==History==
[[File:1009.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 1, Anonymous, ''Homestead of Humphrey H. Nye, New Bedford'', 1860–65.]]
Throughout the history of American gardens, hedges were used for a variety of practical and ornamental purposes. The feature created divisions within the garden, protected tender plants from cross-winds, formed barriers against both animal and human intruders, screened unsightly [[view]]s, outlined ornamental [[bed]]s and [[walk]]s [Fig. 1], and brought flowering variety to the garden. <span id="Downing_cite"></span>According to [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] (1838), hedges were ideal for these purposes because their architectural form functioned much like a [[fence]] or [[wall]], while their organic material allowed them to harmonize with planting arrangements and to articulate other forms of architecture to the landscape ([[#Downing|view citation]]). <span id="Deane_cite"></span>As [[Samuel Deane]] noted in 1790, live hedges were preferable to [[fence]]s and “dead hedges” (wattle [[fence]]s using woven plant material) because the living plants created a “perpetual fence” whose posts never decayed and stakes never failed ([[#Deane|view citation]]). Their versatility also made them adaptable to any scale, whether enclosing a field, screening a privy, or edging a [[bed]] (see [[Fence]]).
<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at Monticello, 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]
Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, William Prince praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view citation]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the [[Elias Hasket Derby House]] in Salem, Massachusetts, as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view citation]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing ]] noted that “there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe.”<ref>A. J. Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346.</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at [[Oatlands]], D. P. Manice’s residence in Hempstead, New York. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3].<ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, “Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: ‘Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,’” ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero].]</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of Monticello Mountain, before May 1768.]]
[[File:0932.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, R. W. Dickson, “Hedge Fences,” in ''Practical Agriculture'' (1805), vol. 1, pl. 31, opp. 110.]]
Early evidence of hedges in the American landscape may be found in books of instruction on the delineation or division of arable fields, a practice taken directly from European agricultural tradition. Hedges created by close planting and interweaving of [[shrub]]s to create a dense barrier were categorized in many horticultural and agricultural treatises as a type of [[fence]], rather than identified with other planting arrangements such as [[thicket]], [[grove]], and group. The discourse about the advantages of hedges over [[fence]]s was particularly rich in the American agricultural literature of the early 19th century. Proponents of the new “scientific agriculture,” such as John Adams and Ezekiel Hersey Derby, reported their experiments with different plant varieties and techniques for forming hedges [Fig. 4].<ref>For example, see Ezekiel Hersey Derby, “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn . . . for Live Hedges,” ''Horticultural Register'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27–29. For a discussion of scientific farming in the Boston area, see Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” (PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), chapters 2 and 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].]</ref>
The aesthetic treatment of garden hedges was discussed and debated throughout much of the 18th and 19th centuries. Authors and gardeners variously praised and dismissed both trimmed and untrimmed hedges, depending upon the prevailing taste and the particular situation of the hedge. <span id="Stiles_cite"></span>[[Ezra Stiles]] admired the spruce hedges at [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, which were cut into beautiful figures in 1754 ([[#Stiles|view citation]]), and in 1762 <span id="Callender_cite"></span>[[Hannah Callender Sansom]] described a hedge [[labyrinth]] at [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], [[William Peters|Judge William Peters's]]’s estate near Philadelphia ([[#Callender|view citation]]). <span id="Ware_cite"></span>In contrast, [[Isaac Ware]], writing in 1756, praised the “natural hedge . . . mimicking savage nature” ([[#Ware|view citation]]). In 1832, both [[H. A. S. Dearborn]] and [[Thomas Bridgeman]] commended trimmed and trained hedges while other writers, such as [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] and [[Jane Loudon]], allowed the merits of both formal and [[natural style|naturalistic]] styles. <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>In 1845 [[Jane Loudon|Loudon]] praised evergreen hedges “neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s,” while in the [[flower garden]] she proposed a less “stiff and formal” appearance that would “harmonize . . . with the flowers” ([[#Loudon|view citation]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the 1849 edition of his treatise, [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that trimmed hedges were “elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s,” while irregular or [[picturesque]] hedges were handsome additions to a landscape of the “[[natural style]]” ([[#Downing_1849|view citation]]).
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Virginia (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 35)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“They also make strong '''hedges''' of Peach plants in their gardens.”
*Kalm, Pehr, September 21, 1748, describing the vicinity of Philadelphia (1937: 1:47)<ref>Pehr Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770'', 2 vols. (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The [[fence]]s and pales are generally made here of wooden planks and posts. But a few good economists, having already thought of sparing the [[wood]]s for future times, have begun to plant quick '''hedges''' round their fields; and for this purpose they take the above-mentioned privet, which they plant in a little bank that is thrown up for it.”
*<div id="Stiles"></div>Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia , PA (1892: 375),<ref>“Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Stiles_cite|back up to history]]
:“. . . besides the beautiful [[walk]], ornamented with evergreens, we saw . . . Spruce '''hedges''' cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder.”
*[[Hannah Callender Sansom|Sansom, Hannah Callender]], June 30, 1762, diary entry describing [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], estate of [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia , PA (quoted in Sansom 2010: 183)<ref name="Callender 2010">Hannah Callender Sansom, ''The Diary of Hannah Callender Sansom: Sense and Sensibility in the Age of the American Revolution'', ed. Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref>
: “. . . on the right you enter a [[labyrinth|Labarynth]] of '''hedge''' and low ceder with spruce . . .”
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:102, 115)<ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKQVPUC3 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[March 14] Planted the 9 young peach Trees which I brought from Mr. Cockburns in the No. Garden—viz . . . 2 in the [[border]] of the Walk leading from the [[Espalier]] '''hedge''' towards the other cross [[walk]]. . . .
:“[April 8] The ground being too wet . . . I was unable to touch that which I had been preparing for grass; and therefore began to hoe that wch. lyes between the New circular ditches, & the Wild rose '''hedges'''.”
*[[J. P. Brissot de Warville|Brissot de Warville, J. P.]], September 6, 1788, describing the enclosure of pastures in America (1792: 253)<ref>J.-P. (Jacques-Pierre) Brissot de Warville, ''New Travels in the United States Performed in 1788'' (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1792), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TKXB2WAU view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Mr. L. thinks it best to replace them [wooden rail [[fence]]s] by ditches six feet deep, of which he throws the earth upon his [[meadow]]s, and [[border]]s the sides with '''hedges'''; and thus renders the passage impracticable to the cattle. This is an agricultural operation, which cannot be too much recommended to the Americans.”
*Strickland, William, October 9, 1794, describing the country from Fishkill, NY, to Poughkeepsie, NY (1971: 99–100)<ref>William Strickland, ''Journal of a Tour in the United States of America, 1794-1795'', ed. J. E. Strickland (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DR8FH6KF view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The country in general is divided into fields . . . it wants only the ornament of live [[fence]]s to be one of the most [[picturesque]] that can be seen, and those even have been attempted though they have unfortunately failed. Near Fishkyl the fields were formerly divided by Privet '''Hedges''' a shrub imported from Europe by the Dutch, which answerd the purpose, and throve well for many years, and some of them are still to be seen; but an insect attacked them some years since by which they were destroyed, and they never have been replaced, or any substitute adopted or tried; though no doubt shrubs better calculated for making durable strong [[fence]]s might be found among the natives of this country.”
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing Worcester County, MA (1821: 1:375)<ref>Timothy Dwight, ''Travels in New England and New York'', 4 vols. (New Haven, CT: Timothy Dwight, 1821), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KHT2AUCG view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“An eye accustomed to the beautiful '''hedges''' of England, would probably regard these inclosures [stone [[wall]]s] with little pleasure. But emotions of this nature depend much on comparison. There are no '''hedges''' in New-England: those which formerly existed, having perished by some unknown misfortune. Few persons therefore, who see these [[wall]]s, will be able to compare them with '''hedges'''.”
*Drayton, Charles, November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia , PA (1806: 54, 57&ndash;58)<ref>Charles Drayton, “The Diary of Charles Drayton I, 1806,” Drayton Hall: A National Historic Trust Site, http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:27554, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[Fence|<u>Fences</u>]] separating the [[Park]]-[[lawn]] from the Garden on one hand, & the office [[yard]] on the other, are 4 ft. 6 high. The former are made with posts & lathes&mdash;the latter with posts, rails & boards. They are concealed with evergreeens '''hedge'''&mdash;of juniper I think. . . .
:“. . . . From the Cellar one enters under the bow window & into this Screen, which is about 6 or 7 feet square. Through these, we enter a narrow area, & ascend some few Steps [close to this side of the house,] into the garden&mdash;& thro the other opening we ascend a paved winding [[slope]], which spreads as it ascends, into the [[yard]]. This sloping passage being a segment of a circle, & its two outer [[wall]]s <u>concealed</u> by loose '''hedges''', & by the projection of the flat roofed Screen of masonry, keeps the [[yard]], & I believe the whole passage <u>out of sight</u> from the house&mdash;but certainly from the garden & [[park]] [[lawn]]. See the plan of the Grounds.
*[[Thomas Jefferons|Jefferson, Thomas]], March 1, 1808, in a letter to [[William Hamilton]], describing plans for [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1944: 365)<ref>Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', edann. Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“. . . you should know this plant [haw], which is peculiar at least to America & is a real treasure. as a thorn for '''hedges''' nothing has ever been seen comparable to it certainly no thorn in England which I have ever seen makes a '''hedge''' any more to be compared to this than a log hut to a [[wall]] of freestone. if you will plant these 6. I. apart you will be a judge of their superiority soon.” [<span id="Fig_2_cite"></span>[[#Fig_2|See Fig. 2]]]
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], July 22, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing a farm in Pennsylvania (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 11)<ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, “The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield” (Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“I visited Job Roberts the day before yesterday, his farm is a model of excellence in the Culture. . . . He is growing several '''hedges''' which in less than 7 yrs. will be complete [[fence]]s against all sorts of Cattle. The management of which is a good lesson, which I hope to make usefull to this place.”
*Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing Custis-Lee Mansion (Arlington House), Arlington, VA (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 177)<ref>Carl R. Lounsbury, ed., ''An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UK5TCUQQ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“. . . the [[fence]]s were of hurdles to keep out pigs. The American thorn will not grow close enough and the cedar '''hedge''' though pretty is not strong enough for the purpose.”
*[[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing the vicinity of Charleston, SC (1816: 2:228)<ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Between the tavern and Charleston, the road is lined with the '''hedges''' and [[fence]]s belonging to several handsome [[plantation]]s: the houses are, however, seldom seen, being built a considerable distance back.”
*Hulme, Thomas, June 28, 1818, describing the settlement of Morris Birkbeck, [[New Harmony]], IN (quoted in Cobbett 1819b: 475)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“910. I very much admire Mr. Birkbeck’s mode of fencing. . . . The banks [of the ditches] were growing beautifully, and looked altogether very neat as well as formidable; though a live '''hedge''' (which he intends to have) instead of dead poles and rails, upon top, would make the [[fence]] far more effectual as well as handsomer.”
[[File:0712.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte, ''Battle of New Orleans'', 1815.]]
*[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], February 20, 1819, describing the Montgomery House, New Orleans, LA (1951: 43)<ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818–1820'', ed. Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Close to the river, & separated only by the levee & road, is the old fashioned, but otherwise handsome, garden & house of Mr. Montgomery. The garden, which I think covers not less than 4 acres, is laid out in [[square]] [[walk]]s & flower [[bed]]s in the old [[French style]]. It is entirely enclosed by a thick '''hedge''' of orange trees, which have been suffered to run up to 15 or 16 feet high on the flanks & rear, but which are shorn down to the highth [''sic''] of 4 or 5 feet along the road.” [Fig. 6]
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing Sweet Briar, seat of [[Samuel Breck]], vicinity of Philadelphia , PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 425)<ref name="Boyd 1929">James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827–1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“[[Samuel Breck|Mr. Breck]] has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate.”
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing a country residence near Philadelphia , PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 438–39)<ref name="Boyd 1929"></ref>
:“On viewing this [[seat]], our attention was immediately drawn to the handsome '''hedges''' of Hornbeam and Pinus Canadensis. We were delighted with the latter; never having seen it before. Its fine green foliage contrasts very sweetly with the delicate appearance of the tender shoots. These '''hedge''’s are trimmed periodically and kept in excellent order.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], June 1835, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia , PA (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last,” ''The American Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201–6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The object of a '''hedge''' is generally to keep from the grounds cattle and other animals; though in some instances, they are only set to obscure one part of the garden from the other, or to hide some disagreeable object from the eye.”
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to history]]
:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
:“In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], October 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 363)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 10 (October 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Passing into a straight [[walk]] which leads from the [[conservatory]], by the [[flower garden]], (which is screaned by a [[hedge]] from the [[lawn]] front,).”
[[File:0878_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s Botanic Gardens and Nurseries [detail],” in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.]]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], November 1841, “Select Villa Residences,” describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing]], Newburgh, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . . Under the arbor vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer.
:“19. '''Hedge''' or screen of arbor vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The arbor vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years.” [Fig. 8]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M.(Charles Mason)]], August 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia , PA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens.”
*[[G. (George ) Gregory|Gregory, G.(George)]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', 1st American ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“GARDENING. . . .
:“Yet the fall of the leaves by autumnal winds is troublesome, and a high [[wall]] is therefore advisable. Spruce firs have been used in close-shorn '''hedges'''; which, as evergreens, are proper enough to plant for a screen in a single row, though not very near to the [[wall]]; but the best evergreens for this purpose are the evergreen oak and the cork-tree. . . .
[[File:1372.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a ferme ornée with wild and irregular hedges, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 1023, fig. 722.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C.(John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 106, 355, 1023)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live [[fence]]s are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:“1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (1828: 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112),<ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]]
:“''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''. . . .
:“''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. . . .
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], February 1838, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43),<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:“In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. . . .
:“The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal.”
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (1842: 155),<ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, OH: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]]
:“'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west.”
[[File:0998.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, Anonymous, “Mr. Lee’s Hedge,” Salem, MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 355, fig. 84.]]
*[[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], February 1847, “A Chapter on Hedges” (''Horticulturist'' 1: 345–46)<ref> Andrew Jackson Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 345–55, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The advantages of a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]], besides its beauty, are its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and the additional value it confers upon the land which it encloses. A [[fence]] of [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and tottering affair; soon needing repairs, which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedge''', made of the two plants we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]],' at least in any acceptation of the word known to our restless and changing countrymen. . . .
:“As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures, however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it.” [Fig. 13]
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, “View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée''),” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 120, fig. 27.]]
*<div id="Downing_1849"></div>[[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, A. J.Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45),<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to history]]
:“In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]
:“We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .

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