===Usage===
[[File:0935.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Walsh]], “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308.]]
*Constantia [Murray, Judith Sargent], June 24, 1790, “Description of [[Gray’s Gardens]], Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 31790: 415)<ref name="Constantia_1790">Constantia, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3 (June 1790): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4/q/constantia view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“At every turn shaded [[seat]]s are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbor|arbours]], '''alcoves''', and [[summerhouse|summer houses]], which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers. Among these the little federal [[temple]] claims the principal regard. It is the very edifice, that upon the celebration of the ratification of the constitution, was carried in triumphant procession through the streets of this metropolis; and, upon a gentle acclivity, upon the summit of a green [[mound]] infixed, it hath now obtained a basis. It is a Rotunda, its cupola is supported by thirteen [[pillar]]s handsomely finished; their base, is to receive the cypher of the several states, which they represent, with a star upon every capital, and its top is crowned with the figure of Plenty grasping the cornucopia and other insignia. The ascent to this [[Temple]] is easy, and we gain it by the semicircular steps neatly turned, and the [[view]] therefrom is truly interesting.”
*<div id="Walsh"></div>[[Alexander Walsh|Walsh, Alexander]], February 1, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 191841: 309),<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Walsh_cite|back up to history]]
:“ . . . diminutive rustic '''alcoves''', from thrifty growing plants of upright privet, ''Ligustrum strictum'', formed by placing a platform of light boards 2 ft. 6 in. from the ground, and 3 ft. long, and 1 ft. 6 in. wide, on the twigs of the privet; those in the centre of the platform to be trimmed off close to it under side, and those on the back and sides to be led up round the platform, entwined and arched; the door to be constructed from the twigs in front, and an opening left 2 ft. 6 in. high, which is the height of the dome.” [Fig. 3]
===Citations===
[[File:1702.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Alcoves,” in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 356, fig. 331.]]
*<div id="MMahon"></div>[[Bernard M’Mahon|M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (1806: 64),<ref>Bernard M’Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done . . . for Every Month of the Year. . . .'' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/q/m'mahon view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#MMahon_cite|back up to history]]
:“In some spacious [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]] various light ornamental buildings and erections are introduced, as ornaments to particular departments; such as [[temple]]s, [[bower]]s, banquetting houses, '''alcoves''', [[grotto]]s, rural [[seat]]s, cottages, [[fountain]]s, [[obelisk]]s, [[statue]]s, and other edifices; these and the like are usually erected in the different parts, in openings between the divisions of the ground, and contiguous to the terminations of grand [[walk]]s, &c.
[[File:0960.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, John J. Thomas, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''The Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): p. 22, fig. 8.]]*<div id="Horticultural_Register"></div>Anonymous, April 1, 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (''Horticultural Register'' 31837: 129),<ref>Anonymous, “Landscape Gardening,” ''The Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 3 (April 1, 1837): 121–31, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TBFISAR7 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Horticultural_Register_cite|back up to discussion]]
:“Architectural and other ornaments may be introduced, according to the means of the proprietor. When properly distributed they add much to the effect. [[Seat]]s and [[arbor]]s should be placed at points affording interesting [[view]]s, '''alcoves''' and rotundas on [[eminence]]s, and [[hermitage]]s in secluded places.”
*Thomas, John J., January 1842, “The Garden and the Orchard” (''The Cultivator'' 91842: 22)<ref> John J. Thomas, “The Garden and the Orchard,” ''The Cultivator: A Monthly Publication, Devoted to Agriculture'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JX49FGI4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The two finest [[view]]s are seen after entering the house; . . . The [[view]] from the dining room is towards the garden. Directly beneath is the [[parterre]], or flower [[bed]]s cut into the turf on the [[lawn]], at ''k''; beyond this is the light [[arch|archway]] [[gate]] to the garden, through which the [[view]] extends along the [[vista]] formed by flower [[bed]]s, ''h h'', and terminates at the [[greenhouse|green house]], (or '''alcove'''), at ''m''.” [Fig. 5]
*Anonymous, February 1848, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (''The Horticulturist'' 21848: 364)<ref>Anonymous, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): 363–65, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4H34XQXX view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“''Fig''. 4, is a [[rustic style|RUSTIC]] '''ALCOVE''', to be placed at the end of a garden [[walk]].” [Fig. 6]

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available in May. Thank you for your patience as we modernize!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42