==History==
[[File:0461.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, [[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath (Berkeley Springs) Virginia [detail], 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June-September June–September 1787.]]
[[File:1007.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, “A Rustic Alcove,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed. , ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): pl. opp. 345, fig. 4.]]
As early as 1787, Americans recognized the alcove as a distinct garden feature that could follow one of two types: an ornamental building in a garden or a recessed niche cut into live plant material. As a garden building, an alcove could be a freestanding or semidetached structure, typically possessing three sides and housing a [[seat]]. Alcoves provided shelter from the sun in summer but were particularly welcome in the northern winter, since they were often enclosed against the winds and open to the sun.
===Usage===
[[File:0935.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Walsh]], “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308.]]
*Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref name=''Constantia_1790''>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''The Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At every turn shaded [[seat]]s are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbor|arbours]], '''alcoves''', and [[summerhouse|summer houses]], which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers. Among these the little federal [[temple]] claims the principal regard. It is the very edifice, that upon the celebration of the ratification of the constitution, was carried in triumphant procession through the streets of this metropolis; and, upon a gentle acclivity, upon the summit of a green [[mound]] infixed, it hath now obtained a basis. It is a Rotunda, its cupola is supported by thirteen [[pillar]]s handsomely finished; their base, is to receive the cypher of the several states, which they represent, with a star upon every capital, and its top is crowned with the figure of Plenty grasping the cornucopia and other insignia. The ascent to this [[Temple]] is easy, and we gain it by the semicircular steps neatly turned, and the [[view]] therefrom is truly interesting.”
*<div id="Clitherall"></div>Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin, active 1801, describing the [[Hermitage]], seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126),<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth-Century Life'' 8, no. 2 (January 1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Clitherall_cite|back up to history]]
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was '''alcoves''' and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], [[seat]]s under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*<div id="Walsh"></div>[[Alexander Walsh|Walsh, Alexander]], March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 309),<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''The New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Walsh_cite|back up to history]]
:“ . . . diminutive rustic '''alcoves''', from thrifty growing plants of upright privet, ''Ligustrum strictum'', formed by placing a platform of light boards 2 ft. 6 in. from the ground, and 3 ft. long, and 1 ft. 6 in. wide, on the twigs of the privet; those in the centre of the platform to be trimmed off close to it under side, and those on the back and sides to be led up round the platform, entwined and arched; the door to be constructed from the twigs in front, and an opening left 2 ft. 6 in. high, which is the height of the dome.” [Fig. 3]
===Citations===
[[File:1702.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Alcoves,” in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), p. 356, fig. 331.]] *<div id="MMahon"></div>[[Bernard M’Mahon|M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (1806: 64),<ref>Bernard M’Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done . . . for Every Month of the Year . . .'' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/q/m'mahon view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#MMahon_cite|back up to history]]
:“In some spacious [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]] various light ornamental buildings and erections are introduced, as ornaments to particular departments; such as [[temple]]s, [[bower]]s, banquetting houses, '''alcoves''', [[grotto]]s, rural [[seat]]s, cottages, [[fountain]]s, [[obelisk]]s, [[statue]]s, and other edifices; these and the like are usually erected in the different parts, in openings between the divisions of the ground, and contiguous to the terminations of grand [[walk]]s, &c.
[[File:0960.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, John J. Thomas, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''The Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, fig. 8.]]
*<div id="Horticultural_Register"></div>Anonymous, April 1, 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (''Horticultural Register'' 3: 129),<ref>Anonymous, “Landscape Gardening,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 3 (April 1, 1837): 121–31, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TBFISAR7 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Horticultural_Register_cite|back up to discussion]]
*Thomas, John J., January 1842, “The Garden and the Orchard” (''The Cultivator'' 9: 22)<ref> John J. Thomas, “The Garden and the Orchard,” ''The Cultivator, a Monthly Publication, Devoted to Agriculture'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JX49FGI4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The two finest [[view]]s are seen after entering the house; . . . The [[view]] from the dining room is towards the garden. Directly beneath is the [[parterre]], or flower [[bed]]s cut into the turf on the [[lawn]], at ''k''; beyond this is the light [[arch|archway]] [[gate]] to the garden, through which the [[view]] extends along the [[vista]] formed by flower [[bed]]s, ''h h'', and terminates at the [[greenhouse|green house]], (or '''alcove'''), at ''m''.” [Fig. 5]
[[File:1007.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Anonymous, “A Rustic Alcove,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed. , ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): pl. opp. 345, fig. 4.]]
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1848: 32)<ref name="Webster_1848">[[Noah Webster]], ''An American Dictionary of the English Language . . . Revised and Enlarged by Chauncey A. Goodrich. . . .'' (Springfield, MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1848), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EBZ5Z7ET view on Zotero]</ref>
*Anonymous, February 1848, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (''The Horticulturist'' 2: 364)<ref>Anonymous, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): 363–65, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4H34XQXX view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“''Fig''. 4, is a [[rustic style|RUSTIC]] '''ALCOVE''', to be placed at the end of a garden [[walk]].” [Fig. 6]
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath (Berkeley Springs) Virginia, 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June—September 1787. In the plan to the right, the notation “cc” denotes three alcoves with seats, positioned between dressing rooms (“b”) and two long narrow [[piazza]]s (“bb”).
Image:1702.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Alcoves,” in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), p. 356, fig. 331.
Image:1899.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Rustic Alcove,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 644, fig. 160.
Image:0935.jpg|[[Alexander Walsh]], “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (Mar. March 31, 1841): 308. The notation “OO” near the juncture of the curved and straight paths (marked by “A”), designates “diminutive rustic alcoves” shaped from live privet, ''Ligustrum strictum'', that would have been constructed on top of a slightly raised platform.
Image:0960.jpg|John J. Thomas, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''The Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, fig. 8. “The view extends along the vista . . . and terminates at the green house, (or alcove,) at ''m''.”
Image:1007.jpg|Anonymous, “A Rustic Alcove,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed. , ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): pl. opp. 345, fig. 4.
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