===Citations===
*[[John Parkinson|Parkinson, John]], 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' ([1629] ; repr., 1975: 5)<ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (Norwood, N.J.NJ: W.J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“To forme it [the garden] therfore with [[walk]]s, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with '''hedges''', with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge.”
*Smith, John, 1629, ''Advertisement for the Unexperienced Planters'' (quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963: 2:399)<ref>Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson, eds., ''The Puritans'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9XGR26VH view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“. . . you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s . . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”
:“you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s . . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”
 
 
*[[Richard Bradley|Bradley, Richard]], 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28)<ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical; Explaining the Motion of the Sapp and Generation of Plants. With Other Discoveries Never before Made in Publick, for the Improvement of Forest-Trees, Flower-Gardens or Parterres; with a New Invention Where by More Designs of Garden Platts May Be Made in an Hour, than Can Be Found in All the Books Now Extant. Likewise Several Rare Secrets for the Improvement of Fruit-Trees, Kitchen-Gardens, and Green-House Plants.'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
*[[Richard Bradley|Bradley, Richard]], 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28)<ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical . . .'' 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719–20), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“[vol. 1] They [ever-greens] are so ornamental where they are rightly managed, that I think no Garden can be compleat without ’em; they make beautiful and useful '''Hedges'''. . . .
:“It [the Yew-Tree] is of great use for '''Hedges''', and make most agreeable Divisions in Gardens; it is customary to [[fence]] in the [[Quarter]]s of [[Wilderness]] Works with these Plants, where they have a very good Effect. . . .
[[File:1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III.]]
[[File:1383.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, [[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House . . . ,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X.]]
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (p. vii-ix1728: vii–ix, xiii)<ref name="Langley">Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley [and 4 others]et al., 1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AN26GF5X view on Zotero.]</ref>  
:“Plate III. is the Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner, . . .
:“The '''Hedges''' that are planted between the aforesaid Trees which form the Sides of the [[Walk]]s are of ''English'', ''Dutch'' and ''French Elms'', ''Lime'', ''Hornbeam'', ''Maple'', ''Privet'', ''Yew'', ''Holly'', ''Arbutus'', ''Phillyrea'', ''Norway Fir'', ''Ilex'', ''Bay'', ''Laurel'', ''Laurus-Tinnus'', ''Piracantha'', ''Juniper'', and the ''English Furze''; and indeed, a beutiful [[Plantation]] should not only be adorned with entire [[Walk]]s and '''Hedges''' of Trees of all Sorts, as well as Fruit as others; but intermix’d together in many parts, as if Nature had placed them there with her own Hand. . . . [Fig. 10]
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (p. 1728: 195–99)<ref name="Langley"></ref> 
:“''General'' DIRECTIONS, ''&c''. . . .
:“XIX. . . .
*[[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th edned., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“[[espalier|ESPALIER]]. . . .
:“As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . . .
*[[Samuel Johnson|Johnson, Samuel]], 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1755: 1:n.p.)<ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“'''HEDGE'''. ''n.s''. [. . . Saxon.] A [[fence]] made round grounds with prickly bushes.”
*<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 1756: 641, 645),<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to history]] 
:“When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . .
:“A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety.”
*Hale, Thomas, 1758, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry'' (1758: 1:209–10, 230)<ref>Thomas Hale, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry Containing Rules for Performing, in the Most Profitable Manner, the Whole Business of the Farmer and Country Gentleman'', 2nd edned., 4 vols. (London: T. Osborne, 1758), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KRKU9TFT view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“Where the soil is too barren for the growth of an '''hedge''', there is often stone ready for a [[wall]]. . . .
:“In the dry pastures '''hedges''' are the proper [[fence]]s. They are of great service; beside their sheltering the cattle, they defend the grass from the summer heats, and shelter it in the spring from the drying winds. . . . The '''hedges''' also are of value for their produce in useful [[wood]]. . . .
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.p.)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard . . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th edn ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“[After a description of the types of trees used in '''hedges''', Miller notes that] '''[h]edges''' are either planted to make [[fence]]s around enclosures, or to part off or divide several parts of a Garden; when they are designed as outward [[fence]]s, they are planted either with Hawthorne, Crabs, or Blackthorn, which is slow; but those '''hedges''' which are planted in Gardens, either to surround [[Wilderness]] [[Quarter]]s, or to screen the other parts of a Garden from Sight, are planted with various Sorts of plants, according to the fancy of the Owner some preferring Evergreen '''Hedges''', in which case the Holly is best, next to the Yew, then Laurel, &c. . . .
:“The taste in Gardening having been greatly altered of late Years for the better, these clipped '''Hedges''' have been almost excluded; and it is hoped that a little Time will entirely banish them out of English gardens, as it has done by the shorne evergreens, which a few years since were esteemed the greatest beauties in gardens. The latter was introduced by the Dutch Gardeners, and that of tall '''Hedges''' with Trellage work was in imitation of the French gardens; in some of which of the Iron Trellage to support the trees which composed their cabinets, [[portico]]s, [[bower]]s, [[pavilion|Pavilons]], and other pieces of rural architecture, amounted to a very great sum.”
*Squibb, Robert, 1787, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' ([1787] 1980: 51)<ref>Robert Squibb, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' (Charleston, S.C.SC: Samuel Wright and Co., 1787), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JHHVPH9K view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“If you plant the orange trees for a '''hedge''', about ten feet will be a good distance; but if intended for an [[orchard]] or a [[grove]], twenty feet will not be too much.”
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (pp. 1790: 91–92)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, Mass.MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to history]] 
:“[[FENCE]]. . . .
:“In some places it is best to make '''hedge''' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds of [[fence]] that go by this name, dead '''hedge''', and quickset '''hedge'''.
*Main, Thomas, September 28, 1807, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants'' (pp. 1807: 15, 37)<ref>Thomas Main, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants, Preparative to Their Being Set in Hedges, with Some Practical Observations on the Method of Plain Hedging'' (Washington, D.C.DC: A. G. and Way, 1807), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UEDDDN6J view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“A row of suitable shrubs or trees, planted at a proper distance from each other, on the plain cultivated surface of the ground, in order to form a [[fence]] is what here is meant by plain hedging, to distinguish it from the common method used in Britain, called '''hedge''' and ditch. . . . Those who are curious to understand the manner of conducting this old way of hedging, will find in Mr. [[Bernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]]’s 'American Gardener’s Callender [''sic''],' a clear and excellent description thereof, with much other useful information in this art, as well as in the various departments of horticulture, &c. . . .
:“A promiscuous assemblage of several different kinds of plants in a '''hedge''' cannot be recommended; such a heterogeneous composition will neither make a good [[fence]] nor look handsome.”
*Neil, William, November 28, 1812, “On Hedging and Ditching, by William Neill, Delaware County, Pennsylvania” (quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 146)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818">John Gardiner and David Hepburn, ''The American Gardener'', Expanded expanded ed. of 1804 original'' (Georgetown, D.C.: Joseph Milligan, 1818), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RISZAN8M/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“Where I became first acquainted with '''hedges''', unless around [[kitchen garden]]s, or towns, or villages, where lots were small, you would not see one in five hundred trimmed. They, in general, let them grow till ten, twelve, or perhaps twenty years old, then, with a sharp handsaw, take them off a few inches above the bank, when you would immediately have a more formidable [[fence]] then ever, and so on for ages.”
*[[George Gregory|Gregory, G.]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', First 1st American, from the second London edition, considerably improved and augmented''ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“GARDENING. . . .
:“Yet the fall of the leaves by autumnal winds is troublesome, and a high [[wall]] is therefore advisable. Spruce firs have been used in close-shorn '''hedges'''; which, as evergreens, are proper enough to plant for a screen in a single row, though not very near to the [[wall]]; but the best evergreens for this purpose are the evergreen oak and the cork-tree. . . .
*Taylor, John, 1817, ''Arator'' (p. 1817: 147)<ref>John Taylor, ''Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political'' (Georgetown, D.C.: J. M. and J. B. Carter, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RG7QHU4 view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“If these '''hedges''' are cultivated properly, and the land is strong, they will form an elegant live ever-green [[fence]], in a shorter time, than is necessary to raise a thorn [[fence]] in England, according to the books.”
*Gardiner, John and David Hepburn, 1818, ''The American Gardener'' (pp. 1818: 117–19, 136–37)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818"></ref> 
:“In those parts of the union where the ripening of fruit requires no aid from artificial warmth and where therefore brick or stone [[wall]]s can be preferable, only on account of their superior strength as [[fence]]s, live '''hedges''', or banks with live '''hedges''' upon them, if well made, not only present an excellent resistance to incroachments, but are an exquisitely beautiful ornament to the mansion and its adjacent grounds. And as the propagation of live '''hedges''' is everyday becoming a subject of more serious importance, and will soon be one of indisputable necessity, in the long inhabited parts of the union where timber is becoming very scarce and dear, it may not be amiss, in this place, to turn for a moment from our particular object of enquiry, for the purpose of awakening all our agriculturalists to a consideration of the expediency of cultivating them, and of offering them a few instructions on [''sic''] this point of rural economy. . . .
:“For gardens, '''hedges''' are advisable for two distinct purposes: The first, outward [[fence]]s to serve as a [[wall]] for the exclusion of tresspassers [''sic'']; the other inward, for the purposes of ornament and shade.
*Cobbett, William, 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819a: 22, 28–29)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st edn ed. (Claremont, N.H.NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“38. Yet, with all these circumstances in my favour, I proceed with faultering accent to propose, even for a garden, a live [[fence]], especially when I have to notice, that I know not how to get the plants, unless I, in the outset, bring them, or their seeds, ''from England!'' However, I must suppose this difficulty surmounted; then proceed to describe this [[fence]] that I would have, if I could.
:“39. In England it is called a ''Quick-Set '''Hedge'''''. The truth is, however, that it ought rather to be called an ''Everlasting '''Hedge'''''; for, it is not, as will be seen by-and-by, so ''very quickly set''; or, at least, so very quickly raised. . . .
[[File:1372.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a ferme ornée with wild and irregular hedges, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 1023, fig. 722.]]*[[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (pp. 1826: 106, 355, 1023)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, A''n An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live [[fence]]s are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:“1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 1828: 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112),<ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]] 
:“''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''. . . .
:“''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. . . .
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 1: n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“'''HEDGE''', ''n. hej.'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', '''hedge''', protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . . .]
:“Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden.”
*Floy, Michael, September 24 and October 1, 1830, “Description of Trees and Shrubs” (''New England Farmer'' 9: 74, 84)<ref>Michael Floy, “A Description of Trees and Shrubs, Producing a Succession of Flowers from Spring to Autumn,” ''The New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal'' 9, no. 10-12 10–12 (September 24, October 1, October 8, 1830): 74, 84, 92, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/C3XFHEGJ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:[Sept. 24] “''Gleditschia triacanthos'',—Honey locust, or three thorn Acacia. It makes a handsome stately tree, the foliage is handsome, but the dreadful long triple thorns with which the tree is armed, give it a forbidding aspect. Trees of this kind are often used for '''hedges''', and if planted thick, they soon make an impenetrable [[fence]] against man and beast, but must be kept cut down to 4 or 5 feet every season, or the '''hedge''' would soon be spoiled. . . .
 
:[Oct. 1] “''Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn''. . . . Hawthorn '''hedges''' are much used in England, where they look very handsome when kept clipped, but they do not answer so well in this country, the heat of our summers causing the leaves to fall off early, often in July; on that account they are not much used—we have several things which are better calculated for that purpose. . . .
 
:“''Ligustrum vulgare virens.'' Large European Privet, a very handsome evergreen [[shrub]], flowering in great profusion, and succeeded by bunches of black round berries. It bears clipping well, and is therefore well calculated for '''hedges''', or to enclose ornamental [[plantation]]s. It grows quick, and is well adapted to our climate, and when planted in a '''hedge''' row, and kept clipped, it makes a beautiful '''hedge''', and ought to be in more general use.”
*[[Thomas Bridgeman|Bridgeman, Thomas]], 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (pp. 1832: 110, 133–34)<ref>Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edned. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[fence]]s, or [[plantation]]s of [[shrub]]s, forming a close and compact '''hedge''', which should be neatly trimmed every year. . . .
:“[[Shrub]]s are not only necessary to the embellishment of a [[flower garden]], but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedges''' to it, and may be planted at a trifling expense. These '''hedges''' should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and also to increase the vigour of their growth.”
*Fessenden, Thomas Green, 1833, ''The New American Gardener'' (p. 1833: 158)<ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 7th edned. (Boston: Russell, Odiorne, 1833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VPB9HKX3 view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“'''Hedges''' may be of various kinds, such as the single '''hedge''' and ditch the '''hedge''' and bank; the level '''hedge''', &c.; of which, descriptions may be found in Loudon’s ''Encyclopedia of Agriculture'', and other books of husbandry.”
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1838, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43),<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41-4 41–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]] 
:“In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. . . .
:“The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal.”
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (p. 1842: 155),<ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, OhioOH: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]] 
:“'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west.”
*<div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 1845: 206, 244),<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to history]] 
:“'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
:“'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S.”
*[[George William Johnson|Johnson, George William]], 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (pp. 1847: 221, 286–88)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. by David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s, and are then known as '''''hedges''''', or dead, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditches'', ''palings'', or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. . . .
:“'''HEDGE''', properly includes every kind of [[fence]], but the present details apply for the most part to growing [[fence]]s. . . .
[[File:0998.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, Anonymous, “Mr. Lee’s Hedge,” Salem, Mass.MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 355, fig. 84.]]*[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1847, “A Chapter on Hedges” (''Horticulturist'' 1: 345–46)<ref> Andrew Jackson Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 345-55345–55, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero.]</ref>  
:“The advantages of a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]], besides its beauty, are its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and the additional value it confers upon the land which it encloses. A [[fence]] of [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and tottering affair; soon needing repairs, which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedge''', made of the two plants we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]],' at least in any acceptation of the word known to our restless and changing countrymen. . . .
:“As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures, however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it.” [Fig. 13]
*Anonymous, October 1848, “Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'',” (''Horticulturist'' 3: 181)<ref>Anonymous, “Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'',” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 179-82179–82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IU3P9QS view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“As far as practicable, make divisions whichare necessary about the house of the [[ha-ha]] or blind [[fence]], or of '''hedges''', for which purpose the Maclura or Osage Orange is believed to be one of the most desirable plants.”
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, “View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée''),” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), p. 120, fig. 27.]]*<div id="Downing_1849"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp1849; repr. , 1991: 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45),<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn ed. (1849; repr., Washington, D.C.DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to history]] 
:“In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]
:“We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .
*[[Elder, Walter]], 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (p. 1849: 178)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT/ view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“THE cheapest, most beautiful, and durable [[fence]]s are '''hedges''', and all dividing [[fence]]s of cottage gardens, should be made of '''hedges'''; there are several kinds of plants well adapted for the purpose.”
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (p. 1850: 409)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (Springfield, Mass.MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1850), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9Z9HAK7E view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“ES-PAL’IER, (es-pal’yer,) n. [Fr. ''[[espalier]]''; Sp. ''espalera''; H. ''spalliera''; from L. ''palus'', a stake or ''pole''.]
:“1. A row of trees planted about a garden or in '''hedges''', so as to inclose [[quarter]]s or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close '''hedge''' or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather. ''Ency''.”
*[[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (p. 1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero.]</ref> 
:“Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental.”
*Coppock, W. R., March 1851, “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 151)<ref>W. R. Coppock, “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 147-51147–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7DFAAII5 view on Zotero.]</ref>:“A thoroughly protective '''hedge''', or an uncouth looking strong [[fence]], is absolutely necessary to the orchardist, if he may derive either pleasure or profit from his trees. Climbing a [[fence]], or pushing aside a picket, and pelting the choice apples, pears, &c. from the trees, is, I am sorry to say, not considered generally a misdemeanor, or theft, at the present day.” 
:“A thoroughly protective '''hedge''', or an uncouth looking strong [[fence]], is absolutely necessary to the orchardist, if he may derive either pleasure or profit from his trees. Climbing a [[fence]], or pushing aside a picket, and pelting the choice apples, pears, &c. from the trees, is, I am sorry to say, not considered generally a misdemeanor, or theft, at the present day.”
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