The bath and bathhouse in America had many forms, including private versions attached to houses or separately constructed in a garden, and public baths at resorts, in [[public garden]]s, and at the seaside. The term “bath” referred both to the structure covering the water and to the watering receptacle or pool itself. The structures were sometimes called bathhouses or bathing houses. Baths at natural sources of mineral waters were also referred to as spas and springs.
[[File:0461.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, [[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath ([[Berkeley Springs)|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA [detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787. “f. a large Bath for swimming” and “g. a Bath for Poor People.”]]
Although garden treatise literature contains few references to garden baths, other evidence indicates that the bathhouse held a prominent position in American ornamental landscapes. Baths were situated in public gardens, such as a public bath and garden in Norfolk, Virginia, or Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower in Philadelphia, and in many private gardens, such as John Donnell’s Willow Brook in Baltimore and [[Charles Willson Peale|Charles Willson Peale's]]’s [[Belfield]] in Philadelphia. Baths at private estates might be simple, as suggested by the note in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' in 1733, of “frames, Planks, &c. to be fix’d in and about a Spring . . . intended for a Cold Bath.” They also could be quite substantial, as was Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s stone-lined bath, which he ordered in 1778 to measure ten by eight feet with a depth of four-and-a-half feet. Few detailed descriptions of the architecture of these bathhouses survive, however. At [[Monte Video]] in Connecticut, the bathhouse was described merely as Gothic. More is known about the architecture of public baths, where the structures were larger and often quite elaborate. Many textual descriptions and images of baths survive because they were considered civic amenities, such as the bath at Castle Garden in New York [Fig. 1]. [[Samuel Vaughan|Samuel Vaughan's]]’s plan of 1787 plan for the town of Bath included “baths [at a] for company 5 by 18 feet that fills in 5 minutes & emties [''sic''] in four,” dressing rooms [''b''], two [[piazza]]s with [[seat]]s [''bb''], a large bath for swimming [''f''], and a separate “Bath for Poor People [''g'']” [Fig. 2]. Sophie Madeleine du Pont in 1837 described and sketched a bathhouse at Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Virginia (later West Virginia), with a thirty-foot octagonal masonry [[basin]] and four separate bathing rooms [Fig. 3].
[[File:1781.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 3, Sophie Madeleine du Pont, Octagonal Bath at Warm Springs ([[Berkeley Springs]]), 1837.]]
Mineral springs were visited as early as 1669 when Massachusetts colonists took the waters at Lynn Red Spring, but it was not until the end of the French and Indian War that springs began to be developed widely as commercial establishments.<ref>Carl Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places of Colonial America,” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 3, no. 2 (April 1946): 152, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero].]</ref> A bath at Stafford Springs in Connecticut opened in 1765 and became, in the words of Samuel Peters, “where the sick and rich resort to prolong life, and acquire the polite accomplishments.”<ref>Samuel Peters, ''A General History of Connecticut'' (London: Printed for the author, 1781), 174. A detailed description of a visit to Stafford Springs is recorded in John Adams’s diary in 1771, although he does not use the term “bath,” [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BCM4IVP7 view on Zotero].]</ref> In addition to bathing, spas, such as Yellow Sulphur Springs, near Philadelphia, often included a variety of entertainments such as dining, dancing, and overnight lodging.<ref>Barbara G. Carson, “Early American Tourists and the Commercialization of Leisure,” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century'', ed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994), 390, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero]; Carol Shiels Roark, “Historic Yellow Springs: The Restoration of an American Spa,” ''Pennsylvania Folklife'' 24 (autumn 1974): 28–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6S7GIT3/ view on Zotero].] </ref> Bathing, as a general practice, was argued to have healthful effects. J. B. Bordley wrote in 1798 that “[e]very family in this fine climate ought to have its bath. . . . Bathing moistens, soaks, washes, supples and refreshes the whole body.” At the age of 95, Charles Carroll of Carrollton credited his longevity to daily cold baths. When bathed in and imbibed, mineral waters rich in sulfur and iron were particularly renowned for their curative properties for ailments such as rheumatism, cholera, malaria, hysteria, gout, and digestive disorders. Du Pont, seeking relief from a back and knee ailment, took the waters of Warm Springs, and she described vividly the sulfur-rich water’s “odour of half spoiled eggs.”
[[File:0460.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Charles Varlé, ''Project for the Improvement of the [[Square ]] and the Town of Bath'' [detail], 1809. “F. addition of Bath.”]]
[[File:0703.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 5, Lewis Miller, “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County,” n.d.]]
As their popularity grew, accommodations and other facilities were built at many of the springs to cater to the travelers seeking rest and refreshment. These resorts often included elaborate gardens. In 17751776, the Virginia Assembly laid out the town of Bath around a spring that had been owned by Lord Fairfax. Lots sold at 25 guineas each, and Bath included a theater, inns, and places to ride and play billiards. Charles Varlé’s landscape design for the town in 1809 [Fig. 4] included a reservoir or [[fountain]] “covered with a vine treliage in a form of a dome or copula,” a [[jet|jet d’eau]], a [[bowling green]], and two [[labyrinth]]s “contrived so as to be different in their issues and windings.” The town became a fashionable resort; visitors included Baron and Baroness de Riedesel and Mrs. Charles Carroll of Carrollton.<ref>Percival Reniers, ''The Springs of Virginia: Life, Love, and Death at the Waters, 1775–1900'' (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941), 34, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDD/ view on Zotero].]</ref>
The Bath resort community declined in popularity with the rise of the other Virginia springs in the Allegheny highlands described by Thomas Jefferson as “medicinal springs.” These springs became part of a social tour that lasted from July through mid-September. The tour generally started at Warm Springs, and continued on to Hot Springs, White Sulphur Springs, Sweet Springs, Salt Sulphur Springs, and Red Sulphur Springs.<ref>Reniers, ''The Springs of Virginia'', 26, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDD/ view on Zotero.]; B. Carson, “Early American Tourists,” 393–97, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero]. Cary Carson includes, along with his discussion of consumer behavior in America, a measured drawing of the oldest extant bathhouse in America, the Gentlemen’s bathhouse in Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Virginia (later West Virginia). See Cary Carson, “The Consumer Revolution in Colonial America: Why Demand?” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century'', ed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994), 444–697, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q476GSSS view on Zotero].]</ref> Lewis Miller’s sketch of Yellow Sulphur Springs illustrates accommodations, [[walk]]s, benches, lighting, and other features for the recreation of the bathers [Fig. 5]. Historian Carl Bridenbaugh credits these resorts, at least in colonial times, with “promoting colonial union and . . . nourishing nascent Americanism.” He argues that, in addition to the springs’ appeal as salubrious escapes from humidity, heat, and noise, they offered the “most significant intercolonial meeting places. . . . [and] provided a powerful solvent of provincialism.”<ref> Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places,” 180–81. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero].]</ref> As some of the most elaborate landscape designs of the period suggest, resorts may also have done much to disseminate the fashion for baths and bathhouses in residential gardens as well.
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''
*Anonymous, July 28, 1733, describing a plantation for sale in Charleston, SC (''South Carolina Gazette'')
:“A [[Plantation]] about two Miles above Goose-Creek [[Bridge]] . . . [had] a Spring within 3 Stones throw of the House, intended for a Cold '''Bath'''.”
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1771, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA (1944: 26)<ref>Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', ed. Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . a few feet below the spring level the ground 40 or 50 f. sq. let the water fall from the spring in the upper level over a [[terrace]] in the form of a [[cascade]]. then conduct it along the foot of the [[terrace]] to the Western side of the level, where it may fall into a cistern under a [[temple]], from which it may go off by the western [[border]] till it falls over another [[terrace]] at the Northern or lower side. let the [[temple]] be raised 2. f. for the first floor of stone. under this is the cistern, which may be a '''bath''' or anything else. the 1st story [[arch]]es on three sides; the back or western side being close because the hill there comes down, and also to carry up stairs on the outside. the 2d story to have a door on one side, a spacious window in each of the other sides, the rooms each 8. f. cube; with a small table and a couple of chairs. the roof may be [[Chinese stylemanner|Chinese]], Grecian, or in the taste of the Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens.”
*Quincy, Josiah, May 3, 1773, describing the country seat of John Dickensen, near Philadelphia , PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“This worthy and [[arch]]-politician . . . here enjoys ''otium cum dignitate'' as much as any man. Take into consideration the antique look of his house, his gardens, [[green-house]], '''bathing-house''', [[grotto]], study, fish-[[pond]], fields, [[meadow]]s, [[vista]], through which is distant [[prospect]] of Delaware River.”
*Peters, Samuel, 1782, describing Stafford Springs, CT (quoted in Bridenbaugh 1946: 153)<ref>Carl Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places of Colonial America,” ''William and Mary Quarterly'', 3 (April) (1946), 151–81, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . the New England '''''Bath''''', where the sick and rich resort to prolong life and acquire the polite accomplishments.”
*Anonymous, April 28, 1786, describing a new bathing house in Charleston, SC, in the ''Charleston Morning Post, and Daily Advertiser'' (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“A '''Bathing House''' BEING about to be erected at the Retreat, those Gentlemen who wish to become subscribers, are requested to leave their name and the Needful at the said place, as speedily as possible. . . . Many attempts have been made to establish a '''BATHING HOUSE''', but none of them have succeeded, and when it is recollected that in this climate, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial, it seems truly astonishing . . . in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''.”
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], June 1788, describing Annapolis, MD (Miller, Hart, and Appelet al., eds., 1983: 1:498)<ref name="Miller et al">Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', 5 volsvol. 1, ''Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, 1753–1791'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983–20001983), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . being invited to dine with the fish Club, I took my Gun for further Amusement; the club had a marqui fixed opposite the Cool Spring ('''bath House''') on the other side of the creek. They have skittle Ground and qu[o]ites to amuse themselves.”
*Bentley, William, 1800 and 1802, describing Salem, MA (1962: 2:339, 437)<ref name="Bentley"></ref>
:“31. [May 1800] The weather begins to feel like Summer. I bathed in the river this evening, & the '''Bath House''' was opened for the first time. . . .
:“July 1 [1802] walked down Seargeant’s new wharf, which is now the best in the Town. Near it, eastward, is a '''bathing house''' for salt water, lately erected for females, but little used.”
*[[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], March 26, 1805, describing a design for a house in Philadelphia , PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“From the kitchen a door leads to the Back stairs, which communicate immediately with the Dining room, and the Lady’s apartment above stairs. At the foot of these stairs is a small room, which can be well adapted to the purpose of a '''bath''', or a store room.”
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], July 29, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller, Hart, and Wardet al., eds., 1991: 3:55)<ref name=">Lillian B. Miller et al">., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 3, ''The Belfield Farm Years, 1810–1820'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Barn and one of the Barracks on the West, the Coach-House near the Center, Spring-house on the East side and the '''Bath House''' below it. There is 4 large Popplers (Tulip Tree) which crosses the Road, and the Lumbardy Poppler a row of them on your right hand. Just above the '''bath-House''' is a small fish [[pond]] with about 200 Catfish which I brought from the falls of [[Schyylkill River|Schulkill]].”
*Anonymous, April 24, 1813, describing Norfolk, VA (''Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger'')
:“PUBLIC '''BATHS''' AND [[public garden|GARDEN]], OPPOSITE THE THEATRE.
:“The subscriber, ever grateful to his friends and the public in general for their past favors, takes this method of informing them that his '''Baths''' will be opened every day (when fair) from 6 A.M. to 9 P.M. He flatters himself that by the neatness and promptitude which he will exert himself in serving those who will favor him with their custom, to merit the public patronage. The price for '''Baths''', as heretofore, three for one dollar; 37 1-2 cents for a single one.”
*Anonymous, September 18, 1813, describing in the ''City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser'' a proposed bathhouse in Charleston, SC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“A splendid Establishment. The subscriber has it in contemplation to erect at the East Bay in this city a CIRCULAR FLOATING '''BATHING HOUSE''', on a new, highly approved, extensive and elegant plan&mdash;to plan—to go into operation in the season of 1814. It will be 250 feet in circumference, built of the best materials, and in the most substantial manner, forming a beautiful structure, which (besides increasing the resources of health and pleasure) will be greatly ornamental to the city. It will contain FORTY capacitus private bathing rooms, lighted by VENETIAN windows: a large SWIMMING '''bath''' in the centre, of about 160 feet circumference: FORTY dressing CLOSETS attached to the swimming '''bath''': two spacious SITTING rooms, one for the accommodation of LADIES, and the other for GENTLEMEN.”
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Charleston, SC (1816: 2:139–40)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The garden dignified by the name Vauxhall is also under the direction of Mr. Placide. It is situated in Broad-street, a short distance from the theatre, surrounded by a brick [[wall]], but possesses no decoration worthy of notice. It is not to be compared even with the common tea-gardens in the vicinity of London. There are some warm and cold '''baths''' on one side for the accomodation of the inhabitants. . . . The heavy dews and vapours which arise from the swamps and marshes in its neighbourhood, after a hot day, are highly injurious to the constitution, particularly while it is inflamed by the wine and spirituous liquors which are drunk in the garden. It is, also, the period of the sickly season when the garden is open for public amusement, and the death of many performers and visitors may be ascribed to the entertainments given at that place.”
*Paulding, James Kirke, 1816, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), VA (later WV) (1817: 1:167, 169; 2:235)<ref>James Kirke Paulding, ''Letters from the South'', 2 vols. (New York: James Eastburn, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H5XVF9WE view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[Vol. 1]. The '''bath''' here is the most luxurious of any in the world; its temperature about that of the body, its purity almost equal to that of the circumambient air: and the fixed air plays against the skin, in a manner that tickles the fancy wonderfully. . . .
:“The '''bath''' is about thirty feet in diameter, forming an octagon, walled two or three feet above the water’s edge; the bottom covered with pebbles, and the water so pure, that if it were only deeper, a man’s head would turn in looking down into it. . . .
:“[Vol. 2]. There is a [[pavilion]] built over the spring, which is used for drinking, and two '''bathhouses'''&mdash;one —one for either sex. The spring which supplies the ladies’ '''bath''' is one of the finest I have ever seen. It bursts from a fissure in the rock in the form of a cone, much larger than the crown of a hat, and, together with the others, forms a fine stream, in some places six or eight yards wide.”
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Bladensburg, MD (1816: 160)<ref>David Bailie Warden, ''A Chronographical and Statistical Description of the District of Columbia'' (Paris: Printed and sold by Smith, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QF8TXC8D view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The mineral spring is pleasantly situated on the side of the stream, near a fine [[clump]] of trees at the entrance of the village. It would not require much expense to make this an agreeable watering place. . . . By means of a thermometer, which Mr. Diggs politely procured, we found the temperature of the water to be 55 1/2°. Some years ago, a public '''bath''' was constructed near the spring, but the temperature was found to be disagreeably cold, and it was entirely abandoned.”
*Deford, William, May 5, 1819, describing in the ''American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser'' Wigwam Gardens in Norfolk, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“''Bathing imparts new vigour and elasticity to the system&mdash;It system—It is the grand restorative of nature.'' Public '''Bathing house'''. THE Subscriber having, at a considerable expense, and with much personal labour, put his '''BATHS''' in such order as to render them worthy of the public attention, hopes to receive that remuneration which h[i]s efforts merit, and which, he feels assured, ''a prudent regard to the preservation of their health'', will ensure to him, from his fellow citizens.
:“In his arrangements for the Season, which commenced on the 1st ins. he flatters himself, that he has neglected nothing which may be necessary to recommend his '''Baths''' for cleanliness, convenience, privacy, or attendance, and Ladies and Gentlemen can be accommodated at any hour, with ''Hot, Cold, or Tepid '''Baths''''', as may be best adapted to their health or taste.”
*Anonymous, March 22, 1820, describing in the ''City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser'' a salt water bathing house proposal in Charleston, SC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“SALT WATER '''BATHING HOUSE'''. Many attempts have been made to establish a '''BATHING HOUSE''', but none of them have succeeded, and when it is recollected that in this climate, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial, it seems truly astonishing.&mdash;in —in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''. It depends upon the public whether his plans are carried into execution or not. Should a sufficient number of Subscribers be obtained, the work will be completed by the latter end of May: but it is not necessary that two hundred be obtained by the middle of April.
:“''The following is a brief sketch of the plan and situation'': The Building will be erected at the East end of Laurens street, a low water mark: the Foundation to be made of Palmetto Logs, 46 feet square, containing 14 private '''Baths''', with a '''Bath''' in the centre of 20 feet diameter: the bottom of the '''baths''' to be floored: over the Dressing Room will be a Platform and Railing, over which there will be a Roof. There will be a Bridge leading form Laurens street to the '''Bathing House'''.
*Silliman, Martha Trumbull, September 1, 1821, describing [[Monte Video]], property of Daniel Wadsworth, Avon, CT (quoted in Saunders and Raye 1981: 20)<ref>Richard Saunders and Helen Raye, ''Daniel Wadsworth, Patron of the Arts'' (Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1981), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P8ZQIH73 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The place is a great deal handsomer than I expected. The buildings are all Gothic. First there is Uncles beautiful house; 2d the tower, 3d the cottage & the barns 4th the boat house & 5th the '''bathing house''' 6th a grape house 7th an ice house & 8th the bee house & a Gothic gate.”
*Silliman, Benjamin, 1824, describing a [[fountain]] in New Lebanon, NY (1824: 46–47)<ref>Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (New Haven, CT: S. Converse, 1824), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B5VWTWM5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“This is a very remarkable [[fountain]]. Unlike most mineral waters, it issues from a high hill; the water boils up in a space of ten feet wide, by three and a half deep . . . the water discharged amounts to eighteen barrels in a minute, and not only supplies the '''baths''' very copiously, simply by running down hill to them.”
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing New York, NY (Miller, Hart, and Wardet al., eds., 2000: 5:247–48)<ref name=">Lillian B. Miller et al">., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Peale went to a '''bathing house''' on the north river, this building has a private as well as public bathing places, for men or women. The cost of public bathing is 12 1/2 Cts. and 25 Cents for private bathing. . . .
:“The public '''Bath''' is extended wings on each side about 40 feet into the river on which there are a range of boxes to dress and undress, these have stairs with ropes to decend into the water on the 3 sides and at the end next the river is a sunken vessel of an oblong square, and the debth of the water therein is about 4 feet, for the accomdation of those who cannot swim. In the private '''baths''' they have the same kind of vessels which rise and fall with the tide. You are furnished with a towel and an oil cap for the head. They have warm '''baths''' for those who want them. The[re] is another '''bathing house''' on the same river, which at present is not in order except for the accomodation of women.
[[File:1782.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 6, Sophie Madeleine du Pont, ''Spout bath at the Warm Springs'' (Berkeley Springs), 1837.]]
*du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, July 21, 1837, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), VA (later WV) (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 173, 179)<ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie Du du Pont, A Young Lady in America: Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823–1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Warm Springs. . . . The most abundant of these gushes from the earth in the middle of a large octagonal [[basin]] of mason work covered with a wooden building having an opening at the top, & four neat & comfortable rooms on as many sides for the accommodation of bathing. This '''bath''' is thirty eight feet in diameter; & the temperature of water 96 degrees&mdash;It degrees—It is one of the most curious & beautiful objects I have seen, the water is pure & translucent to an almost dazzling degree, & rises in ceaseless flow, accompanied by showers of bright gleaming air bubbles. . . .
:“There are several other springs of the same kind in the [[meadow]]&mdash;round —round one a platform is built with benches, under shady trees, for those who drink the water, which notwithstanding its odour of half spoiled eggs & its warmth, is not very nauseous to the taste&mdash;Another taste—Another '''bath house''' contains four small '''baths''', into one of which a ''spout'' is arranged ''for'' the benefit of those who are recommended to take ''douches''. I have tried this at Dr Horner’s request & think it of service to me, as well as the bathing.” [Fig. 6]
*Alcott, William A., August 1838, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages” (''American Annals of Education'' 8: 343)<ref>William A. Alcott, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages,” ''American Annals of Education'' 8, no. 8 (August 1838): 337–47, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5K3WRQ2I view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In all our larger cities and towns there should be public '''baths''', and custom should require their daily use by those who have not the means of private ones. And if we do not recommend public '''bathing houses''' to every town and village of New England, of every size, it is because we do humbly hope our citizens will provide themselves with conveniences of the kind at their own expense, when they can be made to feel their importance.”
*[[Charles Mason Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]](Charles Mason), October 1850, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” describing a residence in Cambridge, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 16: 462)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 16, no. 10 (October 1850): 461–62, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/599Z2NAK view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The sailing [[pond]], with the exception of the [[walk]]s around the border, and the planting of a few trees on the island in the centre, have been completed since last year, and a fine boat-house, to combine a '''bathing-house''', &c., was now just being finished.”
*Watson, John Fanning, 1857, describing Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower, Philadelphia , PA (1857: 1:411)<ref>John Fanning Watson, ''Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania in the Olden Time; Being a Collection of Memoirs, Anecdotes, and Incidents of the City and Its Inhabitants, and of the Earliest Settlements of the Inland Part of Pennsylvania, from the Days of the Founders'', 2 vols. (Philadelphia: E. Thomas, 1857), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5PTKBUW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I had long heard traditional facts concerning the rural beauty and charming scenes of Bathsheba's '''bath''' and [[bower]], as told among the earliest recollections of the aged. They had heard their parents talk of going out over the Second street [[bridge]] into the country about the Society hill, and there making their tea—regale at the above—named spring.”
===Citations===
*[[Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . . .'', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''BATH''', BALNEUM, a convenient receptacle of water for persons to wash, or plunge in, either for health or pleasure. See WATER. '''''Baths''''' are either ''natural'' or ''artificial''. Natural, again, are either ''hot'' or '''cold'''. . . .
:“'''BATHS''', BALNEA, in architecture, denote large pompous buildings among the ancients, erected for the sake of bathing.
*Bordley, J. B., July 1798, ''Country Habitations'' (1798: 11)<ref>J. B. [John Beale] Bordley, ''Country Habitations'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1798), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FQ7V6B5S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Thus from water thrown up, every house might have ''family '''baths'''''; the most important of all building—improvements for the health and comfort of families, that can be adopted in our climate especially. You now rise from bed and wash face and hands&mdash;your hands—your tip ends. Why not rise and plunge into your wash-[[bason]]&mdash;a —a '''bath''' adjacent to your bed-chamber? instead of using a gallon vessel of water, only for hands and face! Every family in this fine climate ought to have its '''''bath'''''; and when there are servants, proper bathing places should be provided for them.
:“Bathing moistens, soaks, washes, supples and refreshes the whole body. When the water is tepid, bathing is always safe, cleaning and refreshing; when ''cold'', or made more than blood ''warm'', it is wholesome or not according to the state of health; but is very beneficial in many cases, when well advised to use the one or the other, according to the state of health.”
:“A ''vapor'' '''bath''' is formed by filling an apartmentwith hot steam or vapor, in which the body sweats copiously, as in Russia; or the term is used, for the application of hot steam to a diseased part of the body. ''Encyc. Tooke.''
:“A ''metalline'' '''bath''' is water impregnated with iron or other metallic substance, and applied to a diseased part. ''Encyc. . . .''
:“3. A house for bathing. In some eastern countries, '''baths''' are very magnificent edifices.”
*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:33)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Design V.&mdash;Elevations—Elevations, plans, details, ground [[plot]] and scenic [[view]] of a cottage in the Tudor style, designed for a country residence on the bank of the Bronx river, in Westchester County, N. Y. The tenement comprises ten acres of ground. . . . The premises will contain a gardener’s lodge, [[summer-house]], stone [[bridge]], coach-house, '''bathhouse''', and out-buildings, screened by ornamental [[shrubbery]].”
<hr>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath ([[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs)]]], VA [detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787. “f. a large '''Bath ''' for swimming” and “g. a '''Bath ''' for Poor People.”
Image:0462.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], “Warm or [[Berkeley Springs]], in Virginia,” 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787.
Image:0460.jpg|Charles Varlé, ''Project for the Improvement of the [[Square ]] and the Town of Bath'' [detail], 1809. “F. addition of '''Bath'''.”
Image:0722.jpg|Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. “Bathing House” is located just below the poplar [[grove]].
Image:1782.jpg|Sophie Madeleine du Pont, ''Spout '''bath ''' at the Warm Springs'' ([[Berkeley Springs]]), 1837.
Image:0568.jpg|William Keenan, ''Plan of the City and Neck of Charleston, S.C.'', September 1844. “Bathing House” “'''Bathing House'''” at the bottom left of the plan.
Image:0487.jpg|William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.
Image:0567.jpg|Sam A. Gilbert, ''A Plan of the City of Charleston'', 1849. “Bathing House” “'''Bathing House'''” at the bottom of the plan.
Image:0781.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Plan and section of Villa at Oswego, New York, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 12. “bath“'''bath-house''', L.” Image: 2288.jpg|Map of White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, Virginia, 1854. Image: 2288_detail1.jpg|Map of White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, Virginia, 1854 [detail].
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0907.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Speranza, in ''Architectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux'' (1795).  Image:1781.jpg|Sophie Madeleine du Pont, Octagonal Bath at Warm Springs ([[Berkeley Springs]]), 1837.
</gallery>
Image:0703.jpg|Lewis Miller, “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County,” n.d.
Image:09082280.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Frontal [[view]] of two [[pavilion]]s on the water for the city of Speranza, 1795. Image:2281.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Aerial View [[view]] of Park(?), Esperanzatwo [[pavilion]]s on the water for the city of Speranza, 1794–951795.
FileImage:2116.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''[[Fountain ]] [[Park ]] near Philadelphia. Residence of A. McMakin Esq.'', c. 1850.
</gallery>

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available in May. Thank you for your patience as we modernize!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42