Walks were planted in a variety of ways. They could have [[border]]s of low [[shrubbery]] or plants, as in a painting by Charles Fraser [Fig. 1], or be lined with [[pot]]s or [[statue]]s, as at [[Vauxhall Garden]] in New York in 1816. Lombardy poplars and other tall, straight trees accentuated the linearity of axial walks and the formality of urban [[avenue]]s, including Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, DC [Fig. 2]. Such spreading shade trees as elm, myrtle, and live oak formed arching canopies over walks, <span id="d'Argenville_cite"></span>an effect that John James in his 1712 translation of [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]] called “Close” walks ([[#d'Argenville|view citation]]). Although this term does not appear to be used in America, the technique, which framed [[view]]s and invited cooling strolls, was described at sites such as [[Boston Common]].
[[Image:0404.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''Elevation of the South front of the President's President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807'', January 1817.]]
[[Image:0254.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Reuben Moulthrop, ''Mrs. Daniel Truman and Child,'' c. 1798–1810.]]
While their form varied widely, walks served essentially the same functions: to provide passage and to direct movement through the garden; to focus a viewer's viewer’s gaze toward an object, building, or [[prospect]]; and to structure and divide the garden. In colonial gardens, the walk was often the principal structuring element of the space, dividing a small garden adjacent to a structure into regular geometric shapes, such as the walks depicted in an unidentified late 18th-century garden [Fig. 3]. In more naturalistic and [[picturesque]] designs that became popular in the 19th century, walks created routes by which visitors were led to carefully sited garden structures or to crafted [[vista]]s, as described in [[Thomas Jefferson|Thomas Jefferson'sJefferson’s]] c. 1804 plan for his mountaintop landscape [Fig. 4] or [[A. J. Downing|A. J. Downing'sDowning’s]] 1849 plan for a country [[seat]] [see Fig. #]. In addition, walks offered a means to organize the visual logic of a site by directing a visitor's visitor’s gaze to distant [[view]]s or focal points within the garden, such as [[obelisk]]s, [[pavilion]]s, [[gate]]s, or [[seat]]s. Walks could also create the illusion of distance if their designers manipulated their dimensions and layout. This resulted in an impression of greater depth, a particularly useful effect in smaller urban lots. The dimensions of walks were determined by the scale of their settings and their use. Forsyth (1802), for instance, recommended that walks be wide enough to admit a cart in [[kitchen garden]]s, <span id="Breck_cite"></span>and [[Joseph Breck]] (1851) cautioned designers to leave enough room for persons to “walk comfortably in a social manner” ([[#Breck|view citation]]).
[[Image:0539.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, John Henry Bufford, “Fairmount from the first Landing,” sheet music cover for ''The Fairmount Quadrilles'', 1836.]]
In pictorial representations, walks served many of these same functions. In a perspective view of a building's building’s front façade, the viewer is often encouraged to focus upon the main entrance located at the terminus of a central walk or [[avenue]] [Fig. 5]. In the backgrounds of portraits, particularly those from the second half of the 18th century, artists often depicted glimpses through a window of their sitters' gardens, in which walks were presented in perspective with converging sides to suggest the illusion of depth [Fig. 6]. In aerial views, walks were often the principle means of indicating the location and existence of a garden, since plants, changing topography, and surface treatments were less easily rendered in plan. In other images, the walk invites the viewer to dwell upon a destination, such as a garden [[seat]] or viewing point, or to venture further into the unseen garden, as in John Trumbull's Trumbull’s 1792 plan for [[Yale College]] [See Fig. #]. In all of these types of images, tracing the line of the walk conveys a sense of movement through the landscape, much as a visitor might have experienced surprising “discoveries” of [[view]]s.
In addition to being a common feature in early American gardens, walks were also the setting for much recorded activity. <span id="Byrd_cite"></span>[[William Byrd II]] in his diary (1732) frequently mentioned his own perambulations in the garden, either alone or with gentlemen guests after he had entertained them with a meal ([[#Byrd|view citation]]). [[Charles Willson Peale]] described strolling through the gardens of Annapolis, Maryland, in language that echoes published accounts of British and European tours.<ref>Elizabeth Kryder-Reid, “The Archaeology of Vision in Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Gardens,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 14, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 42–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJX4M93V view on Zotero.] </ref> Walks were social venues in public landscape designs such as [[Boston Common]], the [[State House Yard]] in Philadelphia, a levee in New Orleans, the [[Battery Park]] in New York, [[Fairmount Park]] in Philadelphia [Fig. 7], and the [[avenue]]s of Washington, DC. They were places to see and be seen, and images of them in the second quarter of the 19th century portray their rising popularity as [[promenade]]s for the general populace. Numerous descriptions and treatises of this period also praised the health-giving properties of these walks and the virtues of fresh air and exercise, particularly for the infirm, mentally ill, and urban poor.
*[[William Penn|Penn, William]], March 19, 1685, in a letter to James Harrison, regarding [[Pennsbury Manor]], country estate of William Penn, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Thomforde 1986: 59)<ref name="Thomforde">Charles Thomforde, “William Penn’s Estate at Pennsbury and the Plants of Its Kitchen Garden” (master’s Master’s thesis, Public Horticulture Administration, University of Delaware, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MSV2MR5T/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“If Ralph this fall, could gett twenty yound populars, about 18 inch round beheaded, to twenty foot, to plant in a '''walk''' below ye Steps to ye water It were not emiss. perhaps to 15 foot long for a Round head, may do as well, plant ym in ye 8 mo. [October] is well.”
*Jones, Hugh, 1724, describing the [[Governor's Governor’s Palace]], [[Williamsburg]], VA (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:48)<ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“. . . stands the Palace or Governor’s House, a magnificent structure built at the publick Expense, finished and beautified with [[Gate]]s, fine Gardens, Offices, '''Walks''', a fine [[Canal]], [[Orchard]]s, and with a great number of the best arms nicely posited by the ingenious Contrivance of the accomplished Colonel Spotswood.”
*Eddis, William, October 1, 1769, describing the Governor's Governor’s House, Annapolis, MD (1792: 117)<ref>William Eddis, ''Letters from America: Historical and Descriptive; Compromising Occurances from 1769 to 1777 Inclusive'' (London: Printed for the author, 1792), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ZMDDRPFN view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The garden is not extensive, but it is disposed to the utmost advantage; the centre '''walk''' is terminated by a small green [[mount]], close to which the Severn approaches; this elevation commands an extensive [[view]] of the bay, and the adjacent country.”
*<div id="Breck"></div>[[Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck's Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Breck_cite|back up to history]]
:“''Width of '''Walks'''''.—The main '''walk''', or '''walks''', of a [flower] garden, should be laid out on a liberal scale. Nothing detracts so much from the pleasures of the flower-garden as contracted '''walks'''. When we wish to enjoy the company of a friend, in the flower-garden, it is much more agreeable to have him by our side, arm in arm, than to be under the necessity of making the tour of the garden in Indian file. The main '''walks''' should, therefore, be calculated so as to admit two persons to '''walk''' comfortably in a social manner; and, if wide enough for a little one in addition, so much the better. From five to six feet will not be too wide for the main [[avenue]]. The internal compartments, of course, should have much narrower '''walks''', the width of which must be graduated in a degree by the size of the garden.
Image:1384.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House . . . House opening to the North upon a plain Parterre of Grass,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI.
Image:1391.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Frontispieces of Trellis Work for the Entrances into Temples of View, Arbors, Shady Walks, &c.,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XVIII. Caption for top figure also reads:“An Arbor in a Fortified Island.”
Image:1393.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Shady walks with Temples of Trellis work after the grand manner of Versailles,” and “An Avenue in Perspective, terminated with the ruins of an ancient Building after the Roman manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XXII.
File:1398.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], ''The Design of an Elegant Kitchen Garden Contain'g Contain’g ARP 1.2.20. Including Walks'', in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.
File:0056.jpg|[[John Bartram|John]] or [[William Bartram]], ''A Draught of John Bartram’s House and Garden as it appears from the River'', 1758.
Image:0100.jpg|John Trumbull, Master Plan for Yale College, 1792.
image:0095.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of Mr. Derby['s’s] Land,” 1800.
Image:0090.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
Image:1037.jpg|William Cobbett, “Plan for a Garden,” in ''The American Gardener'' (1819).
Image:1350.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of walks, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), 796, fig. 549.
Image:1351.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of French parterre of embroidery, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), 797, fig. 550.
Image:1352.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of botanic flower garden with a circular walk, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), 801, fig. 553.
image:1356.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Bower formed of lattice-work, in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1826), 809, fig. 563.
Image:1372.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a ferme ornée with wild and irregular hedges, in ''An encyclopædia Encyclopædia of gardeningGardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 1023, fig. 722.
image:0878.jpg|Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s Botanic Gardens and Nurseries,” in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.
Image:0943.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a small Green-House” and “Section of the Same,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 6 (December 1848): 259, figs. 32 and 33.
Image:0376.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of the foregoing grounds as a Country Seat, after ten years' years’ improvement,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), 114, fig. 24.
Image:0380.jpg|Anonymous, “The Ravine Walk at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 350, fig. 40.
Image:0391.jpg|Anonymous, “The Irregular Flower-garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), 428, fig. 76. “the flower-beds ''b''”
Image:0777.jpg|Frances Palmer, “Ground Plot of 4-1/4 Acres,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 6.
Image:1387.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Part of a Park Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIII.
Image:0285.jpg|Nicholas Garrison, ''A View of Bethlehem, one of the Brethren's Brethren’s Principal Settlements, in Pennsylvania, North America'', 1757.
Image:0134.jpg|Christian Remick, ''A Prospective View of part of the Commons'', c. 1768.
Image:0044.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], ''View of the garden at Belfield'', 1816.
Image:0169.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Bird'sBird’s-eye view of the University of Virginia, c. 1820.
Image:0716.jpg|Alvan Fisher, ''The Vale'', 1820&ndash;25.
Image:1052.jpg|Daniel Wadsworth, “Monte-Video,” in Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (1824), frontispiece.
Image:0665.jpg|Anonymous, Bonaparte's Bonaparte’s residence and the surrounding park, c. 1830, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931-341931–34), 321.
Image:1025.jpg|Anonymous, “Entrance to Mount Auburn,” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:1120.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Fairmount Gardens, with the Schuylkill Bridge. (Philadelphia),” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery; or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 24.
Image:1121.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Schuylkill Water-Works. (Philadelphia),” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery: or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 37.
Image:0835.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of a Flower Garden, in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 6.
Image:1750.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of a Flower Garden, in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 7.
Image:0033.jpg|[[Robert Mills]],''Plan of the Mall,'' , Washington, DC, 1841.
Image:0034.jpg|[[Robert Mills]], Alternative plan for the grounds of the National Institution, 1841.
Image:1966.jpg|Edward William Mumford, ''Clarke's Clarke’s Hall & Dock Creek'', c. 1844.
Image:1047.jpg|Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844.
Image:0428.jpg|Edward Weber, ''View of Washington City and Georgetown'' [detail], 1849.
Image:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “View in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
Image:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the Seat of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:0366.jpg|Anonymous, “View in the Grounds at Pine Bank,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening: adapted to North America; with an introduction by Therese O'Malley'' , 4th ed. (1849; repr., 1991), pl. opp. 57.
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, “View in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esq.” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Image:0370.jpg|Anonymous, “The Geometric style, from an old print,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), 62, fig. 14.
Image:0771.jpg|Frances Palmer, “Ground Plot of Brier Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 2
Image:0773.jpg|Frances Palmer, Ground plot of Anglo-Italian Villa, New York, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol . 1, pl. 8.
Image:0774.jpg|Frances Palmer, Ground plots for proposed houses near Clifton, Staten Island, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol . 1, pl. 18.
image:0775.jpg|Frances Palmer, Ground plot of a cottage, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol . 1, pl. 23.
Image:0776.jpg|Frances Palmer, “A plot of village property 724 feet by 488,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 48.
Image:0942.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 8 (February 1849): pl. opp. 353. “''Italian arbor'', D.”
Image:0612.jpg|John Bachmann, ''Bird's Bird’s Eye View of Boston'', c. 1850.
Image:0492.jpg|Anonymous, ''Saratoga Schottisch'', New York, 1851.
Image:0256.jpg|The Beardsley Limner, ''Mrs. Hezekiah Beardsley (Elizabeth Davis)'', c. 1788&ndash;90.
Image:0131.jpg|Unknown, ''Overmantel of Rev. Joseph Wheeler House'', c.1787&ndash;179393.
Image:0265.jpg|James Earl, ''William Henry Capers'', 1788.
Image:0207.jpg|Francis Guy, ''Mt. Deposit'', 1803&ndash;05.
Image:0254.jpg|Reuben Moulthrop, ''Mrs. Daniel Truman and Child'', c. 1798-18101798–1810.
Image:0195.jpg|Francis Guy, ''Bolton, view from the South'', c. 1805.
Image:1679.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], ''The Moreau House'', July 2, 1809.
Image:0150.jpg|Rebecca Chester, ''A Full View of Deadrick's Deadrick’s Hill'', 1810.
Image:0049.jpg|William Satchwell Leney after Hugh Reinagle, “View of the Botanic Garden of the State of New York,” in [[David Hosack]], ''Hortus Elginensis'' (1811), frontispiece.
Image:0902.jpg|George Bridport, Design for Washington Monument, Washington Square, Philadelphia, 1816.
Image:0404.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''Elevation of the South front of the President's President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807'', January 1817.
Image:0063.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], “Plan of the public Square in the city of New Orleans, as proposed to be improved . . .” [detail], March 20, 1819.
Image:0521.jpg|William Rush, ''North East or Franklin Public Square, Philadelphia'', 1824.
Image:0053.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Castle Garden, N. York, c. 1825&ndash;182828.
Image:0132.jpg|Rufus Porter and J. D. Poor, Josiah Stone House [also known as the Holsaert House/Cobb House], 1825&ndash;30.
Image:0489.jpg|John William Hill (artist), William James Bennett (engraver), ''New York, from Brooklyn Heights'', 1837.
 
Image:1142.jpg|John Caspar Wild, ''Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia'', 1838.
Image:1283.jpg|William A. Pratt (artist), Charles Fenderich (lithographer), “Elevation of the eastern front of the Capitol of the United States,” c. 1839.
Image:0113.jpg|Mary Blades, Woodbury, c. 1840, in ''The Magazine Antiques'' 55 (February 1949), 132.
Image:0420.jpg|Anonymous, “Franklin College, in Athens, Georgia,” in ''Gleason's Gleason’s Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion'' 6, no. 19 (May 13, 1854): 297.
Image:0660.jpg|William S. Jewett, ''Mount Washington'', 1847.
Image:1022.jpg|Charles Alexandre Lesueur, “Residence of Thomas Say, Esqr. (Naturalist) at New Harmony, Indiana,” 1840.
 
Image:1142.jpg|John Caspar Wild, ''Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia'', 1838.
Image:0524.jpg|Anonymous, Palladian Villa Style Building in Formal Landscape, c. 1840&ndash;50.
Image:0107.jpg|Weingärtner & Sarony, “Smithsonian Institution, from the North East,” in Robert Dale Owen, ''Hints on Public Architecture'' (1849), pl. opp. 108.
Image:0353.jpg|Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in Landscape Gardening,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), opp. 273, fig. 15.
Image:1139.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''View of Hartford, CT. From the Deaf and Dumb Asylum'', 1849.
Image:1232.jpg|Orsamus Turner, Life Cycle of a Pioneer Woodsman (“Third Sketch of the Pioneer”), in ''Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase'' (1850), opp. 565.
Image:1039.jpg|Anonymous, The Flower-Garden, in Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden: or, Breck's Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:1967.jpg|[[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851.

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