'''Charles Willson Peale''' (April 15, 1741–February 22, 1827) was...
==History==
==Texts==
[[File:0037.jpg|thumb|Fig. 1, Charles Willson Peale, ''William Paca'', 1772.]]
* Peale, Charles Willson, February 15, 1772, describing a portrait of William Paca, including his garden in Annapolis, Md. MD (Miller, Hart, and Appel, edset al., 1983: 1: 113)<ref name="Miller">Lillian B. Miller, and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, 1735&ndash;1791.'' Vol. 1; ''Charles Willson Peale, Artist as Museum Keeper, 1791&ndash;1810.'' Vol 2, Pts. 1&ndash;2; ''The Belfield Farm Years, 1810&ndash;1820.'' Vol. 3; ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale.'' Vol. 5vols. (New Haven, ConnCT: Yale University Press, 1983–2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have spent some time about Mr. Paca’s whole lenght [''sic''] . . . if you remember the action he is resting on a pedestal on which I have introduced the Bust of Tully but believe [I] will be obliged to put some other in its [ ] place in the distance is a View of his [[summerhouse|Summer house]].” [Fig. 1]
[[File:0887.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Charles Willson Peale, "Grand “Grand Civic Arch," 1824, in Charles Coleman Sellers, "Charles “Charles Willson Peale with Patron and Populace," ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'' 59, no. 3. (1969), p. : 103.]]* Peale, Charles Willson, December 8, 1783, describing his triumphal [[arch]] erected in Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Sellers 1969: 196)<ref>Charles Coleman Sellers, "Charles “Charles Willson Peale with Patron and Populace," ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'' 59, no. 3. (1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKDWT3TP view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I am at this time employed in painting a transparent triumphal [[Arch]] for the Public rejoicings on the peace, and very much hurried.” [Fig. 2]
* Peale, Charles Willson, June 1788, describing Annapolis, Md. MD (Miller, Hart, and Appel, edset al., 1983: 1: 498)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“being invited to dine with the fish Club, I took my Gun for further Amusement; the club had a marqui fixed opposite the Cool Spring ([[bathhouse|bath House]]) on the other side of the creek. They have skittle Ground and qu[o]ites to amuse themselves.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, June 12, 1804, describing the Carroll Garden, Annapolis, Md. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1988: 2: 704)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“at each end of the [[wall]] is an octagon Building projecting beyond it, one is a [[summerhouse|''Summer'' House]] & probably the other is a [[Temple]], it is locked up, & at first sight they might be thought to be intended for such purposes but on finding that one has no holes, People are naturally led to believe that the internal structure is similar, since the outsides are perfectly so.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, July 22, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing farms in Pennsylvania (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 49, 51)<ref name="Miller"></ref>:<p>“I visited Job Roberts the day before yesterday, his farm is a model of excellence in the Culture. . . . He is growing several [[hedge]]s which in less than 7 yrs. will be complete [[fence]]s against all sorts of Cattle. The management of which is a good lesson, which I hope to make usefull to this place. ...</p>
:<p>“I am often pleased with the solemn [[grove]]s skirting [[meadow]]s in majestic silence and cool appearance. There is a Spring belonging to Chas Wistar in the most romantic scinery [''sic''] your imagination can conceive. . . . The spring comes out a large rock into a [[basin|bason]] which is covered with another large rock, then passes beneath a rock under your feet, and bursts out again before it joins the creek.”</p>
[[File:0560.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, Charles Willson Peale, Ground plot of Belfield, 1810.]]
* Peale, Charles Willson, July 29, 1810, describing the ground [[plot]] at [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 53)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“This ground [[plot]] is made by recollection, but I think it near anough [''sic''] the truth to give you a more precise Idea of the place & the other Sketches which I intend to annex to my letters.” [Fig. 3]
* Peale, Charles Willson, July 29, 1810, describing his sketches of [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 54&ndash;56)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“In this [[view]] imagine that you see a beautiful [[Meadow]] on the right. The Tennants House seems to terminate the lane, from thence it turns up a Gentle declivity to the Mansian, of which you see the Top of a Red roof on the left over the hill. formerly a road went over this hill at the dotted lines. . . . The Common water course is on the edge of the [[Meadow]] on the right and the doted [''sic''] line is a ditch to which I have a flood-gate to let water on the [[Meadow]] at Pleasure. . .</p>
:<p>“I have marked the ends of some Joice between the windows, from these I intend to make a [[piazza|Piazer]] extending round the south End. at the X is a fine spring runing out of a Rock—at this I shall make a spring House & perhaps a Mill. . .</p>
* Peale, Charles Willson, August 2, 1813, in a letter to his daughter, Angelica Peale Robinson, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 202)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“We are now beginning to ornament about the House Our Garden is much admired, Franklin is shewing his taste in neat workmanship. He has built an Elligant [[summerhouse|Summer House]] on that commanding spot which you may remember being pointed out to you. It is a hexicon base with 6 well turned [[Pillar]]s supporting a circular Top & dome on which is placed a bust of [[George Washington|Genl. Washington]], it would have been more appopriate [''sic''] to have had 13 [[pillar]]s, but I did not want so large a building, and it was work enough for Franklin to turn those 6 [[pillar]]s which he was able to execute will [with] the layth in the mill.”
[[File:0010.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, Charles Willson Peale, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at Belfield, Nov. 12, 1813.]]
* Peale, Charles Willson, November 12, 1813, in a letter to his daughter, Angelica Peale Robinson, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 216)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“I have made an [[obelisk|Oblisk]] to terminate a [[Walk]] in the Garden, read in Dictionary of Arts for description of them. I made it of rough boards & white washed it with lime & allum—The allum It is said will convert the lime in time to Stone. I have put the following motto on it—on one side ‘Never return an Injury, It is a noble Triumph to overcome Evil by Good.’ another, ‘Labour while you are able it will give health to the Body—peaceful content to the mind.’ another, ‘He that will live in peace & Rest, must hear, and see, and say the best & in french ‘y voy, & te tas, si tu veux vivre en paix.’ and on another ‘Neglect no Duty.’ The distick which I have adopted is claimed by several Nations, I have put the french because it is more concise & equally expressive.” [Fig. 5]
[[File:0009.jpg|thumb|200px|Fig. 6, Charles Willson Peale, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at Belfield, Nov. 22, 1815.]]
* Peale, Charles Willson, November 22, 1815, in a letter to his daughter, Angelica Peale Robinson, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 370&ndash;37171)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“I have also painted . . . a tolerable large Landscape almost finished, it is a [[View]] of the Garden and most of the Buildings, as seen from what we call my [[seat]] in the [[Walk]] to the mill,—difficult part in it, that is, a representation of the down hill or rather Valley between the point of sight and the Garden.</p>
:<p>“The objects in sight are the road ascending to the Dwelling, Stone [[wall]] & Thorn [[hedge]] on it inclosing the Garden. The Garden [[Gate]] at the [[Fountain]], [[greenhouse|Green House]], [[summerhouse|Summer house]] a doom supported by 6 Pillars and bust of Washington crowning it – beyond that an [[obelisk|Oblisk]] The Hay barracks; Barn with the wind mill on top of it to <pu> pump water for the Stock; Stables; Mantion-House Wash house and connecting [[piazza|Piaza]]; Carriage House; Spring House; [[bathhouse|Bath house]] and Cover of the [[icehouse|Ice-House]]. The whole comprehending a tolerable handsome [[View]] including Trees of various folliages—But what must render this Picture more interesting, will be some Portraits setting on the Bench under a Beach Tree, (as yet a Small Tree) but being the nearest object, it must be most distinctly finished, The declining [[Meadow]] will form a charming background for the figures on the Bench. There should also be figures in various parts of the Ground to give animation to the sciene, all of which are yet to be done. I intend it for the Museum when finished to my mind I wish I could have you as one of the figure on the Bench.” [Fig. 6]</p>
* Peale, Charles Willson, March 15, 27, 29, 1814, in a letter to his sons, Benjamin Franklin Peale and Titian Ramsey Peale, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 239)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“As soon as the weather becomes settled & warm, I will have the [[basin|Bason]] walled up with a proper morter, and when that is doing I shall put a Cock to the Leaden pipe to let the water pass out untill the [[basin|Bason]] is prepaired to receive it. and when my leasure and I can spare a man to hall dirt I will raise the water in the fish [[Pond]] which will encrease its surfaces considerably raising the water to the stone [[wall]] at the head of the [[Pond]], deeper, and more water, will be better for fish & will raise the [[jet|get [jet]]] at the [[fountain]] considerably.</p>
:<p>“The stone and ground is remooved at the Bottom of the Garden but the [[Wall]] is not as high and access into the Garden is not so easey as it used to be, even before any [[wall]] is made.”</p>
* Peale, Charles Willson, September 6, 1814, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 263)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“I have finished my [[fountain]] and . . . the [[basin|Bason]] holds the water after much labour to make fountain so having raised the Fish-[[pond]] it gives a [[jet]] of 12 feet high. . . . Rubens has place all his [[Pot]]s round the [[fountain]] [[basin|B[a]son]] and it makes a very handsome display, The [[basin|Bason]] being 13 feet long & 10 wide.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, September 14, 1814, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 266)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“The [[fountain]] [[basin|Bason]] now holds water completly, and the [[jet]] is 12 feet high, and is kept continually playing; Day & night, Rubens has placed all his plants round the [[basin|Bason]], and it is very handsome.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, August 4, 1816, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing [[Belfield]] (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 44)<ref name="Rudnytzky">Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, "The “The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield" Belfield” (unpublished Honors honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have been so long neglecting the [[view]] I am about in [the] garden that the trees & [[shrubbery]] have grown so high that I cannot represent them truly without almost totally hiding the [[walk]]s, therefore I shall prefer leaving out many of them—and also make them smaller.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, October 13, 1816, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 452)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“Other parts of my farm excited the curiousity of the Public—a wind-mill for pumping Water for the Cattle &c.—A [[fall garden|falling Garden]], [[fountain]], fish [[Pond]], common Sewers &c Machines to add [aid] the dairy and carriages of various uses—all these things employed the whole of my time to emprove & to keep them in proper order.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, October 1, 1818, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 1991: 3: 607)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“'I have chosen two views I wish to paint, one is at the beginning of the rise of the high hill leading to Germantown, it takes in my [[obelisk|Oblisk]], Barn and Mansion House and both the [[summerhouse|Summer Houses]] -- The [[Gate]] & willow tree on the left, the hill back of the Garden, the road, the water in the road & mill race, and a piece of Mr. Wistar's [[wood]] for a finish on the right of the picture.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, January 14, 1824, in a letter to his son, Charles Linnaeus Peale, describing [[Belfield]] (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 32)<ref name="Rudnytzky"></ref>
:“Dear Linnius I wish you to consider whether it is not better to avoid these expenses by burying your Child in the Garden on the south side of the [[obelisk|Oblisk]], a place which if I hold the farm untill my decease, I shall desire to have my body deposited. This has been my determination ever since I painted those inscriptions.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Philadelphia, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 5: 91)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“When Peace was concluded between Great Britain & the united States of America, President Dickenson and the Executive Counsil employed Peale to paint a Triumphal [[Arch]] in transparent Colours. It consisted of three [[arch|arches]], the Center [[Arch]] was 20 feet high, and the side [[arch|arches]] each 15 feet high, and the whole length extended nearly to the width of Market street, and it was 46 feet high, independant of the [[statue|statues]] of the 4 cardenal Virtues larger than human figures. The architecture was of the Ionic order, ornamented with reaths of Flowers, in festoons and winding round the [[column|Columes]]. It was also ornamented in sundry parts of the building as follows[:]</p>
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Wye House, estate of Col. Edward Lloyd, Talbot County, Md. MD (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 2000: 5: 147)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“The Coll. is possessed of immence property, he had 400 Ars. of land in a [[deer park|park]] to keep Deer, round which was a [[fence]] of 20 rails high, Maise were planted within for sustenance of his deer.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing the Brideswell (Workhouse), New York, N.Y. NY (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 2000: 5: 167&ndash;16868)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:“In the garden they saw the remains of the [[statue]] of Mr. Pitt . . . the head was gone and other parts much mutilated, This was done by the British, pehaps because the americans had broken to pieces the [[statue]] of King George, which was an equistrian [[statue]] of Lead, which they cast into bullets.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing New York, N.Y. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 2000: 5: 247&ndash;24848)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“Peale went to a [[bath|bathing house]] on the north river, this building has a private as well as public bathing places, for men or women. The cost of public bathing is 12 1/2 Cts. and 25 Cents for private bathing. . . .</p>
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]] (Miller, Hart, and Ward, edset al., 2000: 5: 380&ndash;38383)<ref name="Miller"></ref>
:<p>“The proprietor made [[summerhouse|summer houses]] (so called) roofs to ward off the Sunbeams with [[seat]]s of rest. one made of the [[chinese manner|chinease]] [''sic''] taste, dedicated to medieation [''sic''], with the following sentiments round within it:</p>
:<p>“Mediate on the Creation of ''Worlds'', which perform their evolutions in proscribed periods!...</p>
:<p>“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a [[seat]] in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a [[seat]], and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture....</p>
:<p>“Having a good spring-house the water from it supplied a small fish-[[pond]], in which he put many cat-fish brought from the Schulkill and although they lived and perhaps might be breed there yet being petts never was served at his table[.] The same with Pidgeons, they had commodious house, and once a pr. of squabs was taken to the Kitchen, but the Parent came after them and alighting on the Kitchen window, Mrs. Peale’s delicate feelings could not suffer them to be killed and accordingly they were returned to the [[pigeon house|Pidgeon-house]].</p>
Image:0037.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, ''William Paca'', 1772.
Image:0115.jpg|James Trenchard after Charles Willson Peale, "An “An East View of GRAY’S FERRY, near Philadelphia, with the TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, &c. erected for the Reception of General Washington, April 20th.1789," in ''Columbian Magazine'' 3, no. 5 (May 1789): pl. opp. p. 282.
Image:0116.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, Sketches of Belfield, 1810.
Image:0560.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, Ground plot of Belfield, 1810.
Image:0569.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, Garden Gate at "Belfield“Belfield," c. 1810&ndash;181717.
Image:0010.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at Belfield, Nov. 12, 1813.
Image:0044.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, ''View of the garden at Belfield'', 1816.
Image:0887.jpg|Charles Willson Peale, "Grand “Grand Civic Arch," 1824, in Charles Coleman Sellers, "Charles “Charles Willson Peale with Patron and Populace," ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'' 59, no. 3. (1969), p. : 103.
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