' However, I must suppose this difficulty surmounted; then proceed to describe this [[fence]] that I would have, if I could.
:“39. In England it is called a ''Quick-Set '''Hedge'''''. The truth is, however, that it ought rather to be called an ''Everlasting '''Hedge'''''; for, it is not, as will be seen by-and-by, so ''very quickly set''; or, at least, so very quickly raised. . . .
[[File:1372.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a ferme ornée with wild and irregular hedges, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 1023, fig. 722.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 106, 355, 1023)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live [[fence]]s are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:“1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (1828: 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112)<ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]]
:“''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''. . . .
:“''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. . . .
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 1: n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''HEDGE''', ''n. hej.'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', '''hedge''', protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . . .]
:“Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden.”
*Floy, Michael, September 24 and October 1, 1830, “Description of Trees and Shrubs” (''New England Farmer'' 9: 74, 84)<ref>Michael Floy, “A Description of Trees and Shrubs, Producing a Succession of Flowers from Spring to Autumn,” ''The New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal'' 9, no. 10–12 (September 24, October 1, October 8, 1830): 74, 84, 92, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/C3XFHEGJ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:[Sept. 24] “''Gleditschia triacanthos'',—Honey locust, or three thorn Acacia. It makes a handsome stately tree, the foliage is handsome, but the dreadful long triple thorns with which the tree is armed, give it a forbidding aspect. Trees of this kind are often used for '''hedges''', and if planted thick, they soon make an impenetrable [[fence]] against man and beast, but must be kept cut down to 4 or 5 feet every season, or the '''hedge''' would soon be spoiled. . . .
:[Oct. 1] “''Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn''. . . . Hawthorn '''hedges''' are much used in England, where they look very handsome when kept clipped, but they do not answer so well in this country, the heat of our summers causing the leaves to fall off early, often in July; on that account they are not much used—we have several things which are better calculated for that purpose. . . .
*[[Thomas Bridgeman|Bridgeman, Thomas]], 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 110, 133–34)<ref>Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[fence]]s, or [[plantation]]s of [[shrub]]s, forming a close and compact '''hedge''', which should be neatly trimmed every year. . . .
:“[[Shrub]]s are not only necessary to the embellishment of a [[flower garden]], but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedges''' to it, and may be planted at a trifling expense. These '''hedges''' should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and also to increase the vigour of their growth.”
*Fessenden, Thomas Green, 1833, ''The New American Gardener'' (1833: 158)<ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 7th ed. (Boston: Russell, Odiorne, 1833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VPB9HKX3 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''Hedges''' may be of various kinds, such as the single '''hedge''' and ditch the '''hedge''' and bank; the level '''hedge''', &c.; of which, descriptions may be found in Loudon’s ''Encyclopedia of Agriculture'', and other books of husbandry.”
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], February 1838, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43),<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:“In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. . . .
:“The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal.”
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (1842: 155)<ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, OH: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]]
:“'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west.”
*<div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1845: 206, 244),<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to history]]
:“'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
:“'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S.”
*[[George William Johnson|Johnson, George William]], 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1847: 221, 286–88)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s, and are then known as '''''hedges''''', or dead, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditches'', ''palings'', or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. . . .
:“'''HEDGE''', properly includes every kind of [[fence]], but the present details apply for the most part to growing [[fence]]s. . . .
[[File:0998.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, Anonymous, “Mr. Lee’s Hedge,” Salem, MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 355, fig. 84.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], February 1847, “A Chapter on Hedges” (''Horticulturist'' 1: 345–46)<ref> Andrew Jackson Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 345–55, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The advantages of a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]], besides its beauty, are its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and the additional value it confers upon the land which it encloses. A [[fence]] of [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and tottering affair; soon needing repairs, which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedge''', made of the two plants we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]],' at least in any acceptation of the word known to our restless and changing countrymen. . . .
:“As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures, however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it.” [Fig. 13]
*Anonymous, October 1848, “Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'',” (''Horticulturist'' 3: 181)<ref>Anonymous, “Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'',” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 179–82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IU3P9QS view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“As far as practicable, make divisions whichare necessary about the house of the [[ha-ha]] or blind [[fence]], or of '''hedges''', for which purpose the Maclura or Osage Orange is believed to be one of the most desirable plants.”
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, “View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée''),” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 120, fig. 27.]]
*<div id="Downing_1849"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to history]]
:“In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]
:“We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .
*[[Elder, Walter]], 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (1849: 178)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“THE cheapest, most beautiful, and durable [[fence]]s are '''hedges''', and all dividing [[fence]]s of cottage gardens, should be made of '''hedges'''; there are several kinds of plants well adapted for the purpose.”
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1850: 409)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (Springfield, MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1850), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9Z9HAK7E view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“ES-PAL’IER, (es-pal’yer,) n. [Fr. ''[[espalier]]''; Sp. ''espalera''; H. ''spalliera''; from L. ''palus'', a stake or ''pole''.]
:“1. A row of trees planted about a garden or in '''hedges''', so as to inclose [[quarter]]s or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close '''hedge''' or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather. ''Ency''.”
*[[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental.”
*Coppock, W. R., March 1851, “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 151)<ref>W. R. Coppock, “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 147–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7DFAAII5 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A thoroughly protective '''hedge''', or an uncouth looking strong [[fence]], is absolutely necessary to the orchardist, if he may derive either pleasure or profit from his trees. Climbing a [[fence]], or pushing aside a picket, and pelting the choice apples, pears, &c. from the trees, is, I am sorry to say, not considered generally a misdemeanor, or theft, at the present day.”

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