==History==
[[File:0226.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Charles Fraser, ''Wigton on Saint James, Goose Creek: The Seat of James Fraser, Esq.'', c. 1800.]]
[[Image:0647.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Charles W. Burton, ''View of the Capitol'', 1824.]]As an integral element of circulation routes through the designed landscape, walk is one of the most common terms in American garden descriptions. Walks were highly varied in their composition, arrangement, and plantings. While widths varied, a narrow walk limited to foot traffic was often called a path, while a broad, straight walk lined with trees was often called an [[avenue]]. Walks were configured in numerous ways and composed of different materials such as brick, shell, gravel, packed dirt, tan (or tan bark), and turf. From most images of walks it is difficult to discern their composition, but contrary to brick paving, which was popular only in colonial revival gardens, textual references appear to indicate that gravel was a surface commonly used. <span id="Forsyth_cite"></span>William Forsyth in his 1802 treatise recommended sand or sea-coal ashes on a foundation of brick rubble or gravel for building a walk in a [[kitchen garden]]. He noted the ease of maintenance of such surfaces, which were weeded simply by raking ([[#Forsyth|view citationtext]]). It is interesting to note that despite changing trends in garden styles, treatises remained remarkably consistent in their advice and instruction. Entire passages were frequently borrowed or adapted from earlier publications.
[[ImageFile:0647.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Charles W. Burton, ''[[View]] of the Capitol'', 1824.]][[File:1192.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Anonymous, Garden plan, 18th century.]][[ImageFile:0091.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General ideas for the improvement of [[Monticello ]] [detail], c. 1804. The description notes “Walks in this style wind-ing up the mountain.”]]Walks were planted in a variety of ways. They could have [[border]]s of low [[shrubbery]] or plants, as in a painting by Charles Fraser [Fig. 1], or be lined with [[pot]]s or [[statue]]s, as at [[Vauxhall Garden]] in New York in 1816. Lombardy poplars and other tall, straight trees accentuated the linearity of axial walks and the formality of urban [[avenue]]s, including Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, DC [Fig. 2]. Such spreading shade trees as elm, myrtle, and live oak formed arching canopies over walks, <span id="d'Argenville_cite"></span>an effect that John James in his 1712 translation of [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]] called “Close” walks ([[#d'Argenville|view citationtext]]). Although this term does not appear to be used in America, the technique, which framed [[view]]s and invited cooling strolls, was described at sites such as [[Boston Common]].
[[Image:0404.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''Elevation of the South front of the President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807'', January 1817.]][[Image:0254.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Reuben Moulthrop, ''Mrs. Daniel Truman and Child,'' c. 1798–1810.]]While their form varied widely, walks served essentially the same functions: to provide passage and to direct movement through the garden; to focus a viewer’s gaze toward an object, building, or [[prospect]]; and to structure and divide the garden. In colonial gardens, the walk was often the principal structuring element of the space, dividing a small garden adjacent to a structure into regular geometric shapes, such as the walks depicted in an unidentified late 18th-century garden [Fig. 3]. In more naturalistic and [[picturesque]] designs that became popular in the 19th century, walks created routes by which visitors were led to carefully sited garden structures or to crafted [[vista]]s, as described in [[Thomas Jefferson|Thomas Jefferson’s]] c. 1804 plan for his mountaintop landscape [Fig. 4] or [[A. J. Downing|A. J. Downing’s]] 1849 plan for a country [[seat]] [see Fig. #]. In addition, walks offered a means to organize the visual logic of a site by directing a visitor’s gaze to distant [[view]]s or focal points within the garden, such as [[obelisk]]s, [[pavilion]]s, [[gate]]s, or [[seat]]s. Walks could also create the illusion of distance if their designers manipulated their dimensions and layout. This resulted in an impression of greater depth, a particularly useful effect in smaller urban lots. The dimensions of walks were determined by the scale of their settings and their use. Forsyth (1802), for instance, recommended that walks be wide enough to admit a cart in [[kitchen garden]]s, <span id="Breck_cite"></span>and [[Joseph Breck]] (1851) cautioned designers to leave enough room for persons to “walk comfortably in a social manner” ([[#Breck|view citationtext]]).
[[ImageFile:05390404.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''Elevation of the South front of the President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807'', January 1817.]][[File:0254.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Reuben Moulthrop, ''Mrs. Daniel Truman and Child,'' c. 1798–1810.]][[File:2256.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, John Henry Bufford, “Fairmount . ''Fairmount from the first Landing'',cover illustration for sheet music cover for ''The Fairmount Quadrilles'', 1836.]]In pictorial representations, walks served many of these same functions. In a perspective view of a building’s front façade, the viewer is often encouraged to focus upon the main entrance located at the terminus of a central walk or [[avenue]] [Fig. 5]. In the backgrounds of portraits, particularly those from the second half of the 18th century, artists often depicted glimpses through a window of their sitters' gardens, in which walks were presented in perspective with converging sides to suggest the illusion of depth [Fig. 6]. In aerial views, walks were often the principle means of indicating the location and existence of a garden, since plants, changing topography, and surface treatments were less easily rendered in plan. In other images, the walk invites the viewer to dwell upon a destination, such as a garden [[seat]] or viewing point, or to venture further into the unseen garden, as in John Trumbull’s 1792 1793 plan for Yale College [<span id="Fig_8_cite"></span>[Yale College]] [#Fig_8|See Fig. #8]]]. In all of these types of images, tracing the line of the walk conveys a sense of movement through the landscape, much as a visitor might have experienced surprising “discoveries” of [[view]]s.
In addition to being a common feature in early American gardens, walks were also the setting for much recorded activity. <span id="Byrd_cite"></span>[[William Byrd II]] in his diary (1732) frequently mentioned his own perambulations in the garden, either alone or with gentlemen guests after he had entertained them with a meal ([[#Byrd|view citationtext]]). [[Charles Willson Peale]] described strolling through the gardens of Annapolis, Maryland, in language that echoes published accounts of British and European tours.<ref>Elizabeth Kryder-Reid, “The Archaeology of Vision in Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Gardens,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 14, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 42–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJX4M93V view on Zotero.] </ref> Walks were social venues in public landscape designs such as [[Boston Common]], the [[State House Yard]] in Philadelphia, a levee in New Orleans, the [[Battery Park]] in New York, [[Fairmount Park]] in Philadelphia [Fig. 7], and the [[avenue]]s of Washington, DC. They were places to see and be seen, and images of them in the second quarter of the 19th century portray their rising popularity as [[promenade]]s for the general populace. Numerous descriptions and treatises of this period also praised the health-giving properties of these walks and the virtues of fresh air and exercise, particularly for the infirm, mentally ill, and urban poor.
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''
*[[William Penn|Penn, William]], March 19, 1685, in a letter to James Harrison, regarding [[Pennsbury Manor]], country estate of William Penn, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Thomforde 1986: 59)<ref name="Thomforde">Charles Thomforde, “William Penn’s Estate at Pennsbury and the Plants of Its Kitchen Garden” (Master’s MS thesis, Public Horticulture Administration, University of Delaware, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MSV2MR5T/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“If Ralph this fall, could gett twenty yound populars, about 18 inch round beheaded, to twenty foot, to plant in a '''walk''' below ye Steps to ye water It were not emiss. perhaps to 15 foot long for a Round head, may do as well, plant ym in ye 8 mo. [October] is well.”
*[[William Penn|Penn, William]], October 15, 1685, describing [[Pennsbury Manor]], country estate of William Penn, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Thomforde 1986: 54)<ref name="Thomforde"></ref>:“I desire a . . . handsome '''walk''' to ye house of Gravel, or paved wth pitt stones—smooth stones.”
*Jones, Hugh, 1724, describing the [[Governor’s Palace]], [[Williamsburg]], VA (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:48)<ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“. . . stands the Palace or Governor’s House, a magnificent structure built at the publick Expense, finished and beautified with [[Gate]]s, fine Gardens, Offices, '''Walks''', a fine [[Canal]], [[Orchard]]s, and with a great number of the best arms nicely posited by the ingenious Contrivance of the accomplished Colonel Spotswood.”
*<div id="Byrd"></div>[[William Byrd II|Byrd, William, II]], September 28, 1732, describing the estate of Gov. Alexander Spotswood, near Germanna, VA (1970: 357–58, 360)<ref>William Byrd, ''The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, Esqr.'', ed. by John Spencer Bassett (New York: B. Franklin, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3VVVZ9XQ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Byrd_cite|back up to history]]:“After Breakfast the Colo. and I left the Ladys to their Domestick Affairs, and took a turn in the Garden, which has nothing beautiful but 3 [[Terrace]] '''Walks''' that fall in [[Slope]]s one below another. . . .
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:“The afternoon was devoted to the ladys, who shew’d me one of their most beautiful '''Walks'''. They conducted me thro’ a Shady Lane to the Landing, and by the way made me drink some very fine Water that issued from a Marble [[Fountain]], and ran incessantly.” [[#Byrd_cite|back up to History]]
*Anonymous, February 2, 1734, describing property for sale in Charleston, SC (''South Carolina Gazette'')
:“To Be Let or Sold. . . . On the island is a New Dwelling House &c. built on a high Bluff, which commands an entire [[prospect]] of the Harbour, from the Barr to the Town. A delightful [[Wilderness]] with shady '''Walks''' and [[arbor|Arbours]], cool in the hottest Seasons. A piece of Garden-ground, where all the best kinds of Fruits and Kitchen Greens are produced, and planted with Orange-, Apple-, Peach-, Nectarine-, and Plumb-trees, capable of being made a very good Vineyard.”
*[[Eliza Lucas Pinckney|Pinckney, Eliza Lucas]], c. May 1743, describing [[Crowfield]], plantation of William Middleton, vicinity of Charleston, SC (1972: 61)<ref>Eliza Lucas Pinckney, ''The Letterbook of Eliza Lucas Pinckney, 1739–1762'', ed. by Elise Pinckney (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EBQQ2RAU view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“From the back door is a spacious '''walk''' a thousand foot long; each side of which nearest the house is a grass [[plat]] ennamiled in a Serpenting manner with flowers.”
*Moore, Francis, 1744, describing the [[Trustees’_Garden|Trustees' Garden]], Savannah, GA (quoted in Marye and Marye 1933: 15)<ref>Florence Marye (Nisbet) and Philip Thornton Marye, ''Garden History of Georgia, 1733–1933'', ed. by Hattie C. Rainwater and Loraine M. Cooney (Atlanta, GA: Peachtree Garden Club, 1933), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNC4U42D view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The Garden is laid out with Cross-'''walks''' planted with Orange-trees, but the last Winter a good deal of Snow having fallen, had killed those upon the Top of the Hill down to their Roots, but they being cut down, sprouted again, as I saw when I returned to Savannah.”
*Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, PA (''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16: 375)
:“passing a a long spacious '''walk''', set on each side with trees, on the summit of a gradual ascent, we saw the proprietor’s house, & walkt in the gardens, where besides the beautiful '''walk''', ornamented with evergreens, we saw fruit trees . . . [with] oranges, limes, lemons, citrons. . . . Spruce [[hedge]]s cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder.”
*[[Hannah Callender Sansom|Sansom, Hannah Callender]], June 30, 1762, diary entry describing [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], estate of [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Sansom 2010: 183)<ref name="Callender 2010">Hannah Callender Sansom, ''The Diary of Hannah Callender Sansom: Sense and Sensibility in the Age of the American Revolution'', ed. Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref>:“. . . a broad '''walk''' of english Cherre trys leads down to the river, the doors of the hous opening opposite admitt a [[prospect]] [of] the length of the garden thro' a broad gravel '''walk''', to a large hansome [[Summerhouse|summer house]] in a [[green|grean]]. . . .”
*Fithian, Philip Vickers, March 18, 1774, describing [[Nomini Hall]], Westmoreland County, VA (1943: 109)<ref>Philip Vickers Fithian, ''Journal & Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian, 1773-1774: A Plantation Tutor of the Old Dominion'', ed. by Hunter D. Farish (Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg, 1943), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XJX4WV8F/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The Area of the Triangle made by the Wash-House, Stable, & School-House is perfectly levil, & designed for a [[bowling green|bowling-Green]], laid out in rectangular '''Walks''' which are paved with Brick, & covered over with burnt Oyster-Shells.”
*Adams, John, February 23, 1777, describing [[Mount Clare]], plantation of Charles and Margaret Tilghman Carroll, Baltimore, MD (quoted in Sarudy 1989: 139)<ref>Barbara Wells Sarudy, “Eighteenth-Century Gardens of the Chesapeake,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 9 (1989), 104–59, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PGSNXHMJ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“There is a most beautiful '''walk''' from the house down to the water; there is a descent not far from the house; you have a fine garden then you descend a few steps and have another fine garden; you go down a few more and have another.”
*Hazard, Ebenezer, May 31, 1777, describing the [[College of William and Mary]], [[Williamsburg]], VA (quoted in Shelley 1954: 405)<ref>Fred Shelley, “The Journal of Ebenezer Hazard in Virginia, 1777,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 62 (1954): 400–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8VUV2A3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“At this Front of the College is a large Court Yard, ornamented with Gravel '''Walks''', Trees cut into different Forms, & Grass.”
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], February 28, 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (quoted in Johnson 1953: 99–100)<ref>Gerald W. Johnson, ''Mount Vernon: The Story of a Shrine'' (New York: Random House, 1953), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/F2JS5DHZ view on Zotero.]</ref>:“My Gardens have gravel '''walks''' (as you possibly may recollect) in the usual Style, but if a better composition has been discovered for these, I should gladly adopt it. the matter however which I wish principally to be informed in, is, whether your '''walks''' are designed for Carriages, and if so, how they are prepared, to resist the impression of the Wheels. I am making a serpentine road to my door, and have doubts . . . whether any thing short of solid pavement will answer.”
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:96, 97)<ref>Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', 6 vols. (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1978), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9ZIIR3FT/ view on Zotero.]</ref>:“[February 28] Planted all the Mulberry trees, Maple trees, & Black gums in my Serpentine '''walks''' and the Poplars on the right '''walk'''—the Sap of which and the Mulberry appeared to be moving. Also planted 4 trees from H. Hole the name unknown but of a brittle wood which has the smell of Mulberry. . . .
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:“[March 2] . . . Planted the remainder of the Ash Trees—in the Serpentine '''walks'''—the remainder of the fringe trees in the Shrubberies—all the black haws—all the large berried thorns with a small berried one in the middle of each [[clump]]—6 small berried thorns with a large one in the middle of each [[clump]]—all the swamp red berry bushes & one [[clump]] of locust trees.”
*[[Manasseh CutlerManasseh_Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 2, 1787, describing Middletown, CT (1987: 215–16)<ref name="Cutler 87">William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.'' (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].]</ref>:“At the northern end of the city is a '''walk''' of two rows of buttonwood trees, from the front [[gate]] of a gentleman’s house down to a summer-house on the bank of the river, by far the most beautiful I ever saw. He permits the people of the city to improve it as a [[mall]].”
*[[Mannaseh CutlerManasseh_Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing the [[State House Yard]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:263)<ref name="Cutler 87"></ref>
:“The numerous '''walks''' are well graveled and rolled hard; they are all in a serpentine direction, which heightens the beauty, and affords constant variety. That painful sameness, commonly to be met with in garden-[[alley]]s, and others works of this kind, is happily avoided here, for there are no two parts of the [[Mall]] that are alike. Hogarth’s ‘Line of Beauty’ is here completely verified. The public are indebted to the fertile fancy and taste of [[Samuel Vaughan|Mr. Sam’l Vaughan, Esq.]], for the elegance of this plan. It was laid out and executed under his direction about three years ago.”
<div id="Fig_8"></div>[[ImageFile:0100.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, John Trumbull, Master Plan for Yale CollegeOld Brick Rowe, 17921793.[[#Fig_8_cite|back up to History]]]]*Trumbull, John, 1792, describing [[Yale College]], New Haven, CT (Yale University Library, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale Picture Collection, 48A-46, box 1, folder 2) :“The [[Temple]]s of Cloacina (which it is too much the custom of New England to place conspicuously,) I would wish to have concealed as much as possible, by planting a variety of Shrubs, such as Laburnums, Lilacs, Roses, Snowballs, Laurels. &c, &c—a gravel '''walk''' should lead thro [sic] the [[Shrubbery]] to those buildings. . . .
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:“The yellow is intended to express the gravel '''walks'''—& the green the grass and planting. . . .
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:“The Eating Hall should likewise be hidden as much as the space will admit with similar shrubs. . . .
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:“The ground in front of the Buildings to be divided by two broad '''walks''' leading up to the Chapel and Lecture Rooms, and the sides of the '''walks''' to be planted with Elms or other Forest Trees. . . .
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:“Behind the buildings, the '''walks''' may be irregular and winding, beginning behind the two Chapels, and corresponding to the two broad ones in their front.” [Fig. 8]
*Drayton, John, 1793, describing the [[Battery Park]], New York, NY (quoted in Deák 1988: 1:130)<ref name="Deák">Gloria Gilda Deák, ''Picturing America, 1497–1899: Prints, Maps, and Drawings Bearing on the New World Discoveries and on the Development of the Territory That Is Now the United States'', 2 vols. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4A6QNFNX view on Zotero.]</ref>:“After passing these islands [Governor’s, etc.], we came opposite the battery; which is at the extreme point of the town. . . . It has no merlons, or embrasuers; but the guns . . . are placed upon carriages on a stone platform ''en barbette'', some few feet above the level of the water. Between the guns, and the water is a public '''walk'''; made by a gentle decline from the platform: and going round the ground upon which the battery is placed. Some little distance behind the guns, two rows of elm trees are planted; which in a short time will afford an agreeable shade.”
[[File:1041.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ]]
*[[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], July 19, 1796, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (1977: 165)<ref>
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798'', ed. by Edward C. Carter II, 2 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SZEEBG9K view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The ground on the West front is laid out in a level [[lawn]] bounded on each side with a wide but extremely formal serpentine '''walk''', shaded by weeping Willows.” [Fig. 9]
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 14 and 18)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“In the rear of this [girl’s school], is another small enclosure, which forms a broad grass '''walk''' and is skirted on each side by [[bed]]s devoted to flowers, which the girls cultivate, as their own. . . .
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:“Among the varied enjoyments of this settlement [Bethlehem], is a pleasant '''walk''' on the banks of the river Lehigh. Nature has furnished a shade, by means of the trees, which grow near the margin. But, this is improved by a row of locust trees between them and the road or '''walk'''.”
*[[Eliza Caroline Clitherall|Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin]] (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the [[Hermitage]], seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983), 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summer house]]s at the termination of each '''walk''', [[seat]]s under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], July 1806, describing [[Monticello]], plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA (1944: 323)<ref>
Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', ed. by Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The hill is generally too steep for direct ascent, but we make level '''walks''' successively along it’s side, which in it’s upper part encircle the hill & intersect these again by others of easy ascent in various parts.”
*[[Charles Drayton|Drayton, Charles]], November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (1806: 55)<ref>Charles Drayton, “The Diary of Charles Drayton I, 1806,” Drayton Papers, MS 0152, Drayton Hall, http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:27554, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref> :“The <u>Garden</u> consists of a large verdant [[lawn]] surrounded by a belt of '''walk''', & [[shrubbery]] for some distance. The outer side of the '''walk''' is adorned here & there, by scattered forest trees, thick & thin. It is bounded, partly as is described&mdash;partly described—partly by the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]] & a creek exhibiting a Mill & where it is scarcely noticed, by a common post & rail. The '''walk''' is said to be a mile long&mdash;perhaps long—perhaps it is something less. One is led into the garden from the [[portico]], to the east or lefthand. or from the [[park]], by a small [[gate]] contiguous to the house, traversing this '''walk''', one sees many beauties of the landscape&mdash;also landscape—also a fine [[statue]], symbol of Winter, & age,&mdash;& a spacious [[conservatory|Conservatory]] about 200 yards to the West of the Mansion.”
*Anonymous, January 2, 1808, describing in the ''Washington Expositor'' the [[National Mall]], Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 99–100)<ref name ="O'Malley 1989">Therese O’Malley, “Art and Science in American Landscape Architecture: The National Mall, Washington, DC, 1791–1852” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1989), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, more beneficial to the poor citizens, than their culture in the ordinary courses. . . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample '''walks''' open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the public, it will give to the city, much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable [[promenade]]s, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places.”
*[[Alexander Graydon|Graydon, Alexander]], 1811, describing the garden of Israel Pemberton, Philadelphia, PA (1811: 34–35)<ref>Alexander Graydon, ''Memoirs of a Life Chiefly Passed in Pennsylvania within the Last Sixty Years'' (Harrisburg, PA: John Wyeth, 1811), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SIZFRZVI/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“. . . laid out in the old fashioned style of uniformity, with '''walks''' and allies nodding to their brothers, and decorated with a number of evergreens, carefully clipped into pyramidal and conical forms.”
*Gerry, Elbridge, Jr., July 1813, describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (1927: 180)<ref>Elbridge Gerry Jr., ''The Diary of Elbridge Gerry, Jr.'' (New York: Brentano’s, 1927), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8P4QSRIF view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Lengthways of the house, and thro’ the hall, is a '''walk''', which extends on a [[terrace]] at each end for some way.”
*Ripley, Samuel, 1815, describing Gore Place, summer home of Christopher and Rebecca Gore, Waltham, MA (1815: 272–73)<ref>Samuel Ripley, “A Topographical and Historical Description of Waltham, in the County of Middlesex, Jan. 1, 1815,” ''Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society'' 3 (January) (1815): 261–84, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7INJ3GDV view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The house is a spacious and noble building. . . . It is situated in the centre of pleasant grounds, tastefully laid out, surrounded by a '''walk''' of a mile in circuit, intersected by several other '''walks''', on all of which are growing trees and [[shrubbery]] of various kinds.”
*[[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing [[Vauxhall Garden]], New York, NY (1816: 2:61)<ref name="Lambert">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero.]</ref>:“The [[Vauxhall_Garden|Vauxhall garden]] is situated in the Bowery Road about two miles from the City Hall. It is a neat [[plantation]], with gravel '''walks''' adorned with shrubs, trees, busts, and [[statue]]s.”
*[[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing Savannah, GA (1816: 2:265–66)<ref name="Lambert"></ref>:“This range of buildings extends nearly three quarters of a mile along the town; and opposite to it is a beautiful '''walk''' or [[mall]], planted with a double row of trees, the same as those at Charleston— (''Melia Azedarach'', or Pride of India). . . .
<p></p>
:“About the centre of the '''walk''', and just on the verge of the cliff, stands the Exchange, a large brick building, which contains some public offices; and an assembly-room, where a concert and ball are held once a fortnight during the winter.”
*[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], February 20, 1819, describing the [[Montgomery House]], New Orleans, LA (1951: 43–45)<ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818–1820'', ed. by Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Close to the river, & separated only by the levee & road, is the old fashioned, but otherwise handsome, garden & house of Mr. Montgomery. The garden, which I think covers not less than 4 acres, is laid out in [[square]] '''walks''' & flower [[bed]]s in the old [[French style]]. It is entirely enclosed by a thick [[hedge]] of orange trees, which have been suffered to run up to 15 or 16 feet high on the flanks & rear, but which are shorn down to the highth [''sic''] of 4 or 5 feet along the road. The '''Walks''' are bordered by very large myrtles cut into the shape of large hay cocks, about 8 feet high & as much in diameter. There are so many of them, and they are so exactly equal in size & form that the effect is curious if not elegant.”
*[[Forman, Martha Ogle]], June 13, 1820, describing [[Rose Hill]], home of Martha Ogle Forman, Baltimore County, MD (1976: 104)<ref>Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814–1845'' (Wilmington, DE: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“My husband had secretly, cut a long and beautiful shady '''walk''', by our spring along the margin of Forman’s Creek to the Irishmen’s dam. It was a most agreeable surprise and highly pleased all our company. The Ivy was in bloom on each side, the '''walk''', which with the Hemlock Spruce gave it a very pretty effect.”
*Bryant, William Cullen, August 25, 1821, describing the [[Vale]], estate of Theodore Lyman, Waltham, MA (1975: 108–9)<ref>William Cullen Bryant, ''The Letters of William Cullen Bryant'', ed. by William Cullen II Bryant and Thomas G. Voss (New York: Fordham University Press, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3X5XUJ6A view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“He took me to the [[seat]] of Mr. Lyman. . . . It is a perfect paradise. . . . A hard rolled '''walk''', by the side of a brick [[wall]] . . . led us to a [[grove]] of young forest trees on the top of [an] [[eminence]].”
*Kremer, Eliza Vierling, 1824–29, describing the pleasure grounds at [[Salem Academy]], Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref>Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“A large garden, some little distance from the Academy, was during the Summer Season, a place for recreation after school hours. . . .
<p></p>
:“The hill-side was laid off in [[terrace]]s and winding '''walks'''.”
*[[Trollope, Frances Milton]], 1830, describing Hudson Square, New York, NY (1832: 2:160)<ref name="Trollope">Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“it will give some idea of the care bestowed on its decoration, to know that the gravel for the '''walks''' was conveyed by barges from Boston, not as ballast, but as freight.”
*[[Trollope, Frances Milton]], 1830, describing Hoboken, NJ (1832: 2:167)<ref name="Trollope"></ref>
:“A gentleman who possessed a handsome mansion and grounds there, also possessed the right of ferry, and to render this productive, he has restricted his [[pleasure ground]]s to a few beautiful acres, laying out the remainder simply and tastefully as a public '''walk'''. It is hardly possible to imagine one of greater attraction; a broad belt of light underwood and flowering shrubs, studded at intervals with lofty forest trees, runs for two miles along a cliff which overhangs the matchless Hudson.”
:“There is one thing about the improvements in New York I very much like, and which, as you are a man of influence, I hope you will endeavor to impress on the Bostonians;—the disposition to ornament the streets with rows of trees, thus giving to them an air of freshness and beauty very much wanting in our large cities and in country towns, for nothing adds more to beauty than rows of trees along the public '''walks''', which may be placed there for a trifling expense.
<p></p>
:“The [[Battery Park|Battery]], St. John’s Park, [[Washington Square]], and many other public '''walks''' exhibit the taste of the New Yorkers in this respect, and their practice of making every open and beautiful piece of ground an object of ornament to the city, and a pleasant resort for the inhabitants, is worthy of observation.”
*Alcott, William A., 1838, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages” (''American Annals of Education'' 8: 337–38)<ref>William A. Alcott, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages,” ''American Annals of Education'' 8, no. 8 (August 1838): 337–47, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/5K3WRQ2I? view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Of our larger cities, even Philadelphia and Boston, we do not hesitate to say that almost every thing, in their structure and condition, is at war with the highest physical and moral well being of their inhabitants. We do not indeed forget their beautiful [[common]]s and [[square]]s and public '''walks'''; but it is impossible for us to believe that a few of these will ever atone for that neglect whose effects stare us in the face, not merely in passing through dirty and filthy [[avenue]]s, but in traversing almost every street, and in turning almost every corner. A single [[common]], beautiful though it may be, as any spot on the earth’s surface, and refreshed though it were by the balmy breezes which ‘blow soft o’er Ceylon’s isle;’ or a few public [[square]]s, remembrances though they be of him whose praises will never cease to be celebrated while the ‘city of brotherly love’ shall remain, will yet never purify the crowded, unventilated cellars and shops—and dwellings, too—of a hundred or a thousand thickly congregated streets. . . .”
*[[Adams, Rev. Nehemiah]], 1838, describing Portland, ME ([Adams] 1838: 31)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''The Boston Common, or Rural Walks in Cities'' (Boston: George W. Light, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/E29QRTC3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“An equally striking indication of the spirit of improvement peculiar to these times is the public '''walk''' recently laid out in Portland. This '''walk''', consisting of a carriage and foot way, shaded with trees, is nearly two miles in length, extending in an oval form around a hill, on which is the telegraph [[Belvedere/Prospect_tower/Observatory|observatory]], and commanding a [[view]] of the adjacent scenery, which may be classed among the best in the country.”
*[[Hovey, C. M.]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing [[Elfin Glen]], residence of P. Dodge, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 404)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9/q/notices%20of%20gardens%20and%20horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The cottage stands near the road, and is entered from the west front; on the south end is a [[piazza]]; the drawing-room opens into this, and thence into the garden to an open space, answering somewhat the purpose of a [[terrace]], neatly gravelled; a '''walk''' from thence conducts directly, in a straight line, nearly to the edge of the river, where it terminates in a rustic [[arch]] and [[vase]] on the [[lawn]]; on each side of the '''walk''' there is turf, with circles of flowers at the distance of ten or twelve feet; these are each backed by a line of buckthorn [[hedge]]s, with a [[view]] to screen both the fruit garden on the east, and the vegetable garden on the west, from sight.”
*Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing Saratoga, NY (quoted in Deák 1988: 1:424)<ref name="Deák"></ref>
:“When the gentleman has swallowed his muriate and four carbonates in proper quantity, a smooth serpentine '''walk''' leads to the summit of a prettily wooded hill, where he may either grind himself round a circular rail-road in a self-moving chair, or ramble off to the shade, for a little meditation.”
*Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing the [[Fairmount Waterworks]], Philadelphia, PA (1840; repr., 1971: 313)<ref>Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery, or Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'', 2 vols. (1840; repr., Barre, MA: Imprint Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5CMW67U view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Steps and [[terrace]]s conduct to the reservoirs, and thence the [[view]] over the ornamented grounds of the country [[seat]]s opposite, and of a very [[picturesque]] and uneven country beyond, is exceedingly attractive. Below, the court of the principal building is laid out with gravel '''walks''', and ornamented with [[fountain]]s and flowering trees; and within the edifice there is a public drawing-room, of neat design and furniture; while in another wing are elegant refreshment-rooms—and, in short, all the appliances and means of a place of public amusement.”
*[[Buckingham, James Silk]], 1841, describing New York, NY (1841: 1:38–39)<ref name="Buckingham">James Silk Buckingham, ''America, Historical, Statistic, and Descriptive'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1841), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PIANFMVK view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Of the public places for air and exercise with which the Continental cities of Europe are so abundantly and agreeably furnished, and which London, Bath, and some other of the larger cities of England contain, there is a marked deficiency in New-York. Except the [[Battery Park|Battery]], which is agreeable only in summer—the [[Bowling Green]] is a confined space of 200 feet long by 150 broad; the [[Park]], which is a comparatively small spot of land (about ten acres only) in the heart of the city, and quite a public thoroughfare; Hudson Square, the prettiest of the whole, but small, being only about four acres; and the open space within Washington Square, about nine acres, which is not yet furnished with gravel-'''walks''' or shady trees—there is no large place in the nature of a [[park]], or [[public garden]], or public '''walk''', where persons of all classes may take air and exercise. This is a defect which, it is hoped, will ere long be remedied, as there is no country, perhaps, in which it would be more advantageous to the health and pleasure of the community than this to encourage, by every possible means, the use of air and exercise to a much greater extent than either is at present enjoyed.”
*[[Hovey, C. M.]], September 1841, describing the residence of R. F. Carman, Fort Washington, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 326)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notes Made During a Visit to New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington and intermediate places, from August 8th to the 23rd, 1841,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 9 (September 1841): 321–27, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R9KPSMKS/q/notes%20made view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[flower garden]] is laid out in angular shaped [[bed]]s of small size, occupying a [[square]] of about one hundred feet, with the '''walks''' edged with box. The only fault we have to find with the plan is the narrowness of the '''walks''', not being above two feet wide, and, consequently, not allowing two to '''walk''' abreast. The same error we saw committed at other places. It should be laid down as a rule, never to make the '''walks''' less than three feet wide, and if three and a half, it will be better.”
*Dickens, Charles, 1842, describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (1842: 153–54)<ref>Charles Dickens, ''American Notes'' (Paris: Baudry’s European Library, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TTQMJ9AD view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The President’s mansion is more like an English club-house, both within and without, than any other kind of establishment with which I can compare it. The ornamental ground about it has been laid out in garden '''walks'''; they are pretty, and agreeable to the eye; though they have that uncomfortable air of having been made yesterday, which is far from favourable to the display of such beauties.”
*Longfellow, Alexander W., January 1844, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 38)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We were very busy planning the grounds & I laid out a linden [[avenue]] for the Professor’s private '''walk'''. I was often reminded of your fancy for such things. . . The house is to be repaired but not essentially altered, the old out buildings to be removed, trees planted a [[pond]], & [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[bridge]], created the [[pond]] is an apology for the [[bridge]].”  [[ImageFile:0995.jpg|thumb|Fig. 109, Anonymous, “The Espalier Walk in the Fruit Garden at Wodenethe,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 11 (May 1847): pl. opp. 489.]]
*[[Downing, A. J.]], May 1847, describing Wodenethe, residence of Henry Winthrop Sargent, Dutchess County, NY (''Horticulturist'' 1: 504)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Fruit Garden at Wodenethe,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 1, no. 11 (May 1847): 503–5, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/BC9R5CZQ/q/wodenethe view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Our FRONTISPIECE gives a glimpse of this ''Vinery'', at the termination of the main '''walk''' of the fruit-garden. This '''walk''' is 428 feet long, and is bordered with an [[espalier]] rail, upon which many of the choicest peaches, grapes, plums, etc., are trained—not from necessity or for greater protection, as in gardens farther north, for all those fruits ripen perfectly on common standards here, but to give an illustration of this more perfect kind of culture, and to obtain fruit of a larger size and higher color than standards usually produce.” [Fig. 109]
*Committee on the Capitol Square, Richmond City Council, July 24, 1851, describing [[John Notman|John Notman’s]] plans for the [[Capitol Square]], Richmond, VA (quoted in Greiff 1979: 162)<ref>Constance Greiff, ''John Notman, Architect, 1810–1865'' (Philadelphia: Athenaeum of Philadelphia, 1979),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXT2RI6Z view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''walks''' will be made in every direction and as some compensation for filling up the beautiful vale south of the Monument a capacious fountain will be placed in the centre of the '''walk''' leading into Bank street, from which [[fountain]] a [[jet d’eau]] will rise, fully thirty feet in height.”
===Citations===
*Parkinson, John, 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (1629; repr., 1975: 5, 537)<ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (1629; repr., Norwood, NJ: W.J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“To forme it [the garden] therfore with '''walks''', crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with [[hedge]]s, with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge: For there may be therein '''walkes''' eyther open or close, eyther pub-like or private. . . . for the fairer and larger your allies and '''walkes''' be, the more grace your Garden shall have, the lesse harme the herbes and flowers shall receive, by passing by them that grow next unto the allies sides, and the better shall your Weeders cleanse both the [[bed]]s and the allies. . . .
<p></p>
:“Having an [[Orchard]] containing one acre of ground, two, three, or more, or lesse, walled about, you may so order it, by leaving a broad and large '''walke''' betweene the [[wall]] and it . . . and by compassing your [[Orchard]] on the inside with a [[hedge]] (wherein may bee planted all sorts of low shrubs or bushes).”
*<div id="d'Argenville"></div>[[Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.]], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712; repr., 1969: 40–41),<ref>A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; . . . '', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712; repr., London: Farnborough, 1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8/ view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#d'Argenville_cite|back up to history]]
:“'''WALKS''' in Gardens, like Streets in a Town, serve to communicate between Place and Place, and are as so many Guidances and Means to conduct us throughout a Garden. . . .
<p></p>
:“Among the several Sorts of '''Walks''', I shall take Notice of the Close and the Open, the Single and the Double.
:“The Close are those formed by Trees or Palisades, which joining together at Top, shut out even the Sight of the Sky, and by their Obscurity give a Coolness not penetrable by the greatest Heat of the Sun.
<p></p>
:“These '''Walks''' are very delightful in hot Weather, when you may '''walk''' under the Shade of them in the very middle of the Day. . . .
<p></p>
:“’Tis a general Rule to keep open the principal '''Walks''', such as those that face a Building, [[Pavilion]], [[Cascade]], or the like; and these likewise should be kept wider than the others, that from the End of the '''Walk''' you may see Part of the Front of a House, or some other handsome Object. . . .
<p></p>
:“SINGLE '''Walks''' are those that consist but of two Rows of Trees or Palisades, to distinguish them from double '''Walks''' that have four, which form three [[Alley]]s close together, a large one in the Middle, and two on the Sides that accompany it, and are called Counter-'''walks'''. . . .
<p></p>
:“As to the Names and different Figures of '''Walks''', they may all be included in these that follow: The Parallel-'''walk''', the Strait-'''walk''', the Cross-'''walk''', the Winding or Circular-'''walk''', the '''Walk''' returned [[square]], and the Diagonal or Thwart-'''walk''', in respect of that at Right Angles.” [[#d'Argenville_cite|back up to History]]
*Switzer, Stephen, 1718, ''Ichnographia Rustica'' (1718; repr., 1982: 3:46)<ref>Stephen Switzer, ''Ichnographia Rustica, or The Nobleman, Gentleman and Gardener’s Recreation . . .'', 1st ed., 3 vols. (London: D. Browne, 1718; repr., New York: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UWQEVT5X view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“And why, is not a level easy '''Walk''' of Gravel or Sand shaded over with Trees, and running thro’ a Corn Field or Pasture Ground, as pleasing as the largest '''Walk''' in the most magnificent Garden one can think of?”
*[[Gibbs, James]], 1728, ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728: xviii)<ref>James Gibbs, ''A Book of Architecture, Containing Designs of Buildings and Ornaments'' (London: Printed for W. Innys et al., 1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ZGUVPFG8/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The Plan, Upright and Section of a Building of the Dorick Order in form of a [[Temple]], made for a Person of Quality, and propos’d to have been placed in the Center of four '''Walks'''; so that a [[Portico]] might front each '''Walk'''. Here is a large Octagonal Room of 22 feet and 26 feet high, adorn’d with Niches and crown’d with a Cupola. All the Ornaments of the Inside are to be of Plaister; and the Outside of Stone.”
*[[Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728; repr., 1982: 195–201)<ref>Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c.'' (London: A. Bettesworth and J.Batley, etc., 1728; repr., New York: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MRDTAEKC view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“''General'' DIRECTIONS, ''&c.''. . . .
<p></p>
:“VIII. That shady '''Walks''' be planted from the End-[[View]]s of a House, and terminate in those open [[Grove]]s that enclose the Sides of the plain [[Parterre]], that thereby you may enter into immediate Shade, as soon as out of the House, without being heated by the Scorching Rays of the Sun. . .
<p></p>
:“IX. That all the Trees of your shady '''Walks''' and [[Grove]]s be planted with Sweet-Brier, White Jessemine, and Honey-Suckles, environ’d at Bottom with a small Circle of Dwarf-Stock, Candy-Turf, and Pinks. . . .
<p></p>
:“XIV. That the '''Walks''' leading up the [[Slope]] of a [[Mount]], have their Breadth contracted at the Top, full on half Part; and if that contracted Part be enclosed on the Sides with a [[Hedge]] whose Leaves are of a light Green, ’twill seemingly add a great Addition to the Length of the '''Walk''', when view’d from the other End.
:“XVII. That the '''Walks''' of a [[Wilderness]] be so plac’d, as to respect the best [[View]]s of the Country.
<p></p>
:“XVIII. That the Intersections of '''Walks''' be adorn’d with [[Statue]]s, large open Plains, [[Grove]]s, Cones of Fruit, of Ever-Greens, of Flowering Shrubs, of Forest Trees, Basons, [[Fountain]]s, Sun-Dials, and [[Obelisk]]s. . . .
<p></p>
:L“XXI. Such '''Walks''' as must terminate within the Garden, are best finish’d with [[Mount]]s, [[AviariesAviary/Bird_cage/Birdhouse|aviary]], [[Grotto]]’s, [[Cascade]]s, Rocks, Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, variously mix’d, with circular [[Hedge]]s ascending behind one another, which renders a very graceful Appearance. . . .
<p></p>
:“XXIV. [[Canal]]s, Fish-[[Pond]]s, ''&c''. are most beautiful when environ’d with a '''Walk''' of stately Pines, and terminate at each End with a fine [[Grove]] of Forest-Trees, or Ever-Greens. . ..
<p></p>
:“XXVI. All Grass-'''Walks''' should be laid with the same Curvature as Gravel-'''Walks''', and particularly in wet and cold Lands; for, by their being made flat or level from Side to Side, they soon settle into Holes in the Middle, by often walking on, and therein retain Wet, ''&c''. which a circular surfaced '''Walk''' resists. The Proportion for the Heights of the Crown, or middle Part of any Grass or Gravel-'''Walk''', is as five is to one, that is, if the '''Walk''' be five Foot in Breadth, the Height of the Middle, above the Level of the Sides, must be one Inch; if ten Foot, two Inches; fifteen Foot, three Inches, ''&c.''. . . .
<p></p>
:“XXIX. Little '''Walks''' by purling Streams in [[Meadow]]s, and through Corn-fields, [[Thicket]]s, ''&c''. are delightful Entertainments.
*[[Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741–43: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .,'' 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[[AVENUE]]. . . .
<p></p>
:All ''[[avenue]]s'', Mortimer says, should lead to the front of an house, garden-[[gate]], highway-[[gate]], or [[wood]], and terminate in a [[prospect]].—In an ''avenue'' to an house, whatever the length of the '''walk''' is, it ought to be as wide as the whole breadth of the front; and if wider, better. . . .
<p></p>
:“[[AVENUE]], in gardening, is a '''walk''', planted on each side with trees, and leading to some place. See [[GROVE]], GLADE. . . .
<p></p>
:“GRASS ''[[plot]]s'', and '''''walks''''', make a considerable article in gardening, ''&c''. See '''WALK''', ''&c''.
:“Grass, or ''green-[[plot]]s'' are had either by sowing of hayseed, or laying of turf: for the first, which is the cheapest way, the seed of the finest upland pastures is to be chose, well sifted and cleansed.
<p></p>
:“For the second, the turf should be cut on a down, or [[green]], or [[common]], or sheep-'''walk''', where the ''grass'' is short and fine; if there be any knobs, or roughnesses, the place must be cleansed and rolled after a shower, before it be cut up. The turf is cut in [[square]]s, marked out with lines, raised with a knife, and rolled up; about three inches thick. The [[quarter]]s, or verges are to be prepared with a fine coat of poor earth to lay the turf on; and after laying, the turf must be well watered, rolled, ''&c.''. . . .
<p></p>
:“GRAVEL '''''walk''''', in gardening.—To lay, or form a '''walk''' with ''gravel'', all the good soil is to be pared away, below the roots of any grass, or weeds; then the place to be filled two or three inches with coarse gravel unsearsed, laying it highest in the middle; then rolling it. . . .
<p></p>
:“Note, the sides next the [[bed]]s should be laid a foot and an half, or two foot with turf, from whence the heat of the sun cannot be reflected as from gravel, to the prejudice of the neighbouring flowers.”
*[[Miller, Philip]], 1754, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754; repr., 1969: 1503–4)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754; New York: Verlag Von J. Cramer, 1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/356Q24EP view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Gravel-'''walks''' are very necessary near the House; because, being soon dry after Rain, they are proper for walking on, in all Seasons. But then these should be but few, and those ought to be large and magnificient, proportionable to the Grandeur of the House and Garden. The principal of these '''Walks''' should be elevated parallel with the House, so as to form a [[Terrace]]: this should extend itself each way, in proportion to the Width of the Garden; so that from this there may be a Communication with the Sand-'''walks''', without going on the Grass; or there should be Side-'''Walks''' of Gravel to lead to them, that there may be a dry '''Walk''' continued quite through the Gardens. But there is not a more ridiculous Sight, than that of a straight Gravel-'''walk''', leading to the Front of the House, intersecting the Grass, so as to make it appear like the stiff formal Grass [[plot]]s frequently made in little Court-yards by Persons of low Taste.
*[[Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.p.)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard . . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The next thing to be observed is to continue a dry '''walk''', which should lead quite round the whole garden, for as Gardens are designed to promote the exercise of walking, the greater the extent of this dry '''walk''', the better it will answer the Intent . . . and such '''walks''', if laid either with Gravel or Sand, may lead through different [[Plantation]]s, gently winding about in an easy natural way, which will be more agreeable than those long strait '''walks''', which are too frequently seen in gardens.”
*Mawe, Thomas, and [[John Abercrombie]], 1778, ''The Universal Gardener and Botanist'' (1778: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie, ''The Universal Gardener and Botanist, or A General Dictionary of Gardening and Botany'' (London: Printed for G. Robinson et al., 1778), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ID3XI7NM view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“Sometimes grass-'''walks''' are used, but these are rather improper for general use in Kitchen-gardens, especially in such parts of the garden where wheel-barrows are obliged to come often, which would cut and greatly deface them; besides, they are apt to be wet and disagreeable in all wet weather, and in winter; . . .
<p></p>
:“But when necessary to have the whole space of the Kitchen-garden employed for real use . . . and have a '''walk''' round the garden, not more than a yard wide; allowing the same width for the middle-'''walks''', or so as to admit of wheel-barrows passing to bring in the manure, &c. and may either have a four feet wide [[border]] all round each [[quarter]], next the '''walks''', or not, as you shall think proper; laying the '''walks''' neatly with any gravelly materials, or with coal-ashes, so as to have dry walking, and wheeling with a barrow in all weathers.”
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . .,'' 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''WALK''', wa’k. s. . . . a length of space, or circuit through which one '''walks'''; an [[avenue]] set with trees; way, road, range, place of wandering.”
*Marshall, Charles, 1799, ''An Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening'' (1799: 1:33, 55, 124–26)<ref>
Charles Marshall, ''An Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening, 1st American ed. from the 2nd London ed.'', 2 vols. (Boston: Samuel Etheridge, 1799), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DVB7T4I2 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The '''''walks''''' come next under construction [i.e. after [[wall]]s], and they are to be begun from the best [[wall]]; the [[border]] of which being regularly levelled and settled, the '''walk''' is to be governed by it. . . .
<p></p>
:“The ''number'' and ''breadth'' of the '''walks''' must in a measure be determined by the quantity of allotted ground. . . . But better be few and wide, than many and contracted. If the garden is small, one good '''walk''' all round is sufficient; and if long and narrow, the cross '''walks''' should not be many: six, or eight feet, is not too wide in a moderate sized garden. . . .
<p></p>
:“''Grass plats'' and '''walks''' should be mowed, as often as there is the least hold for the scythe, for they lose much of their beauty, when the grass gets any thing long; leaves should not be suffered to remain on them as it stains the grass. . . .
<p></p>
:“About the house some ''shady'' '''walks''' ought always to be provided, by thick planting, if not of trees, yet of flowering shrubs, and ''evergreens'', of which the ''laurel'' will be found most useful. . . .
<p></p>
:“The '''''walks''''' should always be wide, some (in general) serpentine, and contrived as much as possible upon a ''level'', as walking up and down hills can hardly be called pleasure. That they may be extensive, they should skirt the grounds and seldom go across them. In small [[pleasure ground]]s the ''edges'' of the '''walks''' should be regularly planted with flowers, and long ones occasionally so, or with the most dwarf shrubs; and neat sheltered compartments of ''flowers'', (every now and then to be met with) have a pretty effect. If the '''walks''' are extended to distant [[plantation]]s of ''forest trees'', every opportunity should be taken, to introduce something of the herbaceous ''flowery'' kind, which will prove the more pleasing, as found in unexpected situations: The outer '''walk''' of [[pleasure ground]]s and [[plantation]]s, should every now and then break into open [[view]]s of the country, and to parts of the internal space, made pleasing, if not striking, by some ornaments of art and nature.”
*<div id="Forsyth"></div>Forsyth, William, 1802, ''A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees'' (1802: 148)<ref>William Forsyth, ''A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees'' (Philadelphia: J. Morgan, 1802), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ZSNDFTE9 view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Forsyth_cite|back up to history]]
:“In laying out the [[quarter]]s, you must be guided in a great measure by the form and size of the garden; but do not lay them out too small, as in that case a great part of the ground will be taken up with '''walks'''. . . .
<p></p>
:“The middle '''walks''' should be about seven feet, which is wide enough to admit a cart; and the others about three or four feet broad; with a [[border]] on each side, five or six feet wide, at least, between the '''walk''' and the fruit-trees. '''Walks''' in [[kitchen garden]]s are generally gravelled, and but seldom laid with turf, as the frequent wheeling and treading soon destroys the grass and renders them very unsightly: But a binding sand makes good '''walks''' and they are easily kept; for when moss or weeds begin to grow, they may be cleaned with a horse-hoe . . . by which they will be made always to look neat and clean. I, however, give the preference to sea-coal ashes, which in my opinion make the best '''walks''' for a [[kitchen garden]], and they are easier kept than any other, being firm and dry, and cleaner to '''walk''' on than sand, especially after frost.
<p></p>
:“The bottoms of the '''walks''' should be filled up with brick rubbish, chippings of stones, or gravel and stones; those raked off the [[quarter]]s will do very well, and by using them you will save carriage.
<p></p>
:“If the soil be stiff and wet, or subject to detain the moisture, there must be under ground drains made to carry off the water.” [[#Forsyth_cite|back up to History]]
*[[Repton, Humphry]], 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 83)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“A gravel '''walk''' is an artificial convenience, and that it should be protected, is one of its first requisites: therefore, so long as good taste and good sense shall coincide, the eye will be pleased where the mind is satisfied.”
*[[Marshall, William]], 1803, ''On Planting and Rural Ornament'' (1803: 1:260)<ref>William Marshall, ''On Planting and Rural Ornament: A Practical Treatise . . .'', 2 vols. (London: G. and W. Nicol, G. and J. Robinson, T. Cadell, and W. Davies, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K48D75JJ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“THE '''WALK''', in extensive grounds, is as necessary as the [[Fence]]. The beauties of the place are disclosed that they may be seen; and it is the office of the '''walk''' to lead the eye from [[view]] to view; in order that, while the tone of health is preserved, by the favourite exercise of nature, the mind may be thrown into unison, by the harmony of the surrounding objects.
*Gardiner, John, and [[David Hepburn]], 1804, ''The American Gardener'' (1804: 123)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn">John Gardiner and David Hepburn, ''The American Gardener, Containing Ample Directions for Working a Kitchen Garden Every Month in the Year, and Copious Instructions for the Cultivation of Flower Gardens, Vineyards, Nurseries, Hop Yards, Green Houses and Hot Houses'' (Washington, DC: Printed by Samuel H. Smith, 1804), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GKECKRIQ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“This [March] is a good time to make grass '''walks'''. First level and roll the ground—then cut sods of equal size and thickness from a pasture, lay them neatly, and roll them well, or sow grass seed very thick, rake it in and roll the ground soon as it is dry.”
*[[M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (1806: 59–60, 63)<ref>Bernard M’Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done . . . for Every Month of the Year . . .'' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“As to the distribution of gravel-'''walks''' . . . first a magnificent one, from fifteen to twenty or thirty feet wide, should range immediately close and parallel to the front of the house, and be conducted directly across the [[lawn]] into the nearest side shrubberies; from this main '''walk''', other smaller ones, from five to ten or fifteen feet wide, according to the extent of the ground, should branch off at proper intervals, directed in the serpentine way . . . some leading through the ''outer'' boundary [[plantation]]s, as already hinted . . . others into the internal divisions, and others carried along the boundary [[plantation]] of the main [[lawn]]; all of which '''walks''' being conducted through the different parts, in order to afford the convenience of shade and retirement occasionally, as well as to enjoy the variety of the trees, shrubs, and flowers, variously presenting themselves at different turnings. . . .
<p></p>
:“Sometimes, similar to the ancient designs, a spacious gravel '''walk''' is extended in a perpendicular line immediately from the front of the house, dividing the [[lawn]], or extended on both boundaries and in other directions, with a wide [[border]] on each side, either straight or sometimes a little serpentined, and planted with the most curious low flowering shrubs, ever-greens, and herbaceous flowering plants.
<p></p>
:“All these gravel-'''walks''' should be laid with the best gravel, six or eight inches deep, at least; but if more the better. . . .
<p></p>
:“As to [[avenue]]s and '''walks''' of trees, they may be formed either entirely of deciduous trees, or of ever-greens; but the deciduous kinds are in most estimation for this purpose: however, [[avenue]]s and grass '''walks''', planted with fine ever-green trees, make a beautiful appearance, and will always command admiration. In both sorts, the trees are most commonly disposed in rows, one on each side of the [[avenue]], though sometimes grand '''walks''' of trees, may be both in single straight lines, and in double rows, to exhibit the greater variety; planting the trees generally, both in [[avenue]]s and '''walks''', at proper distances, to have full scope to branch out regularly around and display their beautiful heads and foliage.”
*Mease, James, c. 1813 (quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 149–52)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn"></ref>
:“'''Walks''' are either of grass or gravel. The former are best made in March, the latter in April; and the sooner in March the grass ones are commenced the better . . .
<p></p>
:“Grass '''walks''' are troublesome and attended with a constant demand for labour in cutting every new growth of the herbage; besides, in rainy weather, and early in the morning before the dew of the night has been drawn off by the sun, they are damp and productive of colds: yet, where gravel is difficult to be had, they will often be resorted to, and therefore it may be of use to say a few words here upon the manner of making them. . . .
<p></p>
:“Gravel '''walks''' however should be preferred, and if possible accomplished. . . . The course of the '''walks''' being marked out by stumps and lines, the earth should be dug out of them to the depth of eight inches, and thrown into the middle of the plats to give them a convexity, which is agreeable to the eye. That done, rake the bottom of the '''walk''' quite level, and lay on the gravel so that the '''walks''' shall be at their edges three inches lower than the surface of the plats on either side, as when otherwise they have a mean and flat appearance.
<p></p>
:“If [[edging]]s are to be made to separate the earth from the gravel, especially if of stone, or [[wood]], or box, they should be done first, and they will be a good rule to lay the '''walks''' by.”
*[[Gregory, G.]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, First American, from the second London edition, considerably improved and augmented'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/M24K832A view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[Vol. 3] [[Wilderness|WILDERNESS]]. . . .
<p></p>
:“As to the '''walks''', those that have the appearance of meanders, where the eye cannot discover more than twenty or thirty yards in length, are generally preferable to all others, and these should now and then lead into an open circular piece of grass; in the centre of which may be placed either an [[obelisk]], [[statue]], or [[fountain]]; and, if in the middle of the [[wilderness]] there is contrived a large opening, in the centre of which may be erected a dome or banqueting house, surrounded with a green [[plot]] of grass, it will be of a considerable addition to the beauty of the whole. From the sides of the '''walks''' and openings, the trees should rise gradually one above another to the middle of the [[quarter]]s, where should always be planted the largest-growing trees, so that the heads of all the trees may appear to [[view]], while their stems will be hid from the sight. . ..
<p></p>
:“But beside the grand '''walks''' and openings, there should be some smaller '''walks''' through the middle of the [[quarter]]s, where persons may retire for privacy; and by the sides of those private '''walks''' may also be scattered some wood flowers and plants, which, if artfully planted, will have a very good effect.”
*[[Abercrombie, John]], with [[James Mean]], 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817: 463–64)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“''The '''Walk'''''.—A common principle is, especially where the field is small, to carry a gravel-'''walk''''''Bold text''' completely round, so near the outward boundary as to leave only an intervening [[border]] for flowers and shrubs. As this method produces the longest tract without sharp returns, and admits many expedients for concealing the opposite boundaries, there seems no reason for departing from it, except to lead the spectator to some object that would otherwise escape him, or to keep some intractable deformity out of sight. . . .
<p></p>
:“the '''walk''', by curving round them, will take that variety of direction which essentially conduces to a series of interesting effects; allowing parts without any common relation, independent scenes, and fragments of scenes, to be seen only progressively; and disclosing entire [[prospect]]s at the most advantageous station.”
*Thorburn, Grant, 1817, ''The Gentleman & Gardener’s Kalendar'' (1817: 19 and 33)<ref>Grant Thorburn, ''The Gentleman and Gardener’s Kalender for the Middle States of North America'', 2nd ed. (New York: E. B. Gould, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XKICNPJ5 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“[March] Make new '''walks''' where wanted— clean and roll your gravel and grass '''walks'''. . . .
<p></p>
:“This is a good time to make grass '''walks'''. First level and roll the ground—then cut sods of equal size and thickness from a pasture, lay them neatly, and roll them well or sow grass seed very thick, and rake it in and roll the ground as soon as it is dry. Clean grass and gravel '''walks''': the latter may be dug, turning the top to the bottom, which will destroy the weeds and moss, roll them well afterwards. Weed all your flower [[border]]s well, and prepare more for next month.”
 
*Cobbett, William, 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819: 34) <ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), 34, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].</ref>
:'''''Walks''', Paths, [[Plot/Plat|Plats]], [[Border]]s, and a Hot-[[Bed]] Ground.''
:“58. To render my directions more clear as well as more brief, I have given a plan of my proposed garden, PLATE I . . .
:59. . . . Before, however, I proceed further, let me give my reasons for choosing an ''Oblong [[Square]]'', instead of a ''[[Square]] of equal sides''. It will be seen, that the length of my garden is from East to West. By leaving a greater length in this direction than from North to South three important advantages are secured. ''First'', we get a ''long'' and ''warm'' [[border]] under the ''North [[fence]]'' for the rearing of things early in the spring. ''Second'', we get a ''long'' and ''cool'' [[border]] under the ''South'' [[fence]] for ''shading'', during the great heats. . .
[[ImageFile:1350.jpg|thumb|Fig. 1110, [[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of walks, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 796, fig. 549.]]
*[[Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 796)<ref>
J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“6105. '''''Walks'''''. In most styles of [[parterre]]s these are formed of gravel; but in the modern sort . . . which consist of turf, varied by wavy dug [[bed]]s (1 and 2), and surrounded by [[shrubbery]]. . . . [Fig. 1110]
<p></p>
:“6106. ''In extensive and irregular [[parterre]]s'', one gravel-'''walk''', accompanied by broad margins of turf, to serve as '''walks''' by such as prefer that material, should be so contrived as to form a tour for the display of the whole garden. There should also be other secondary interesting '''walks''' of the same width, of gravel and smaller '''walks''' for displaying particular details. The main '''walk''', however, ought to be easily distinguishable from the others by its broad margins of fine turf.”
*[[Prince, William]], 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (1828: 87)<ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“''Dwarf Box''.—This is the low growing variety, generally used for [[edging]] of garden '''walks''' and flower [[bed]]s. Its growth is slow, but at very advanced age it attains to a shrub of from six to eight feet high. It is this variety which is so widely spread and well known throughout the country.”
*[[Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].] </ref>
:“GRAV’EL-'''WALK''', ''n''. A '''walk''' or [[alley]] covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; ''used in gardens and [[mall]]s''. . . .
<p></p>
:“'''WALK''', ''n''. ''wauk''. The act of walking; the act of moving on the feet with a slow pace.
*[[Teschemacher, James E.]], November 1, 1835, “On Horticultural Architecture” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 410–11)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “On Horticultural Architecture,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (November 1, 1835): 409–12, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EF5F6N9Z view on Zotero].</ref>:“To these remarks for small [[plot]]s of ground, we would add a few common place rules, such as, that straight lines particularly for short distances, unless terminating in bold curves, are not pleasing to the eye; narrow '''walks''', unless winding at short intervals through [[wood]]s, are by no means desirable. . . .
<p></p>
:“An [[arbor]] or [[trellis]] covered with the vine, or with a variety of the clematis and climbing roses or other quick growing plants, is a good termination for a '''walk''', which should branch off close round the [[trellis]], to appear as if it led to a continuation elsewhere, at the back a few shrubs might conceal the boundary or [[fence]].”
*[[Sayers, Edward]], 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838: 15)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The '''walks''' [of a [[flower garden]]] should if possible be wide enough for two persons to '''walk''' abreast, in order to give a social effect, which should always be the first consideration in the flower garden.”
*[[Robert_Buist|Buist, Robert]], 1841, ''The American Flower Garden Directory'' (1841: 11, 32)<ref>Robert Buist, ''The American Flower Garden Directory'', 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1841), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TI7IE55B/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“For perspicuity, admit that the area to be enclosed [for a [[flower garden]]] should be from one to three acres, a circumambient '''walk''' should be traced at some distance within the [[fence]], by which the whole is enclosed; the inferior '''walks''' should partly circumscribe and intersect the general surface in an easy serpentine and sweeping manner, and at such distances as would allow an agreeable [[view]] of the flowers when walking for exercise. '''Walks''' may be in breadth from three to twenty feet, although from four to ten feet is generally adopted . . . covered with gravel, and then firmly rolled with a heavy roller. . . .
<p></p>
:“Grass verges for '''walks''' and [[border]]s, although frequently used, are, by no means, desirable, except where variety is required; they are the most laborious to keep in order, and at best are inelegant, and the only object in their favour is, there being everywhere accessible.”
*[[Andrew Gentle|Gentle, Andrew]], 1841, ''Every Man His Own Gardener'' (1841: iii-vii, 34, 68, 76, and 93)<ref> Andrew Gentle, ''Every Man His Own Gardener; Or, a Plain Treatise on the Cultivation of Every Requisite Vegetable in the Kitchen Garden, Alphabetically Arranged. With Directions for the Green & Hothouse, Vineyard, Nursery, &c. Being the Result of Thirty-Five Years’ Practical Experience in This Climate. Intended Principally for the Inexperienced Horticulturist'' (New York: The author, 1841), iii-iv, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/X7253QTQ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“CHIVES. ''Allium schoenoprasum''. . . .
:“Plant the roots for edging to a [[walk]] or [[border]], two inches deep, and the same distance apart, in the form you wish them to be. <p></p>
:“SORREL FRENCH. ''Rumex acetosa''. . . .:“You may have it in a [[bed]] any size, the rows being a foot apart, or for [[edging]] along the side of a [[walk]]. . . .<p></p>:“THYME. ''Thumus vulgaris''. . . .
:“Plant slips in rows four inches apart, for [[edging]]. It does well for a [[walk]] side, or you may make a [[bed]] the same distance, the rows a foot apart. <p></p>
:“It [[kitchen garden|[a kitchen garden]]] may be either square or oblong, but is most convenient to work when the sides are straight, with a [[fence]] of moderate height. In laying out, I would prefer a [[border]] all round the width of the [[border]], the main cross [[walk]]s four feet wide, to plant currants, gooseberry, and raspberry bushes, four feet apart, or strawberry plants near the farmyard, and convenient for water. . . .”
*[[LoudonAndrew Jackson Downing|Downing, JaneAndrew Jackson]], 18451844, Excerpt from ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening for Ladies, Adapted to North America; . . . '' (18451844: 406–9102)<ref>Jane LoudonA. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening for Ladies, Adapted to North America; and Companion with a View to the Flower-GardenImprovement of Country Residences. . . with Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 2nd ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & and Putnam, 18451844), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I IGJXRU9V view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''WALKS''' may be considered with reference to their direction"In fig. 25, their construction, and their management. In is shown a small gardenpiece of ground, the direction on one side of the main '''walks''' should generally be governed by the boundary lines; and hencea cottage, in which a [[plotpicturesque]] of ground which character is attempted to be maintained. The [[squareplantation]] or oblongs here, are made mostly with shrubs instead of trees, the '''walks''' should be straight and rectangular; the object in such a case latter being to produce only sparingly introduced, for the beauties want of regularity and symmetryroom. On In the other handdisposition of these shrubs, when the boundaries of the garden are irregularhowever, the surrounding '''walk''' may be irregular also; the object in this irregularity being same attention to create variety by contrast in the direction. When a garden bounded by straight lines, [[picturesque]] effect is so large paid as to contain an acre or two, and the whole of the interior is to be laid we have already pointed out as a pleasure-ground, then the '''walks''' may be varied in directionour remarks on grouping ; the boundary being concealed by trees and shrubs, or by artificial undulations of connecting the soil. In general, it may be laid down as a principle, that all '''walks''' should be straight when there is no obvious reason why they should be otherwise; [[thicket]]s and groups here and hence, in the case of all winding '''walks''', if there is not a natural and apparently unavoidable reason for their deviating from the straight line, an artificial reason ought to be created. . . . All straight '''walks''' should lead to some conspicuous object at the further end of the '''walk''', and facing it, so as to appear to belong to it; and this object should be seen the moment the conceal one '''walk''' is entered upon. . . . A winding '''walk''', on from the contraryother, requires no object at the further end to allure the spectator; because every turn has the a surprising variety and effect of will frequently be produced, in an object by exciting his curiosity and inducing him to advance to see what is beyondexceedingly limited spot."
*[[JohnsonLoudon, George WilliamJane]], 18471845, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardeningfor Ladies'' (18471845: 26, 73, 269–70, 620406–9)<ref>George William JohnsonJane Loudon, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardeningfor Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by David Landreth A. J. Downing (PhiladelphiaNew York: Lea and BlanchardWiley & Putnam, 18471845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ 3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''WALKS''' may be considered with reference to their direction, their construction, and their management. In a small garden, the direction of the main '''walks''' should generally be governed by the boundary lines; and hence, in a [[ALLEYplot]] of ground which is [[square]] or oblong, the '''walks''' should be straight and rectangular; the object in such a case being to produce the beauties of regularity and symmetry. On the other hand, when the boundaries of the garden are irregular, the surrounding '''walk''' may be irregular also; the object in this irregularity being to create variety by contrast in the direction. When a garden bounded by straight lines, is so large as to contain an acre or two, and the whole of the interior is to be laid out as a pleasure-ground, then the '''walks''' may be varied in direction; the boundary being concealed by trees and shrubs, or by artificial undulations of the soil. In general, it may be laid down as a principle, that all '''walks''' should be straight when there is no obvious reason why they should be otherwise; and hence, in the case of all winding '''walks''', if there is not a natural and apparently unavoidable reason for their deviating from the straight line, an artificial reason ought to be created. . . All straight '''walks''' should lead to some conspicuous object at the further end of the '''walk''', and facing it, so as to appear to belong to it; and this object should be seen the moment the '''walk''' is entered upon. . . A winding '''walk''', on the contrary, requires no object at the further end to allure the spectator; because every turn has the effect of an object by exciting his curiosity and inducing him to advance to see what is beyond.”   *Johnson, George William, 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1847: 26, 73, 269–70, 620)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. by David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero].</ref> :“[[Alley|ALLEYS]]S are of two kinds. 1. The narrow '''walks''' which divide the compartments of the [[kitchen garden]]; and 2. Narrow '''walks''' in shrubberies and pleasure-grounds, closely bounded and overshadowed by the shrubs and trees. . . .
<p></p>
:“[[AVENUE]]. . . . These kind of '''walks''' were formerly much more the fashion than they are at present. . . .
<p></p>
:“GRAVEL '''WALKS''', like all other '''''Walks''''', (''vide'',) require a good substratum of drainage, and the facing of about five inches deep of gravel. It must have no stones mixed with it larger than good-sized marbles, and about one-fourth of it must be much smaller. If a portion of clay is by nature or art incorporated with the gravel, is will bind more firmly, and present when rolled a more compact and even surface. . . .
<p></p>
:“'''WALKS'''. See ''Gravel''. It may be observed here, that of whatever material a '''walk''' is composed, that it is essential to have it well under-drained, and for this purpose an understratum of flints or brick-bats, twelve inches deep, is not too much. '''Walks''' so founded, are never wet or soft. Coal ashes, or which is still better, fresh tan, makes a pleasant winter '''walk''', particularly on tenacious soils, as it never adheres to the shoes, either during rain or after frost; half an inch I think is sufficient. It likewise makes a soft and pleasant summer '''walk''', and from its loose nature, is readily cleared from weeds. If not wanted during summer, it may readily be swept clean off after a few dry days. It is invaluable for covering '''walks''' or footpaths in the [[kitchen garden]], when there is much wheeling of manure or soil. . . . —''Gard. Chron''.”   *[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], April 1847, “Hints on Flower Gardens” (''Horticulturist'' 1: 444)<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “Hints on Flower Gardens,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 1, no. 10 (April 1847): 441–45, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IRG26IQH view on Zotero].</ref>
:". . . still another most delightful scene is reserved, a so-called Rococo garden. . . A garden, laid out in this manner, demands much cleverness and skill in the gardener. . . Around it the most charming landscape open to the [[view]], gently swelling hills, interspersed with pretty village, gardens and grounds. In the plan of the garden, ''a'' and ''b'' are massed of [[shrub]]s; ''c'', circular [[bed]]s, separated by a border or belt of turf, ''e'', from the serpentine [[bed]], ''d''. The whole of this running pattern is surrounded by a border of turf, ''f''; ''g'' and ''h'' are gravel '''walks'''; i, beds, with pedestal and [[statue]] in the centre; ''k'', small oval [[bed]]s, separated from the [[bed]], ''l'', by a border or turf; ''m, n, o, p'', irregular arabesque [[bed]], set in turf."
[[ImageFile:0996.jpg|thumb|Fig. 1211, Anonymous, “A Small Arabesque Flower Garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 11 (May 1848): 504.]]
*[[Downing, A. J.]], May 1848, “Design for a Small Flower Garden” (''Horticulturist'' 2: 503–4)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Design for a Small Flower Garden,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 2, no. 11 (May 1848): 503–5, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/TGACWM8A/q/small%20flower view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The following little plan of a [[flower garden]], of this kind, on a small scale, is adopted from one of the designs of our late friend, Mr. LOUDON. It is supposed to be formed in a [[plot]] of smooth level [[lawn]], and to be surrounded by a boundary '''walk''', which may, or may not, be backed by a belt of evergreens and flowering shrubs. In the former case, it would make a complete little scene by itself in a portion of the garden or grounds.” [Fig. 1211]
*[[Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 114, 342, 530–31)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“'''''Walks''''' are laid out for purposes similar to [[Drive]]s, but are much more common, and may be introduced into every scene, however limited. They are intended solely for [[promenade]]s or exercise on foot, and should therefore be dry and firm, if possible, at all seasons when it is desirable to use them. Some may be open to the south, sheltered with evergreens, and made dry and hard for a warm [[promenade]] in winter; others formed of closely mown turf, and thickly shaded by a leafy canopy of verdure, for a cool retreat in the midst of summer. Others again may lead to some sequestered spot, and terminate in a secluded rustic [[seat]], or conduct to some shaded dell or rugged [[eminence]], where an extensive [[prospect]] can be enjoyed. Indeed, the genius of the place must suggest the direction, length, and number of the '''walks''' to be laid out, as no fixed rules can be imposed in a subject so everchanging and different. It should, however, never be forgotten, that the '''walk''' ought always to correspond to the scene it traverses, being rough where the latter is wild and [[picturesque]], sometimes scarcely differing from a common footpath, and more polished as the surrounding objects show evidence of culture and high keeping. . . .
<p></p>
:“In our remarks on '''walks''' and roads, we omitted to say anything of the best manner of making gravel '''walks'''. . . . A very thin coat of gravel will render a '''walk''' superior to a path which consists only of the natural soil, and such surfacing in our dry climate (though it frequently requires renewing), is often sufficient for distant '''walks''', or those little used except in fine weather. But the approach road, and all '''walks''' immediately about the dwelling, should be laid at least a foot thick with gravel, to insure dryness, and a firm footing at all times and seasons. . . .
<p></p>
:“Undoubtedly in almost all examples in the [[natural style]] of [[landscape gardening]] slate-colored gravel . . . is much the most agreeable to the eye, being unobtrusive, just differing sufficiently with soil to be readily recognised as artistical in its effect, while it harmonizes with the color of the ground, and the soft tints of vegetation. A thirst after something new has induced some persons, even in the interior, to substitute, at considerable cost, the white gravel of the sea-shore for the common pit or beach gravel. The change, we think, is, in point of taste, not a happy one. The strong white of this gravel, as the painters would say, disturbs the tone of a simply beautiful landscape, whose prevailing tints are those of the broad [[lawn]] and rich overshadowing trees; and the glare of these snowy white pebbles is not, we confess, so pleasing in our eyes as the cooler and more quiet color of the slate or grey gravel.”
*<div id="Breck"></div>[[Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero].]</ref> [[#Breck_cite|back up to history]]
:“''Width of '''Walks'''''.—The main '''walk''', or '''walks''', of a [flower] garden, should be laid out on a liberal scale. Nothing detracts so much from the pleasures of the flower-garden as contracted '''walks'''. When we wish to enjoy the company of a friend, in the flower-garden, it is much more agreeable to have him by our side, arm in arm, than to be under the necessity of making the tour of the garden in Indian file. The main '''walks''' should, therefore, be calculated so as to admit two persons to '''walk''' comfortably in a social manner; and, if wide enough for a little one in addition, so much the better. From five to six feet will not be too wide for the main [[avenue]]. The internal compartments, of course, should have much narrower '''walks''', the width of which must be graduated in a degree by the size of the garden.
<p></p>
:“The '''walks''' of the flower-garden should be constructed of such material as will make firm and dry walking at all seasons of the year.”[[#Breck_cite|back up to History]]
*New York State Lunatic Asylum Trustees, 1851, describing the ideal grounds for a lunatic asylum (quoted in Hawkins 1991: 53)<ref>Kenneth Hawkins, “The Therapeutic Landscape: Nature, Architecture, and Mind in Nineteenth-Century America” (PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UVDGPDHG view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The salutary influence on the insane mind of highly cultivated lawns—pleasant '''walks''' amid shade trees, [[shrubbery]], and [[fountainsfountain]]s, beguiling the long hours of their [sic] tedious confinement—giving pleasure, content, and health, by their beauty and variety, are fully appreciated by us.”
*[[Ranlett, William H.]], 1851, ''The Architect'' (1851; repr., 1976: 2:47)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr. New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].]</ref>
:“The little cottage . . . was built last year for Augustus W. Clason, Esq. of Westchester. . . . The grounds contain fifteen acres, of which five are wooded with a very old growth, and the rest lie in grass. It is intended to throw '''walks''' through the [[lawn]] and adorn their [[bordersborder]]s, but not to set apart any one spot for a garden.”
*[[Jaques, George]], February 1851, “Trees in Cities” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 17: 50–52)<ref>George Jaques, “Trees in Cities,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 17, no. 2 (February 1851): 50−52, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/87A6ZJSH/q/trees%20in%20cities view on Zotero].</ref>:“I propose, at present, to speak first of planting trees upon side-'''walks'''. In American cities, it is customary to construct streets with a wide carriageway in the middle, and a ''walk'' for pedestrians on either side. Trees are usually planted on the line between these foot-'''walks''' and the carriageway. . . .
<p></p>
:“Take as an example [[Boston Common]]. Here we have, for the most part, a smooth grass surface, intersected by straight wide gravel-'''walks''', and these lined on each side with trees placed along at equal distances form each other. But suppose no tree or '''walk''' were there, and a ''carte blanche'' were given to any one that he might arrange all things to his own fancy, what would you do, Mr. Editor? Would you plant ''straight'' rows of ''equidistant'' trees there? Probably not. For, although such an arrangement of fruit or shade trees may be in its place very convenient and useful, it can never please the eye which admires the [[picturesque]] beauty of trees growing in groups.”
 
<hr>
==Images==
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:00780481.jpg|AnonymousWilliam Burgis, ''Plan for a gardenof Boston in New England'', mid-18th century1728. "Rope '''Walks'''" indicated in the center, above "Fort Hill".
Image:10530078.jpg|Anonymous, Plan for a garden, mid-18th century. “[[Batty LangleyHa-Ha/Sunk fence|Ha Ha]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'Walk', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III, opp. 208here” inscribed at center top.
Image:13821053.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “An Improvement “Design of a beautiful ''rural Garden at Twickenham'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. IXIII, opp. 208. Straight-lined '''walks''' are indicated at R and across the top linking X and X. Meandering '''walks''' begin at the four entrances marked by b.
Image:13841382.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], One “An Improvement of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House . . . House opening to the North upon a plain Parterre of Grassbeautiful Garden at Twickenham,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIIX.
Image:13911384.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Frontispieces One of Trellis Work two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the Entrances into Temples of View, Arbors, Shady Walks, &cground House. . .,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XVIIIXI. Caption for top figure also reads: “An Arbor in a Fortified Island'''Walks''' are seen leading up to the [[mount]] at F.
Image:13931391.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Shady walks with Temples “Frontispieces of [[Trellis work after ]] Work for the grand manner Entrances into [[Temple]]s of Versailles[[View]], [[Arbor]]s,” and “An Avenue in PerspectiveShady [[Walk]]s, terminated with the ruins of an ancient Building after the Roman manner&c.,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XXIIXVIII. Caption for top figure also reads: “An Arbor in a Fortified Island.”
FileImage:13981393.jpg|Batty Langley, “Shady '''walks''' with [[Temple]]s of [[Trellis]] work after the grand manner of Versailles,” and “An [[Batty LangleyAvenue]]in Perspective, ''The Design terminated with the ruins of an Elegant Kitchen Garden Contain’g ARP 1.2.20. Including Walks''ancient Building after the Roman manner, in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. VXXII.
File:1398.jpg|Batty Langley, ''The Design of an Elegant [[Kitchen_garden|Kitchen Garden]] Contain’g ARP 1.2.20. Including Walks'', in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.  File:0056.jpg|[[John Bartram|John]] or [[William Bartram]], ''"A Draught of [[Bartram_Botanic_Garden_and_Nursery|John Bartram’s House and Garden ]] as it appears from the River", 1758. File:0993.jpg|Unknown, Map showing the Bowery Lane area of Manhattan, c. 1760. "Rope '', 1758'Walk'''" is inscribed at middle right.
Image:0681.jpg|Anonymous, ''The Plan and Elevation of the Present and Intended Buildings of the Georgia Orphan House Academy'' (1768).
Image:0167.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello ]] Mountain, before May 1768. '''Walk''' is written at the top left on this plan.
Image:0588.jpg|Joseph F. W. Des Barres, ''A Plan of the Town of Newport in the Province of Rhode Island'' (1780) in ''The Atlantic Neptune, published for the use of the Royal Navy of Great Britain'' (London: 1780–81).
Image:0048.jpg|John Nancarrow, ''"Plan of the Seat of John Penn, jun<sup>r</sup> Esq<sup>r</sup> in Blockley Township and County of Philadelphia'', " c. 1785.The '''walk''' meanders across the grounds from the Mansion House at “a” to the [[Ha-Ha/Sunk_fence|ah-ha]] at “g.”
Image:0071.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.
Image:01000108.jpg|John TrumbullAndrew Ellicott (creator), Master Samuel Hill (engraver), ''Plan for Yale Collegeof the City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia'', 1792. There is a tree lined '''walk''' running east west on the central axis of the Mall in the center of the plan. The word "'''walk'''" is inscribed in the description of the plan on the bottom right.
Image:0100.jpg|John Trumbull, Plan for Old Brick Rowe, 1793. ". . .a gravel '''walk''' should lead into the [[shrubbery]]. . ." Image:0100_detail.jpg|John Trumbull, Plan for Old Brick Rowe [detail], 1793. image:00952249.jpg|AnonymousUnknown, “Plan of Mr. DerbyGarden, [’scirca 1795–1799] Land,” 1800Samuel McIntire Papers, MSS 264, flat file, plan 107. Courtesy of Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Rowley, MA.
Image:0090.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
Image:0091.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], General ideas for the improvement of [[Monticello ]] [detail], c. 1804. The description notes “Walks “'''Walks''' in this style wind-ing up the mountain.”
Image:0166.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Sketch of the garden and flower beds [[bed]]s at [[Monticello]], June 7, 1807.“. . . winding '''walk''' surrounding the [[lawn]] before the house.”
Image:10371350.jpg|William Cobbett[[J. C. Loudon]], "[[walk|''Walks'']]", in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 796, fig. 549.  Image:1351.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Plan for a GardenPlan of [[French_style|French]] [[parterre]] of embroidery,in ''The American GardenerAn Encyclopædia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (18191826), 797, fig. 550. ". . .one graven-'''walk''', accompanied by broad margins of turf. . ."
Image:13501352.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of walksThe botanic [[Flower_garden|flower garden]] with a gravel-'''walk''', in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 796801, fig. 549553.
Image:13511372.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of French parterre of embroiderya [[Ferme_ornée/Ornamental_farm|ferme ornée]] with wild and irregular [[hedge]]s, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 7971023, fig. 550722.
Imageimage:13520878.jpg|Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s [[J. C. LoudonBotanic_garden|Botanic Gardens]] and [[Nursery|Nurseries]], Plan of botanic flower garden with a circular walk, in ''An Encyclopædia Magazine of GardeningHorticulture''7, 4th edno. 11 (1826November 1841), 801, fig. 553: 404.
imageImage:13560935.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]]Alexander Walsh, Bower formed “Plan of lattice-worka Garden, in ''An Encyclopaedia of GardeningNew England Farmer''19, 4th edno. 39 (1826March 31, 1841): 308. "A '''walk''' 5 ft. in width, 809A A, figof a semi-elliptical form. . . '''walks''' of 4 ft. width C C C C. . 563. "
Image:13720960.jpg|[[John J. C. Loudon]]Thomas, Plan “Plan of a ferme ornée with wild and irregular hedgesGarden, in ''An Encyclopædia of GardeningCultivator''9, 4th edno. 1 (1826January 1842): 22, 1023fig. 8. “From ''o'' to ''m'', figthe '''walk'''. . 722.
image:08781000.jpg|Anonymous, “Ground Plan “[[View]] of a portion of Downing’s Botanic Gardens and Nurseriesthe Vinery at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Magazine of HorticultureHorticulturist'' 71, no. 11 2 (November 1841August 1846): 404pl. opp. 58.
Image:09351503.jpg|Alexander WalshAnonymous, “Plan "The Rococo Garden of a GardenBaron Hügel, near Vienna," Horticulturist,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19vol. 1, no. 39 10 (March 31April 1847), 1841): 308pl. opp. p. 441. "''g'' and ''h'' are gravel '''walks'''."
Image:09601050.jpg|John J. ThomasRichard Dolben, “Plan of a for Flower Garden,” in ''The Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, fig1847. 8. “From ''o'' to ''m'', the walk. . . .”
imageImage:10000995.jpg|Anonymous, “View of “The Espalier '''Walk''' in the Vinery Fruit Garden at BlithewoodWodenethe,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 2 11 (August 1846May 1847): pl. opp. 58489.
Image:10500943.jpg|Richard DolbenAnonymous, “Plan for Flower Gardenof a small [[Greenhouse|Green-House]]” and “Section of the Same,” 1847in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 6 (December 1848): 259, figs. 32 and 33.
Image:09950376.jpg|Anonymous, “The Espalier Walk in “Plan of the Fruit Garden at Wodenetheforegoing grounds as a Country [[Seat]], after ten years’ improvement,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 1, no4th ed. 11 (May 18471849): pl, 114, fig. 24. “. opp. 489.Varied '''walks''', concealed from each other”.
Image:09430380.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a small Green-House” and “Section of the Same“The Ravine '''Walk''' at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 3, no4th ed. 6 (December 18481849): 259, figspl. opp. 350, fig. 32 and 3340.
Image:03760391.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of the foregoing grounds as a Country Seat, after ten years’ improvement“The Irregular Flower-garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 114428, fig. 2476. “. . . and the '''walks''' ''e''.
Imageimage:03800775.jpg|Anonymous[[Frances Palmer]], “The Ravine Walk at Blithewood,” in Ground [[A. J. Downingplot]]of a cottage, in William H. Ranlett, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape GardeningThe Architect'', 4th ed. (1849), vol. 1, pl. opp23. 350"Ground [[plot]] showing the location of the house, fig'''walks''', roads &c. 40in the [[Modern_style/Natural_style|natural style]] with [[hedge]] and [[shrub]] [[border]]s."
Image:03910777.jpg|Anonymous[[Frances Palmer]], “The Irregular Flower“Ground [[Plot]] of 4-garden1/4 Acres,” in [[AWilliam H. J. Downing]]Ranlett, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape GardeningThe Architect'', 4th ed. (18491851), 428vol. 2, figpl. 766. “the flower-beds "O" marks "'''walks'b''".
Image:07770787.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot of 4-1/4 Acres]],” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 629. "T T, foot '''walks'''. . . "
Image:07870790.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground Plot“Design for a Vinery & [[Greenhouse|Green House]],” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 2943.
Image:07902297.jpg|Frances PalmerMatthew Vassar, “Design for a Vinery & Green House''Plan of Springside'',” in William H1851. Ranlett, "Willow Spring '''Walk'The Architect'' (185115), vol. 2, pl. 43'"
Image:0584.jpg|[[Lewis Miller]], Title page, ''Sketchbook of Landscapes in the State of Virginia'' (1853).
Image:0333.jpg|G. & F. Bill (firm), ''Birds eye [[view ]] of [[Mount_Vernon|Mt. Vernon ]] the home of Washington'', c. 1859. "13. Plank '''Walk''' to Landing", on lower left, leading to n.8 Tomb.
Image:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure_ground/Pleasure_garden|Pleasure Grounds]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): plate opp. 280.
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1387.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Part of a [[Park ]] Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIII.
Image:0285.jpg|Nicholas Garrison, ''A [[View ]] of Bethlehem, one of the Brethren’s Principal Settlements, in Pennsylvania, North America'', 1757.
Image:0134.jpg|Christian Remick, ''A Prospective [[View ]] of part of the [[Boston Common|Commons]]'', c. 1768.
Image:00742258.jpg|Sydney L. Smith (engraver) from a watercolor drawing by Christian Remick (c. 1768), ''A Prospective [[Thomas JeffersonView]], Plan showing the rectangular flower beds and proposed temples at the corners of part of the terrace walks at Monticello, before August 4[[Boston Common|Commons]]'', 17721902.
Image:00360074.jpg|[[Thomas Lee ShippenJefferson]], Plan showing the rectangular flower [[bed]]s and proposed [[temple]]s at the corners of Westoverthe [[terrace]] walks at [[Monticello]], 1783before August 4, 1772.
Image:0337.jpg|Edward Savage, ''The West Front of [[Mount Vernon]]'', c. 1787&ndash;921787—92.
Image:06130338.jpg|Samuel HillAnonymous, “View of the Seat of His Excellency John Hancock, Esq., Boston,” in ''The Massachusetts Magazine or, Monthly Museum A [[View]] of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment[[Mount Vernon]]'' 1, no. 7 (July 1789): pl. 7, oppc. 3941790.
Image:03380153.jpg|AnonymousJohn Drayton, ''A [[View ]] of Mount Vernonthe Battery and Harbour of New York, and the Ambuscade Frigate'', c. 17901794.
Image:0108.jpg|Andrew Ellicott (creator), Samuel Hill (engraver), ''Plan of the City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia'', 1792. Image:0153.jpg|John Drayton, ''A View of the Battery and Harbour of New York, and the Ambuscade Frigate'', 1794. Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, ''Government House'', 1795. Image:0343.jpg|George Isham Parkyns, ''[[Mount Vernon]]'', 1795.
Image:0031.jpg|Andrew Ellicott, ''Plan of the City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia'', 1795.
Image:0092.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], “Plan of Spring Roundabout at [[Monticello]],” c. 1804.
Image:0073.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of serpentine [[walk ]] and flower beds [[bed]]s at [[Monticello]], May 23, 1808.
Image:07120044.jpg|Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte[[Charles Willson Peale]], ''Battle [[View]] of New Orleansthe garden at [[Belfield]]'', 18151816.
Image:00441037.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]]William Cobbett, “Plan for a Garden,” in ''View of the garden at BelfieldThe American Gardener'', 1816(1819).
Image:0169.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Bird’s-eye [[view ]] of the University of Virginia, c. 1820.
Image:0716.jpg|Alvan Fisher, ''The Vale'', 1820&ndash;251820—25.
Image:0647.jpg|Charles W. Burton, ''[[View ]] of the Capitol'', 1824.
Image:1051.jpg|Daniel Wadsworth, “Monte Video, Approach to the House,” in Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (1824), pl. opp. 16.
Image:10520486.jpg|Daniel WadsworthJames Smillie, “Monte-Video,” in Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn “Bay & Harbour of 1819'' (1824), frontispiece. Image:0665.jpg|AnonymousNew York, Bonaparte’s residence and From the surrounding park, c. 1830Battery, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens Bourne Views of Colony and StateNew York'' (1931–341831), 321.  Image:1025.jpg|Anonymous, “Entrance to Mount Auburn,” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9plate 8.
Imageimage:11061705.jpg|Anonymous[[J. C. Loudon]], “Massachusetts Hospital for the Insane[[Kitchen garden]], at Worcester,” in ''American Magazine An Encyclopædia of Useful anA Entertaining KnowledgeGardening'' 1(1834), 721, nofig. 696. 8 “. . .on the north, at the surrounding '''walk''' (April 1835c): 325.. .”
imageImage:17051298.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''[[J. C. LoudonView]], Kitchen garden, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardeningthe Waterworks at Fairmount'' (1834), 721, fig. 6961835–36.
Image:05392256.jpg|John Henry Bufford, “Fairmount . ''Fairmount from the first Landing'',cover illustration for sheet music cover for ''The Fairmount Quadrilles'', 1836.
Image:1239.jpg|George Washington Sully, ''[[View ]] of the New Orleans River Front from Canal Street to the Place d’Armes'', 1836.
Image:0479.jpg|Fitz Hugh Lane after Charles Hubbard, ''The National Lancers with the Reviewing Officers on [[Boston Common]]'', 1837.
Image:0541.jpg|John T. Bowen, ''A [[View ]] of the Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill ]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
Image:1032.jpg|Anonymous, “Consecration Dell,” in ''The [[Picturesque ]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through [[Mount_Auburn_Cemetery|Mount Auburn]]'' (1839), 161.
Image:1118.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Undercliff Near Cold-Spring. (The [[Seat ]] of General George P. Morris),” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery; or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 11.
Image:1120.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Fairmount Gardens, with the Schuylkill Bridge. (Philadelphia),” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery; or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 24.
Image:1121.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Schuylkill Water-Works. (Philadelphia),” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery: or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 37.  Image:0835.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of a Flower Garden, in Steps and '''walks'Magazine of Horticulture'' 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 6leading up to the reservoir seen in the background.
Image:17500835.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of a [[Flower Garden]], in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 76.
Image:0033.jpg|[[Robert Mills]], ''Plan of the [[National_Mall|Mall]]'', Washington, DC, 1841.
Image:0034.jpg|[[Robert Mills]], Alternative plan for the grounds of the National Institution, 1841.
Image:19661047.jpg|Edward William MumfordAlexander W. Longfellow, ''Clarke’s Hall & Dock Creek''Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, c1844 (recto). 1844Walks are both the straight and winding paths across the property.
Image:10471047b.jpg|Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844(verso).
Image:10481861.jpg|Henry Wadsworth LongfellowAnonymous, Sketch ''Grounds of a cottage orneé'', in A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Grounds Theory and Practice of the Longfellow EstateLandscape Gardening, '' (1844): 102, fig. 25.
Image:1049.jpg|N. Vautin, [[View ]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.
Image:11021150.jpg|FJoseph C. F. Judd (artist)Wells, E. B. and Eattr. C. Kellogg (lithographers), “Retreat for the Insane''Roseland Cottage, Hartford, Connecticut,” in ''Twenty-Second Annual Report of c. 1846. The walk is to the Officers right of the Retreat for the Insane at Hartford, Connecticut'' (1846), 314cottage.
Image:11500329.jpg|Joseph CAnonymous (artist), A. WellsKollner (lithographer), attr“North West [[View]] of the Mansion of George Washington [[Mount Vernon]],” in Franklin Knight, ed., ''Roseland Cottage,Letters on Agriculture from His Excellency George Washington'' c(1847), opp. 1846124.
Image:03290357.jpg|Anonymous (artist), A. Kollner (lithographer)[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “North West View of the Mansion of George Washington Mount Vernon“[[Montgomery Place]],” in Franklin Knight[[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Letters on Agriculture from His Excellency George WashingtonHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847), : pl. opp. 124153.
Image:03570358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Alexander Jackson DavisRustic_style|Rustic]] [[Seat]], “Montgomery ” [[Montgomery Place]],in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp157, fig. 15326.
Image:03580394.jpg|Anonymous, “Rustic Seat“The [[Conservatory]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157159, fig. 2628.
Image:03940487.jpg|AnonymousWilliam Wade, “The Conservatory''Castle Garden: From the Battery'',” Montgomery Place, in [[A1848. ". J. Downing]], ed., a public '''walk'Horticulturist'' 2, no; made by a gentle decline from the platform. 4 (October 1847): 159, fig. 28. "
Image:10971007.jpg|Thomas S. SinclairAnonymous, “Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia“A [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] [[Alcove]],” in Thomas S[[A. KirkbrideJ. Downing]], ed. ''American Journal of InsanityHorticulturist'' 42, no. 4 8 (April February 1848): plate pl. opp. 280345, fig. 4.
Image:10070374.jpg|Anonymous, “A Rustic Alcove''Grouping to produce the Beautiful'',in [[A. J. Downing]], ed. ''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'' 2, no4th ed. 8 (February 18481849): pl. opp. 345, 102, fig. 421.
Image:0996.jpg|Anonymous, “A Small Arabesque [[Flower_garden|Flower Garden]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 11 (May 1848): 504.
Image:0997.jpg|Anonymous, “Design for a [[Geometric_style|Geometric ]] Flower Garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 12 (June 1848): 558, fig. 67.
Image:0766.jpg|Anonymous, “The Battery, New York, By Moonlight,” in ''Illustrated London News'' (October 27, 1849): 277.
Image:0428.jpg|Edward Weber, ''[[View ]] of Washington City and Georgetown'' [detail], 1849.
Image:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “View “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Hyde Park]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
Image:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the [[Seat ]] of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:0366.jpg|Anonymous, “View “[[View]] in the Grounds at Pine Bank,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849; repr., 1991), pl. opp. 57.
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, “View “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esq.” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Image:0370.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Geometric style]], from an old print,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 62, fig. 14.
Image:0771.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot ]] of Brier Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 2
Image:0773.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Ground [[plot ]] of Anglo-Italian Villa, New York, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 8.
Image:0774.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Ground plots [[plot]]s for proposed houses near Clifton, Staten Island, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 18.
imageImage:07750776.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Ground “A [[plot ]] of a cottagevillage property 724 feet by 488, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 2348.
Image:07760942.jpg|Frances PalmerAnonymous, “A plot “Plan of village property 724 feet by 488a Suburban Garden,” in William H[[A. J. Downing]], ed. Ranlett, ''The ArchitectHorticulturist'' 3, no. 8 (February 1849), vol: pl. 1, plopp. 48353.
Image:0942.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 8 (February 1849): pl. opp. 353. “''Italian arbor'', D.”  Image:0612.jpg|John Bachmann, ''Bird’s Eye [[View ]] of Boston'', c. 1850.
Image:0492.jpg|Anonymous, ''Saratoga Schottisch'', New York, 1851.
Image:1038.jpg|Frederick Graff, ''Plan of [[Lemon Hill ]] and Sedgley Park, Fairmount and Adjoining Property'', October 15, 1851. Image:0862.jpg|Edward Sachse, ''View of Washington'', 1852.
Image:0862.jpg|Edward Sachse, ''[[View]] of Washington'', 1852.
</gallery>
Image:0201.jpg|Anonymous, ''Perry Hall, Home of Harry Dorsey Gough'', n.d.
Image:0266.jpg|John Durrand, ''Thomas Atkinson'', n.d., a '''walk''' is visible in the background on the right hand side leading to the buildings.
Image:0703.jpg|[[Lewis Miller]], “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County,” n.d.
Image:1191.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of an unidentified garden, 18th century.
Image:1192.jpg|Anonymous, Garden plan, 18th century.
Image:0463.jpg|Anonymous, Overmantle Overmantel painting from Morattico Hall, 1715.
Image:0171.jpg|Anonymous, “Issac “Isaac Norris: his house at Fairhill,” 1717(1890).
Image:1377.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], Garden with a [[canal]], in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. IV.
Image:1390.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “The Design of a [[Fountain ]] & [[Cascade/Cataract/Waterfall|Cascade ]] after the grand Manner at Versailes,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XVII.
Image:0017.jpg|Anonymous, Illustration of Williamsburg buildings, flora and fauna. Modern impression taken from the original 1740s copperplate [Bodleian Plate re-strike].
Image:0290.jpg|William Burgis, ''[A [[prospect ]] of the colleges in Cambridge in New England.]'', 1743. Image:0003.jpg|William Dering, attr., ''Portrait of George Booth'', 1748-50.
Image:00030160.jpg|William Dering, attr.Tennant, ''Portrait A North-West [[Prospect]] of George BoothNassau Hall, with a Front View of the Presidents House in New-Jersey'', 1748&ndash;50Princeton College, 1764.
Image:01600255.jpg|William TennantJohn Singleton Copley, ''A North-West Prospect of Nassau Hall, with a Front View of the Presidents House in New-JerseyRebecca Boylston'', Princeton College, 17641767.
Image:0248.jpg|Claude Joseph Sauthier, ''A Plan of the Town of Newbern in Craven County, North Carolina'', 1769.
Image:00652262.jpg|Anonymous, ''1774 the The South West [[Prospect ]] of the [[Seat ]] of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New England, 1774'', 1774.
Image:0256.jpg|The Beardsley Limner, ''Mrs. Hezekiah Beardsley (Elizabeth Davis)'', c. 1788&ndash;-90.
Image:0131.jpg|Unknown, ''Overmantel of Rev. Joseph Wheeler House'', c.1787&ndash;-93.
Image:0265.jpg|James Earl, ''William Henry Capers'', 1788.
Image:0269.jpg|Ralph Earl, ''Daniel Boardman'', 1789.
 
Image:0613.jpg|Samuel Hill, “View of the Seat of His Excellency John Hancock, Esq., Boston,” in ''The Massachusetts Magazine or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 1, no. 7 (July 1789): pl. 7, opp. 394.
Image:0452.jpg|The Denison Limner (Probably Joseph Steward), ''Captain Elisha Denison'', c. 1790.
Image:0258.jpg|William Clarke, ''Mrs. Levin Winder (Mary Stoughton Sloss)'', 1793.
Image:0546.jpg|William Clarke, ''Levin Winder'', 1793. A walk is seen across the lawn on the right hand side, between the tree and the summerhouse. Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, ''Government House'', 1795.
Image:0058.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], Garden plan with outbuildings, from “Buildings Erected or Proposed to be Built in Virginia,” 1795&ndash;-99.
Image:00962250_detail1.jpg|AnonymousUnknown, [[Kitchen_garden|Kitchen Garden]] [detail], Plan for the garden of the Elias Hasket Derby House, c. 1795&ndash;-99.
Image:00972250_detail2.jpg|AnonymousUnknown, Kitchen Garden [detail], Plan for a kitchen garden at the Elias Hasket Derby House, c. 1795&ndash;-99.
Image:0274.jpg|Ralph Earl, ''Houses Fronting New Milford Green'', 1796.
Image:0083.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], Sedgeley, c. 1799.
Image:06830324.jpg|C. Foster, “Western Baptist Theological Institute, at Covington KYWilliam Russell Birch, opposite Cincinnati“Back of the State House, OhioPhiladelphia,” in Charles Cist, ''Cincinnati in 1841: Its Early Annals and Future Prospects'' (1841), pl. opp. 2701800.
Image:03240305.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''Back of the State “State-House, with a view of Chesnut Street Philadelphia'', 1800.
Image:03050005.jpg|Amy Cox, attr., ''Box [[William Russell BirchGrove]]'', “State-House, with a view of Chesnut Street Philadelphia,” c. 1800.
Image:00050226.jpg|Amy Cox, attr.[[Charles Fraser]], ''Box GroveWigton on Saint James, Goose Creek: The [[Seat]] of James Fraser, Esq.'', c. 1800.
Image:02260732.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]]William Russell Birch, ''Wigton on Saint James, Goose Creek: The Seat of James Fraser, Esq.Springland'', c. 1800.
Image:07320173.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]]Anonymous, ''SpringlandOvermantel from the Bannister house'', c. 1800-20.
Image:01730296.jpg|Anonymous, ''Overmantel from the Bannister houseTownscape, Stonington, Connecticut'', c. 1800&ndash;20-25.
Image:02960155.jpg|AnonymousJohn L. Boqueta de Woiseri, ''Townscape, Stonington, ConnecticutA [[View]] of New Orleans taken from the [[plantation]] of Marigny'', 1800&ndash;25November 1803.
Image:01550207.jpg|John L. Boqueta de WoiseriFrancis Guy, ''A View of New Orleans taken from the plantation of MarignyMt. Deposit'', November 1803-05.
Image:02070254.jpg|Francis GuyReuben Moulthrop, ''MtMrs. DepositDaniel Truman and Child'', 1803&ndash;05c. 1798–1810. A walk is depicted on the right, leading from the house through the garden.
Image:02540195.jpg|Reuben MoulthropFrancis Guy, ''Mrs. Daniel Truman and ChildBolton, [[view]] from the South'', c. 1798–18101805.
Image:01950182.jpg|Francis GuyEliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall, ''Bolton, view from the SouthThe Hermitage'', c. 1805.
Image:01820742.jpg|[[Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall]]William Russell Birch, ''The HermitageDesign for a Garden for George Reed, New Castle, Delaware'', c. 1805, in Emily T. Cooperman and Lea Carson Sherk, ''William Birch: Picturing the American Scene'' (2011), 218, fig. 127.
Image:07421924.jpg|P. Lodet, ''Clermont, [[William Russell BirchSeat]], ''Design for a Garden for George Reed, New Castle, Delaware'', c. 1805, in Emily T. Cooperman and Lea Carson Sherk, ''William Birch: Picturing of the American SceneChancellor Livingston - North River 1807'' (2011), 218, fig. 1271807.
Image:0731.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''[[View ]] from Springland'', c. 1808.
FileImage:0322.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the [[Seat ]] of M.<sup>r</sup> Manigault,” 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), 79, pl. 19.
Image:0326.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], “The [[View ]] from Springland,” in ''The Country Seats [[Seat]]s of the United States of North America: With Some Scenes Connected with Them'' (1808), pl. 2.
Image:1679.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], ''The Moreau House'', July 2, 1809.
Image:0150.jpg|Rebecca Chester, ''A Full [[View ]] of Deadrick’s Hill'', 1810.
Image:0049.jpg|William Satchwell Leney after Hugh Reinagle, “View “[[View]] of the [[Botanic Garden ]] of the State of New York,” in [[David Hosack]], ''Hortus Elginensis'' (1811), frontispiece.
Image:0050.jpg|Hugh Reinagle, ''[[Elgin Botanic Garden |Elgin Garden]] on Fifth Avenue'', c. 1812.
Image:0102.jpg|Joseph Jacques Ramée, Plan of the Campus Grounds, Union College, 1813.
Image:0128.jpg|Mary Moulton, Needlework Sampler, 1813, in Sotheby’s New York, ''Important American Schoolgirl Embroideries: The Landmark Collection of Betty Ring'' (January 2012): 27.<ref>Sotheby’s New York, ''Important American Schoolgirl Embroideries'' (January 2012), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I9SQRZDH view on Zotero].</ref>
Image:1464.jpg|Joseph Jacques Ramée, Plan of Union College, 1813.
Image:0103.jpg|Lewis and Goodwin (lithographers), after a drawing by Joseph Jacques Ramée, ''Union College. Schenectady, N.Y.'', 1815.
Image:0902.jpg|George Bridport, Design for Washington Monument, [[Washington_Square_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Washington Square]], Philadelphia, 1816.
Image:0404.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''Elevation of the South front of the President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807'', January 1817.
Image:00632082.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]]Joshua Rowley Watson, “Plan of ''Eaglesfield from the public Square in the city of New Orleansnortheast, as proposed to be improved . . .” [detail]May 11th, March 201817'', 18191817.
Image:04160063.jpg|Joseph Jacques Ramée (artist)[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], J. Klein and V. Balch (engravers), “View “Plan of Union College the public [[Square]] in the City city of SchenectadyNew Orleans,as proposed to be improved. . .c. 1820[detail], March 20, 1819.
Image:11300416.jpg|Marie LJoseph Jacques Ramée (artist), J. PilsburyKlein and V. Balch (engravers), ''Louisiana Plantation Scene''“[[View]] of Union College in the City of Schenectady, ” c. 1820.
Image:0719.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, “Seat “[[Seat]] of Josiah Quincy, Esqr.,” 1822.
Image:0521.jpg|William Rush, ''North East or Franklin Public [[Square]], Philadelphia'', 1824.
Image:0053.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Castle Garden, N. York, c. 1825&ndash;-28.
Image:0132.jpg|Rufus Porter and J. D. Poor, Josiah Stone House [also known as the Holsaert House/Cobb House], 1825&ndash;-30.
Image:1427.jpg|William Guy Wall, ''City Hall'', 1826.
Image:0675.jpg|Anthony Imbert after [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View ]] of the Battery and Castle Garden'', 1826&ndash;-28.
FileImage:1280.jpg|John Rubens Smith, ''[East front of the United States Capitol]'', c. 1828.
Image:1281.jpg|John Rubens Smith, West Front of the Capitol, c. 1828.
Image:0757.jpg|Jacob Marling, ''North Carolina State House'', 1830.
Image:1043.jpg|Sidney Mason Stone, ''House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, Conn. [exterior elevation]'', c. 1830&ndash;-40.
Image:1244.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''Unexecuted Design for Cross-Block Terrace Development (perspective)'', c. 1831.
Image:1279.jpg|John Rubens Smith, West front of the United States Capitol with cows in the foreground, c. 1831.
Image:04861432.jpg|James SmillieMilo Osborne, “Bay & Harbour of New York, From the Battery“Deaf and Dumb Asylum,” in Theodore S. Fay, ''Bourne Views of [[View]]s in New -Yorkand its Environs from Accurate, Characteristic, and Picturesque Drawings'' (1831), plate 8.
Image:14320490.jpg|Milo OsborneArchibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, “Deaf and Dumb AsylumHoboken (New York in the distance),” in Theodore S. Fay, ''Views [[View]]s in New-York and its Environs from Accurate, Characteristic, and Picturesque Drawings'' (1831-34).
Image:04901433.jpg|Archibald LJames H. DickDakin, “Elysian Fields“La Grange [[Terrace]], Hoboken (La Fayette Place, City of New York in the distance),” in ''Views in New1831-York and its Environs'' (1831&ndash;34).
Image:14331025.jpg|James H. DakinAnonymous, “La Grange Terrace“Entrance to [[Mount_Auburn_Cemetery|Mount Auburn]], La Fayette Place, City ” in ''American Magazine of New YorkUseful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1,” 1831&ndash;34no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:0651.jpg|John Warner Barber, “Southeastern [[view ]] of Wesleyan University, Middletown,” in ''Connecticut Historical Collections'' (1836), 510.
Image:0424.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
Image:1434.jpg|Samuel Davenport, ''New York'', c. 1835.
Image:1027.jpg|Anonymous, “View of [[Mount_Auburn_Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 2, no. 6 (February 1836), 234.
Image:0419.jpg|John La Tourette, “University of the State of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.,” detail from ''Map of the State of Alabama'', c. 1837.
Image:0489.jpg|John William Hill (artist), William James Bennett (engraver), ''New York, from Brooklyn Heights'', 1837.
Image:1142.jpg|John Caspar Wild, ''Laurel Hill [[Cemetery/Burying ground/Burial ground|Cemetery]], Philadelphia'', 1838.
Image:1283.jpg|William A. Pratt (artist), Charles Fenderich (lithographer), “Elevation of the eastern front of the Capitol of the United States,” c. 1839.
 
Image:1750.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of a [[Flower Garden]], in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 7.
 
Image:0683.jpg|C. Foster, “Western Baptist Theological Institute, at Covington KY, opposite Cincinnati, Ohio,” in Charles Cist, ''Cincinnati in 1841: Its Early Annals and Future Prospects'' (1841), pl. opp. 270.
Image:0113.jpg|Mary Blades, Woodbury, c. 1840, in ''The Magazine Antiques'' 55 (February 1949), 132.
Image:0420.jpg|Anonymous, “Franklin College, in Athens, Georgia,” in ''Gleason’s Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion'' 6, no. 19 (May 13, 1854): 297.
 
Image:0660.jpg|William S. Jewett, ''Mount Washington'', 1847.
Image:0727.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''Gardens of the Van Rensselaer Manor House'', 1840.
Image:10220524.jpg|Charles Alexandre LesueurAnonymous, “Residence of Thomas SayPalladian Villa Style Building in Formal Landscape, Esqrc. (Naturalist) at New Harmony, Indiana,” 1840-50.
Image:05240032.jpg|Anonymous[[Robert Mills]], Palladian Villa Style ''[[Picturesque]] [[View]] of the Building , and Grounds in Formal Landscapefront'', c. 1840&ndash;501841.
Image:00320955.jpg|[[Robert MillsAlexander Jackson Davis]], ''Picturesque [[View of the Building, and Grounds in front]] N. W. at [[Blithewood]]'', c. 1841.
Image:0823.jpg|Joshua Barney, ''Map of Hampton'', 1843. Courtesy: Hampton National Historic Site, National Park Service.
Image:0903.jpg|M. Schmitz (artist), Thomas S. Sinclair (lithographer), John B. Colahan (surveyor), ''Map of [[Washington_Square_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Washington Square]], Philadelphia'', 1843.
Image:0663.jpg|John Warner Barber, “College of New Jersey, Princeton,” in ''Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey'' (1844), pl. opp. 266.
Image:00071048.jpg|Charles HHenry Wadsworth Longfellow, Sketch of the Grounds of the Longfellow Estate, 1844. Wolf, attr Image:1966.jpg|Edward William Mumford, ''Pennsylvania Farmstead with Many FencesClarke’s Hall & Dock Creek'', c. 18471844. Image:1102.jpg|F. F. Judd (artist), E. B. and E. C. Kellogg (lithographers), “Retreat for the Insane, Hartford, Connecticut,” in ''Twenty-Second Annual Report of the Officers of the Retreat for the Insane at Hartford, Connecticut'' (1846), 314.
Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:04870660.jpg|William WadeS. Jewett, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery[[Mount]] Washington'', 18481847.
Image:0476.jpg|James Smillie (artist), Sarony & Major (printers), ''[[View ]] of Union [[Park]], New York, from the head of Broadway'', 1849.
Image:0959.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Shrubbery ]] and [[Flower_garden|Flower Garden]],” in ''The Cultivator'' 5, no. 4 (April 1848): 114.
Image:0847.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Three figures going up a hill to a gazebo at [[Blithewood]], n.d. (c. 1849).
Image:01071943.jpg|Godfrey N. Frankenstein, ''Portrait of "The Old House" residence of John Adams and John Quincy Adams Adams'', 1849. Image:2292.jpg|Weingärtner & Sarony, “Smithsonian Institution, from the North East,” in Robert Dale Owen, ''Hints on Public Architecture'' (1849), pl. opp. 108.
Image:0353.jpg|Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in Landscape Gardening,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), opp. 273, fig. 15.
Image:1139.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''[[View ]] of Hartford, CT. From the Deaf and Dumb Asylum'', 1849.
Image:0025.jpg|Robert P. Smith, ''[[View ]] of Washington'', c. 1850.
Image:1282.jpg|Augustus Köllner, “Capitol (west side),” c. 1850.
Image:1232.jpg|Orsamus Turner, Life Cycle of a Pioneer Woodsman (“Third Sketch of the Pioneer”), in ''Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase'' (1850), opp. 565.
Image:1039.jpg|Anonymous, The [[Flower_garden|Flower-Garden]], in Joseph Breck, ''The [[Flower_garden|Flower-Garden]]: or, Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:1967.jpg|[[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington'', 1851.
Image:0042.jpg|Benjamin Franklin Smith, Jr., ''Washington, D.C. with projected improvements'', c. 1852.
Image:0557.jpg|Sarony & Major, ''Iranistan, an Oriental Ville'', 1852&ndash;541852—54. Image:1673.jpg|Anonymous, The Claremont, c. 1855. Image:0023.jpg|[[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington'', 1851.
Image:16732287.jpg|AnonymousErnest Crehen, ''Blue Sulphur-Greenbrier, VA'', in John J. Moorman, ''The ClaremontVirginia Springs of the South and West'', c. 18551859: facing 217.
Image:1009.jpg|Anonymous, ''Homestead of Humphrey H. Nye, New Bedford'', 1860&ndash;-65.
Image:00231022.jpg|[[ADavid J. JKennedy, after Charles Alexandre Lesueur (c. Downing]]1830), ''Plan Showing Proposed Method Residence of Laying Out the Public Grounds Thomas Say, Esqr. (Naturalist) at WashingtonNew Harmony, Indiana'', 18511870.
</gallery>
 
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==Notes==

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