*[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” States” (''The Magazine of Horticulture'' (18373: 8)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, "Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs,'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The finest single example of [[landscape gardening]], in the [[modern style]], is at [[Dr. Hosack]]’s [[seat]], [[Hyde Park]], and the best specimens of the '''ancient''' or [[geometric style]] may probably be met with in the neighborhood of Philadelphia.”
*W., February 1842, “An Account of the Lowell Cemetery,” Lowell, MA (''The Magazine of Horticulture'', Lowell, MA (18428: 49)<ref> W., “An account of the Lowell Cemetery, its Situation, Historical Associations, and particular description,” ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 8, no. 2 (February 1842): 47–50, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UKZS86F6 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“In laying out these grounds, the skill of the designer has been displayed, in combining somewhat the ''''ancient''' or [[geometric style]]' with the natural or irregular. In some parts, the regular forms and right lines are well adapted to the location of the ground, while in others, the varied and gradually curving forms give an air of grandeur and boldness, and in combining these with the natural scenery, cannot fail to call forth, in the minds of visitors, impressions of love and veneration.”
===Citations===
*<div id="MMahon"></div>[[Bernard M’Mahon|M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (1806: 55, 59, 65–69),<ref>Bernard M’Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done . . . for Every Month of the Year . . . '' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#MMahon_cite|back up to history]]
:“In designs for a [[pleasure ground|Pleasure-ground]], according to modern gardening; consulting rural disposition, in imitation of nature; all too formal works being almost abolished, such as long straight [[walk]]s, regular intersections, [[square]] grass-[[plat]]s, corresponding [[parterre]]s, quadrangular and angular spaces, and other uniformities, as in '''ancient''' designs; instead of which, are now adopted, rural open spaces of grass-ground, of varied forms and dimensions, and winding [[walk]]s, all bound with [[plantation]]s of trees, shrubs, and flowers, in various [[clump]]s; other compartments are exhibited in a variety of imitative rural forms; such as curves, projections, openings, and closings, in imitation of a natural assemblage; having all the various [[plantation]]s and [[border]]s, open to the [[walk]]s and [[lawn]]s. . . .
[[File:1365.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, [[J. C. Loudon]], The operations on ground under the ancient style, in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 1002, fig. 683.]]
*[[Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 792–93, 996, 1002, 1020)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“6093. . . . The '''ancient''' geometric '''style''', in place of irregular groups, employed symmetrical forms; in France, adding [[statue]]s and [[fountain]]s; in Holland, cut trees and grassy [[slope]]s; and in Italy, stone [[wall]]s, walled [[terrace]]s, and flights of steps. . . .
* <div id="Watterston"></div>Watterston, George, May 1844, “Landscape Gardening” (1844''Southern Literary Messenger'' 10: 310–12),<ref>George Watterston, “Landscape Gardening,” ''Southern Literary Messenger'', 10 (May 1844): 306–15, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3F6PUXVE view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Watterston_cite|back up to history]]
:“In passing from the '''ancient''', or [[geometric style]], to the modern, or natural, the first improvers fell, perhaps, into an opposite extreme. This is the danger in all sudden transitions. They seemed to conceive that crooked lines, serpentine windings and carelessness were true objects of beauty, and declared that nature ''abhorred a straight line''; and thus fatigued the eye by incessant curves. They did not seem to be aware, that in her sublimest works nature prefers the straight line, as is shown in the apparent horizon of the ocean and the rays of the sun. . . .
*[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1845: 210)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“''The '''ancient''' English [[flower garden|flower-garden]]'' is formed of [[bed]]s, connected together so as to form a regular or symmetrical figure; the [[bed]]s being edged with Box, or sometimes with flowering plants, and planted with herbaceous flowers, Roses, and one or two other kinds of low flowering shrubs. The flowers in the [[bed]]s are generally mixed in such a manner, that some may show blossoms every month during summer, and that some may retain their leaves during winter. This kind of garden should be surrounded by a [[border]] of evergreen and deciduous shrubs, backed by low trees; and in the centre there should be a [[sundial]], a [[vase]], a [[statue]], or a [[basin]] and [[fountain]].”
*Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (1852''The Horticulturist'' 7: 34–35)<ref>George Jaques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''The Horticulturist and journal Journal of rural art Rural Art and rural tasteRural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“Again, the taste of New-England people generally, for the beautiful and [[picturesque]] in rural scenery, is either vitiated, or totally uncultivated. Hence, the great mass of the people prefer symmetry, stiff formality, straight lines, and the geometrical forms of the '''ancient''' or artificial '''style''' of laying out grounds. Nearly all our first class places in Yankeedom, are so arranged. . . .

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42