==History==
[[File:0601.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers lived in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. “Meadow” is noted in the center between the [[woods]] and cornfield.]]
According to lexicographer [[Noah Webster]] (1828), meadow referred “to the low ground on the banks of rivers. . . whether grassland, pasture, tillage, or [[wood]] land,” or low-lying lands that were particularly “appropriated to the culture of grass.” Both definitions of the term “meadow” were used in the American context.
[[File:06010676.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden Plan of “Newington” in Allegheny County, PA, 1823, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, Anonymousp. 380.]]Maps of 18th-century New York and Boston show “salt meadows” along rivers. Like [[kitchen garden]]s or [[orchard]]s, meadows played a key role in early American husbandry, A plan and descriptive accounts of productive farms and estates often mention meadows, particularly when they gave the section of land on which landscape a rich or well-cultivated appearance. Meadows ranged in size from the Believers live 12-acre meadow noted in a 1747 newspaper advertisement to the state estimated 50 acres of meadow attached to an estate in Pennsylvania. In an 1807 plan of South Union, Ohio, Nova meadow was located in close proximity to the residences and between areas designated as [[wood]]s and a cornfield [Fig. 1]. Since meadows were largely covered with grass, they could provide sustenance for cattle. 7Indeed, 1807[[A. J. "Meadow" is noted Downing]], in describing the center between benefits of [[park]]s, frequently instructed homeowners to regard them as meadows where their cattle could graze. The cultivation of grass rendered “meadow” synonymous with “pasture,” which Webster defined as grounds covered with grass appropriated for the woods food of cattle, and cornfieldhence these terms frequently were used interchangeably.]]
Although meadows were primarily associated with agricultural production, they were often part of a consciously designed landscape, as at “Newington,” Pennsylvania [[File:0676.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden Plan of "Newington" ]. They were also included in Allegheny County, Paplans for [[plantation]]s and ornamental farms (see [[Ferme ornée]]). 18th-century British gardening treatises, 1823for example, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens endorsed the incorporation of Colony and State'' agricultural features into ornamental contexts: Batty Langley (19311728), vol. 1, p. 380.recommended “Little [[Walk]]s by purling streams in Meadows” as “delightful Entertainments.”
According to lexicographer [[Noah Webster]] (1828), meadow referred “to the low ground on the banks of rivers . . . whether grassland, pasture, tillage, or [[wood]] land,” or low-lying lands that were particularly “appropriated to the culture of grass.” Both definitions of the term “meadow” were used in the American context. [[File:09722255.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, [[Pierre Pharoux]], "General “General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben's Mannor" [detail]Steuben’s Mannor”, c. 1793. The "60 designation of “60 acres of Meadow" Meadow” is indicated noted at "j" “j,” in the four squares [[square]]s below the hemicycle.]]Eighteenth-century maps of New York and Boston show “salt meadows” along rivers. Like In many instances, meadows accomplished the same aesthetic results as [[kitchen gardenlawn]]s , including framing desired objects or [[orchardview]]s. At the 18th-century estate of Westover on the James River in Virginia, meadows played a key role in early American husbandryfor example, and descriptive accounts of productive farms and estates often mention meadows, particularly when they gave watered by [[canal]]s lined the landscape a rich or well-cultivated appearance. Meadows ranged in size from road leading to the 12-acre meadow noted in a 1747 newspaper advertisement mansion and signaled one’s arrival to the estimated 50 acres of meadow attached “improved grounds” surrounding the house. According to an estate in PennsylvaniaFrançois-Alexandre-Frédéric duc de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt (1799), Dr. In an 1807 plan Baron of Charleston, South Union, OhioCarolina, wanted to buy an area of flat land between his garden and the river to convert it to a meadow was located in close proximity to that could frame views of the residences and between areas designated as distant [[woodprospect]]s and a cornfield . [[Fig. 1Pierre Pharoux]]. Since meadows were largely covered with grass, they could provide sustenance in his plan for cattle. IndeedBaron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, New York, likewise used meadows carved out of [[A. J. Downingwood]], in describing s to ensure visual access to the benefits of [[parkprospect]]s, frequently instructed homeowners to regard them as meadows where their cattle could graze[Fig. The cultivation of grass rendered “meadow” synonymous with “pasture,” which Webster defined as grounds covered with grass appropriated for the food of cattle, and hence these terms frequently were used interchangeably3].
Although meadows Meadows were primarily associated with agricultural production, they were often part of a consciously designed landscape, as at “Newington,” Pa. closely related to [Fig. 2]. They were also included in plans for [[plantationpark]]s and ornamental farms (see [[Ferme ornéelawn]]). Eighteenth-century British gardening treatises, for example, endorsed the incorporation of agricultural features into ornamental contexts: s; [[Batty LangleyA. J. Downing|Downing]] (1728) recommended “Little on occasion referred to “meadow parks” and “meadow-[[Walklawn]]s by purling streams in Meadows” as “delightful Entertainmentss”. In many instancesNevertheless, meadows accomplished in at least one article in the same aesthetic results as ''Horticulturist'', he distinguished between [[lawn]]sand meadows, including framing desired objects or arguing that [[viewlawn]]s. At the eighteenth-century estate were composed of [[Westover]] on the James River in Virginiafirm, close, for exampleand short grass, while coarser (and presumably taller) grasses with meadow flowers made up meadows watered by . Moreover, [[canallawn]]s lined the road leading to the mansion were often trimmed and signaled one’s arrival to the “improved grounds” surrounding the house. According rolled to François-Alexandre-Frédéric duc de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt (1799), Dr. Baron of Charlestonmaintain their appearance, S.C., wanted to buy an area of flat land between his garden and while the river to convert it to a meadow that could frame views primary method of the distant [[prospect]]. Pierre Pharoux, in his plan for Baron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, N.Y., likewise used maintaining meadows carved out of [[wood]]s was to ensure visual access allow animals to the [[prospect]] [Fig. 3]graze.
Meadows were closely related to Like [[parklawn]]s and [[lawnbowling green]]s; [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] on occasion referred to “meadow parks” and “meadow-[[lawn]]s”. Nevertheless, in at least one article in the ''Horticulturist'', he distinguished between [[lawn]]s open grassy areas of meadows also provided space for sports and meadowsother leisure entertainments, arguing that [[lawn]]s were composed of firmas mentioned by a teacher in Salem, closeNorth Carolina, and short grassin 1817, while coarser (and presumably taller) grasses with who observed children playing round ball in the meadow flowers made up meadows. Moreover, [[lawn]]s were often trimmed and rolled to maintain their appearance, while the primary method of maintaining meadows was to allow animals to grazea tavern.
Like [[lawn]]s and [[bowling green]]s, the open grassy areas of meadows also provided space for sports and other leisure entertainments, as mentioned by a teacher in Salem, N.C., in 1817, who observed children playing round ball in the meadow of a tavern—''Anne L. Helmreich''
-- ''Anne L. Helmreich''{{clear}}<hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
*Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (''New York Gazette'')
:“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country [[Seat]], fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. . . containing about 90 Acres, including a piece of English '''Meadow''' about 12 Acres, and more may be made, about 40 Acres being clear, the remainder [[Wood]]-Land.”
* Anonymous, 17 August 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. (''New York Gazette'')
*Kalm, Pehr, October 4, 1748, describing his journey from Philadelphia to Wilmington, DE (1937: 1:81–82)<ref>Pehr Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770'', 2 vols. (New York: “TO BE SOLDWilson-Erickson, A pleasant Country 1937), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“I rode now through [[wood]]s of several sorts of trees and now over pieces of land which had been cleared of the [[Seatwood]]and which at present were grain fields, fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper '''meadows''' and pastures. . . containing about 90 AcresThe farmhouses stood single, sometimes near the roads, including and sometimes at a piece of English little distance from them, so that the space between the road and the houses was taken up with small cultivated tracts and '''Meadowmeadows''' about 12 Acres. . . The fields bore partly buckwheat, and more may be madewhich was cut, about 40 Acres being clearpartly corn, the remainder [[Wood]]-Landand partly wheat.”
* KalmBrook, PehrElizabeth, 4 October 17481756, describing his journey from PhiladelphiaDoughoregan Manor, Pa.seat of Charles Carroll (of Annapolis), to WilmingtonHoward County, DelMD (Maryland Historical Society, A. (1937: 1:81–82E. Carroll Papers) <ref>Pehr Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America“This place. . . The English Version of 1770''is greatly improved, 2 vols (New York: Wilson-Ericksona fine, 1937)flourishing [[orchard]] with a variety of choice fruit, the garden inlarged and a stone [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero[wall]]built around it, 2 fine '''meadows'''.</ref>
: “I rode now through [[wood]]s of several sorts of trees and now over pieces of land which had been cleared of the [[wood]] and which at present were grain fields, '''meadows''' and pastures. The farmhouses stood single, sometimes near the roads, and sometimes at a little distance from them, so that the space between the road and the houses was taken up with small cultivated tracts and '''meadows'''. . . . The fields bore partly buckwheat, which was cut, partly corn, and partly wheat.”
*Alexiowitz, Iwan, 1769, describing [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]], vicinity of Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Darlington 1849: 50)
:“The whole store of nature’s kind luxuriance seemed to have been exhausted on these beautiful '''meadows'''; he made me count the amazing number of cattle and horses now feeding on solid bottoms, which but a few years before had been covered with water.”
* Brook, Elizabeth, 1756, describing Doughoregan Manor, seat of Charles Carroll (of Annapolis), Howard County, Md. (Maryland Historical Society, A. E. Carroll Papers)
*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https: “This place //www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero]. is greatly </ref>:“You pass thro’ two [[gate]]s, and from the second, which leads you into the improvedgrounds, may be seen a fine, flourishing village of [[orchardquarter]] with a variety of choice fruit, the garden inlarged s as they are called for negroes. The road you get into upon opening this gate is spacious and very level bounded on either side by a stone handsome ditch & [[wallfence]] built around it, 2 which divide the road from fine '''meadows'''whose extent is greater than the eye can reach; and on one side you see the river through trees of different sorts. These '''meadows''' well watered with [[canal]]s, which communicate with each other across the road give occasion every 50 yards for a [[bridge]]; and between every two [[bridge]]s are two gates one on each side the road.”
* AlexiowitzLa Rochefoucauld Liancourt, IwanFrançois Alexandre-Frédéric, 1769duc de, May 6, 1795, describing Pottsgrove, PA (1800: 1:35)<ref name="Liancourt">François-Alexandre-Frédéric duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“The landscape is beautiful along this road, abounding with a great variety of fine [[Bartram Botanic Garden view]]s, wonderfully enlivened by the verdure of the cornfields and Nursery'''meadows'''. . . If agriculture were better understood in these parts; if the fields were well mowed and well fenced; and if some trees had been left standing in the middle or on the [[border]]s of the '''meadows''', vicinity the most beautiful parts of Philadelphia, PaEurope could not be more pleasing. (quoted in Darlington 1849: 50)
: “The whole store of nature’s kind luxuriance seemed to have been exhausted on these beautiful '''meadows'''; he made me count the amazing number of cattle and horses now feeding on solid bottoms, which but a few years before had been covered with water.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1795–97, describing an estate in Pennsylvania (1800: 1:101)<ref name="Liancourt"></ref>
:“The cultivated ground amounts in the whole to one hundred and twenty acres, fifty of which are laid out in artificial '''meadows''', and thirty-six in [[orchard]]s for apple and peach-trees. The '''meadows''' are beautiful, and the fields in good order.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, 31 December 1783, describing [[Westover]], seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “You pass thro’ two *[[gateTimothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]]s, 1796, describing New England (1821: 1:18, 2:335)<ref>Timothy Dwight, ''Travels in New England and from the secondNew York'', 4 vols. (New Haven, CT: Timothy Dwight, which leads you into the improved grounds1821), may be seen a village of [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KHT2AUCG view on Zotero].</ref>:“[quartervol. 1]]s as they are called for negroes. The road you get into upon opening this gate is spacious . . A succession of New-England villages, composed of neat houses, surrounding neat school-houses and very level bounded on either side by a handsome ditch & [[fence]] which divide the road from fine churches, adorned with gardens, '''meadows''' whose extent and [[orchard]]s, and exhibiting the universally easy circumstances of the inhabitants, is greater than , at least in my own opinon, one of the eye most delightful [[prospect]]s, which this world can reach; and afford. . .:“[vol. 2] New England villages. . . are built in the following manner. . .:“The lot, on one side you see which the house stands, universally styled the river through trees home lot, is almost of different sorts. These course a '''meadowsmeadow''' well watered , richly cultivated, covered during the pleasant season with verdure, and containing generally a thrifty [[canalorchard]]s. It is hardly necessary to observe, that these appendages spread a singular cheerfulness, and beauty, which communicate with each other across the road give occasion every 50 yards for over a [[bridge]]New-England village; and between every two [[bridge]]s are two gates one on each side or that they contribute largely to render the roadhouse a delightful residence.”
* La Rochefoucauld LiancourtParkinson, François Alexandre-FrédéricRichard, duc de1798–1800, 6 May 1795describing Orange Hill, describing Pottsgrovenear Baltimore, Pa. MD (18001805: 1:35163–64) <ref name="Liancourt">François-Alexandre-Frédéric duc de La Rochefoucauld LiancourtRichard Parkinson, ''Travels through the United States of North A Tour in America, the Country 1798, 1799, and 1800: Exhibiting Sketches of the IroquoisSociety and Manners, and Upper Canada, in a Particular Account of the Years 1795, 1796American System of Agriculture, and 1797with Its Recent Improvements'', ed2 vols. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols (London: RJ. PhilipsHarding, 18001805), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M J8PV5PS4/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“My first work on the farm was to dress the '''meadows'''; which were called fine; though the greater part of them in England would not have been thought worthy of being called '''meadows''' at all, being overrun with briars and weeds of different description. Their state indeed was such, that when I mowed them, I sometimes in making hay did not know whether it was worth putting together, or not.”
: “The landscape is beautiful along this road, abounding with a great variety of fine [[view]]s, wonderfully enlivened by the verdure of the cornfields and '''meadows'''. . . . If agriculture were better understood in these parts; if the fields were well mowed and well fenced; and if some trees had been left standing in the middle or on the [[border]]s of the '''meadows''', the most beautiful parts of Europe could not be more pleasing.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing Fitterasso, estate of Dr. Baron, Charleston, SC (1800: 2:435–36)<ref name="Liancourt"></ref>
:“This small [[plantation]], named Fitterasso, consists of four hundred acres, and cost him four thousand two hundred and eighty dollars; it is situated on a small [[eminence]] near the river. The site for the house, for none has hitherto been built, is the most pleasant spot which could be chosen in this flat, level country, where the tedious sameness of the [[wood]]s is scarcely variegated by some houses, thinly scattered, and where it is hardly possible to meet with a pleasant landscape. His garden is separated from the river by a morass, nearly drained; the whole extent of the northern bank of the river is nearly of the same description. Dr. Baron intends to purchase this intervening space, and to convert it into '''meadow'''-ground. This alteration will improve the [[prospect]], without rendering it a charming [[vista]].”
* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1795–97, describing an estate in Pennsylvania (1800: 1:101) <ref name="Liancourt"></ref>
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: “The cultivated ground amounts 13)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in the whole to one hundred and twenty acresPennsylvania, fifty of which are laid out in artificial '''meadows'the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), and thirty-six in [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>:“The variety of [[orchardwalk]]s for apple , rows of trees, and the plenty with which the gardens and peach-trees. The '''meadows''' are beautifulwere stored, displayed taste, industry and the fields in good ordereconomy.”
* [[DwightMartin, Timothy]]William Dickinson, 17961809, describing New England the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (1821: 1:18, 2quoted in Bynum 1979:33529) <refname="Bynum">Timothy DwightFlora Ann L. Bynum, ''Travels in New England and New YorkOld Salem Garden Guide'', 4 vols (New HavenWinston-Salem, Conn.NC: Timothy DwightOld Salem, 18211979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KHT2AUCG TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>:“‘Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt. . .:“‘From the extremity of this place descended in different directions, two rows of steps, & joined again at the bottom, of the hill, where was a beautiful spring, from which issued a brisk current, winding in a serpentine course through a handsome '''meadow''', ’til it reached a brook about a quarter of a mile distant. This place was designed for literary repast, & evening amusement—is certainly well adapted for either or both.’”
: “[vol. 1] . . . A succession of New-England villages, composed of neat houses, surrounding neat school-houses and churches, adorned with gardens, '''meadows''' and [[orchard]]s, and exhibiting the universally easy circumstances of the inhabitants, is, at least in my own opinon, one of the most delightful [[prospect]]s, which this world can afford. . . .
: “[vol. 2] New England villages . . . are built in the following manner. . . .
: “The lot, on which the house stands, universally styled the home lot, is almost of course a '''meadow''', richly cultivated, covered during the pleasant season with verdure, and containing generally a thrifty [[orchard]]. It is hardly necessary to observe, that these appendages spread a singular cheerfulness, and beauty, over a New-England village; or that they contribute largely to render the house a delightful residence.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing Belfield, estate of [[Charles Willson Peale]], Germantown, PA (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 42)<ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, “The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield” (Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I am often pleased with the solemn [[grove]]s skirting my '''meadows''' in mahestic [''sic''] silence and cool appearance.”
* Parkinson, Richard, 1798–1800, describing Orange Hill, near Baltimore, Md. (1805: 1:163–64) <ref>Richard Parkinson, ''A Tour in America, 1798, 1799, and 1800: Exhibiting Sketches of Society and Manners, and a Particular Account of the American System of Agriculture, with Its Recent Improvements'', 2 vols (London: J. Harding, 1805), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J8PV5PS4/ view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File: “My first work 0116.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, [[Charles Willson Peale]], Sketches of [[Belfield]], 1810.]]*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], 1810, describing [[Belfield]], estate of [[Charles Willson Peale]], Germantown, PA (quoted in Miller and Ward 1991: fig. 87)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 3, ''The Belfield Farm Years, 1810–1820'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>:“In this [[view]] imagine that you see a beautiful '''Meadow''' on the farm was to dress right. . . The [[Common]] water course is on the edge of the '''meadowsMeadow'''; on the right and the doted [''sic''] line is a ditch to which were called fine; though I have a flood-[[gate]] to let water on the greater part of them in England would not have been thought worthy of being called '''meadowsMeadow''' at all, being overrun with briars and weeds of different descriptionPleasure. Their state indeed was such, that when I mowed them, I sometimes in making hay did not know whether it was worth putting together, or not” [Fig.4]
* La Rochefoucauld LiancourtPursh, François Alexandre-FrédéricFrederick, duc de, 17991814, describing Fitterasso, estate the plants of Dr. Baron, Charleston, S.C. North America (18001814: 21:435–36v) <ref name="Liancourt">Frederick Pursh, ''Flora Americae Septentrionalis; Or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America'', 2 vols. (London: White, Cochrane, & Co., 1814), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KVNMM4KM view on Zotero].</ref>:“Her [America] forests produce an endless variety of useful and stately timber trees; her [[wood]]s and [[hedge]]s the most ornamental flowering [[shrub]]s, so much admired in our [[pleasure ground]]s; and her fields and '''meadows''' a number of exceedingly handsome and singular flowers (many of them possessing valuable medicinal virtues), different from those of other countries.”
: “This small [[plantation]], named Fitterasso, consists of four hundred acres, and cost him four thousand two hundred and eighty dollars; it is situated on a small [[eminence]] near the river. The site for the house, for none has hitherto been built, is the most pleasant spot which could be chosen in this flat, level country, where the tedious sameness of the [[wood]]s is scarcely variegated by some houses, thinly scattered, and where it is hardly possible to meet with a pleasant landscape. His garden is separated from the river by a morass, nearly drained; the whole extent of the northern bank of the river is nearly of the same description. Dr. Baron intends to purchase this intervening space, and to convert it into '''meadow'''-ground. This alteration will improve the [[prospect]], without rendering it a charming [[vista]].”
*Teacher at Moravian Boys School, 1817, describing Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 52)<ref name="Bynum"></ref>
:“This afternoon I went with the children. . . I took them to the tavern '''meadow''', where they played a little ''round ball''.”
* Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, Pa. (p. 13) <ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
*du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, July 21, 1837, describing her visit to a meadow (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 178)<ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie Du Pont, A Young Lady in America: “The variety of Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823–1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>:“They were making hay in the undulating '''meadow''', which added to the [[walkpicturesque]]s, rows effect of trees, and the plenty with scenery [''sic''] There is here a very convenient chaise a ''porteur'' in which I am carried, or the gardens and ''blackies'' here express it, 'meadows'toted'' were stored, displayed taste, industry and economy.” from one place to another—”
* MartinLyell, William DickinsonSir Charles, 1809September 22, 1845, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, SalemBoston, N.C. MA (quoted in Bynum 19791849: 291:30) <ref name="Bynum">Flora Ann L. BynumSir Charles Lyell, ''Old Salem Garden GuideA Second Visit to the United States of North America'' (Winston-Salem, N.C2 vols.(New York: Old SalemHarper, 19791849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero].</ref>:“The extreme heat of summer does not allow of the green '''meadows''' and verdant [[lawn]]s of England, but there are some well-kept gardens here—a costly luxury where the wages of labor are so high.”
: “‘Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt. . . .
: “‘From the extremity of this place descended in different directions, two rows of steps, & joined again at the bottom, of the hill, where was a beautiful spring, from which issued a brisk current, winding in a serpentine course through a handsome '''meadow''', ’til it reached a brook about a quarter of a mile distant. This place was designed for literary repast, & evening amusement—is certainly well adapted for either or both.’”
[[File:0363.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 5, Anonymous, “View in the Meadow Park at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], October 1848, describing Geneseo, seat of James S. Wadsworth, Genesee River Valley, NY (''Horticulturist'' 3: 163–65)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Meadow Park in Geneseo,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 163–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/G6VXPK69/q/Geneseo view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The great agricultural estate of the WADSWORTH family, is the pride and centre of this precious family. That magnificent tract, of thousands of acres of the finest land, which surpasses in extent and value many principalities of the old world; those broad '''meadows''', where herds of the finest cattle crop the richest herbage, or rest under the deep shade of giant trees. . .
:“And what a [[prospect]]! The whole of that part of the valley embraced by the eye-say a thousand acres—is a [[park]], full of the finest oaks,—and such oaks as you may have dreamed of, (if you love trees,) or, perhaps, have seen in pictures by CLAUDE LORRAINE, or our own DURAND; but not in the least like those which you meet every day in your [[wood]]land [[walk]]s through the country at large. Or rather, there are thousands of such as you may have seen half a dozen examples of in your own country. . .
:“No underwood, no bushes, no [[thicket]]s; nothing but single specimens or groups of giant old oaks, (mingled with, here and there, an elm,) with level glades of broad '''meadow''' beneath them! An Englishman will hardly be convinced that it is not a [[park]], planted by the skilful hand of man hundreds of years ago.
:“This great '''meadow''' [[park]] is filled with herds of the finest cattle—the pride of the home—farm.” [Fig. 5]
* [[Peale, Charles Willson]], 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 42) <ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, "The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield" (unpublished Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:1001.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 6, Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country Seat of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): “I am often pleased with the solemn pl. opp. 345.]]*[[groveAndrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], August 1851, “The Annual Cattle Sale at Mount Fordham,” describing Mount Fordham, seat of Lewis G. Morris, New York, NY (''Horticulturist'' 6: 372)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Annual Cattle Sale at Mount Fordham,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): 372–73, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/RVU7GZDK/q/the%20annual%20cattle%20sale view on Zotero]s skirting my .</ref>:“Around the house at Mount Fordham, extends on all sides a kind of '''meadowsmeadow''' in mahestic -[[lawn]], enclosed and divided by pretty wire [[fence]]s of various patterns. This [[lawn]] is kept short by the grazing of improved dairy stock, and we were glad to see successfully practiced what we have been commending so strongly of late to our readers, as the most available point of English country places, that we saw on the other side of the Atlantic—that is the maintenance of a neat and handsome [[lawn]] about a country house, not only without the expense of mowing, but with united profit and beauty—the profit of grazing the grass and the beauty—the real pastoral beauty—of fine cattle, soft turf, and pleasant groups of trees, as the home landscape of our country places generally. By adopting this course, the ''sichay-field''aspect of many so-called gentlemen’s country-[[seat] silence ]s, would disappear, and cool appearancea more complete and satisfactory [[lawn]] or [[park]] be acquired, with no loss of money, and the attainment of a higher species of keeping to one’s country home.” [Fig. 6]
[[File:0116.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, [[Charles Willson Peale]], Sketches of Belfield, 1810.]]===Citations===* [[PealeLangley, Charles Willson]]Batty, 18101728, describing [[Belfield]], estate ''New Principles of Charles Willson PealeGardening'' (1728; repr., Germantown, Pa. (quoted in Miller and Ward 19911982: fig. 87195–201) <ref>Lillian B. Miller et al, eds.Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale Laying out and His Family: Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary AmericaPlanting Parterres, Groves, 1735-1791. Vol. 1; Charles Willson PealeWildernesses, Artist as Museum KeeperLabyrinths, 1791-1810. Vol 2Avenues, Pts. 1-2; The Belfield Farm YearsParks, 1810-1820&c. Vol'' (London: A. 3; The Autobiography of Charles Willson PealeBettesworth and J. VolBatley, etc. 5, 1728; repr.'' (, New Haven, Conn.York: Yale University PressGarland, 1983–20001982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG MRDTAEKC view on Zotero].</ref>:“General DIRECTIONS, &c. . .:“XIX. That in those serpentine Meanders, be placed at proper Distances, large Openings, which you surprizingly come to; and in the first are entertain’d with a pretty Fruit-Garden, or Paradice-Stocks. . . from which you are insensibly led through the pleasant Meanders of a shady delightful [[Plantation]]; first, into an oven [''sic''] Plain environ’d with lofty Pines. . . secondly, into a [[Flower-Garden]]. . . and from thence through small Inclosures of Corn, open Plains, or small '''Meadows'''. . .:“XXVIII. Distant Hills in [[Park]]s, &c. are beautiful Objects, when planted with little [[Wood]]s; as also are Valleys, when intermix’d with Water, and large Plains; and a rude [[Coppice]] in the Middle of a fine ''Meadow'', is a delightful Object.:“XXIX. Little [[Walk]]s by purling streams in '''Meadows''', and through Corn-Fields, [[Thicket]]s, &c. are delightful Entertainments.”
: “In this [[view]] imagine that you see a beautiful '''Meadow''' on the right. . . . The [[Common]] water course is on the edge of the '''Meadow''' on the right and the doted [''sic''] line is a ditch to which I have a flood-[[gate]] to let water on the '''Meadow''' at Pleasure.” [Fig. 4]
*Johnson, Samuel, 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1755: 2:n.p.)<ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers,'' 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“MEAD. ''n.s.'' [meade, Sax.] Ground somewhat watery, not plowed, but covered with grass and flowers.
:“'''ME’ADOW'''.”
* Pursh, Frederick, 1814, describing the plants of North America (p. v) <ref>Frederick Pursh, ''Flora Americae Septentrionalis; Or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America'', 2 vols (London: White, Cochrane, & Co., 1814), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KVNMM4KM view on Zotero].</ref>
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: “Her 645, 651)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>:“A '''meadow''' and its [[Americahedge]] forests produce an endless variety excelled all the beauty of useful and stately timber treesour former gardens; her because the [[woodparterre]]s there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the [[hedge]]s lost the most ornamental flowering very vegetable character. . .:“Let us lead such as still prefer it [[shrub[geometric style|geometric]]s, so much admired in our flower [[pleasure groundbed]]s; and her fields and ] to more free dispositions, into a May '''meadowsmeadow''' a number , full of exceedingly handsome and singular the common weedy flowers (many of them possessing valuable medicinal virtues)that healthy season, different from those of other countriesand terminated by a hawthorn [[hedge]] in bloom. . .”
* Teacher at Moravian Boys SchoolMiller, 1817Philip, describing Salem1759, N''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.Cp. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 52) <ref name="Bynum">Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden'', 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].</ref>:“Under the general title of '''Meadow''', is commonly comprehended all Pasture land, or at least all Grass Land, which is mown for Hay; but I choose rather to distinguish such land only by this Apellation, which is so low, as to be too moist for Cattle to graze upon them in winter, being too wet to admit heavy cattle, without poaching & spoiling the Sward, and those grass lands which I shall distinguish by the title of pasture.”
: “This afternoon I went with the children. . . . I took them to the tavern '''meadow''', where they played a little ''round ball''.”
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''MEADOW''', med’-do. s. A rich pasture ground, from which hay is made.”
* du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, 21 July 1837, describing her visit to a meadow (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 178) <ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie Du Pont, A Young Lady in America: Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823-1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: “They were making hay in 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the undulating English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>:“MEAD, '''MEADOW''', ''n. meed'', ''med’o''. [Sax. ''moede'', ''moedewe''; G. ''matte'', a mat, and a '''meadow'''; Ir. ''madh''. The sense is extended or flat depressed land. It is supposed that this word enters into the name ''Mediolanum'', now ''Milan'', in Italy; that is, which added ''mead-land''.]:“A tract of low land. In America, the word is applied particularly to the low ground on the banks of rivers, consisting of a rich mold or an alluvial soil, whether grass land, pasture, tillage, or [[picturesquewood]] effect of land; as the scenery [''sic''] There 'meadows''''' on the banks of the Connecticut. The word with us does not necessarily imply wet land. This species of land is here a very convenient chaise a called, in the western states, ''porteurbottoms'' in which I am carried, or ''bottom land''. The word is also used for other low or flat lands, particularly lands appropriated to the culture of grass. :“The word is said to be applied in Great Britain to land somewhat watery, but covered with grass. ''blackiesJohnson''.:“'' here express it, 'Meadow'toted''means pasture or grass land, from one place annually mown for hay; but more particularly, land too moist for cattle to another—” graze on in winter, without spoiling the sward. ''Encyc. Cyc''.:“[''Mead'' is used chiefly in poetry.]”
* Lyell[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Sir CharlesAndrew Jackson]], 22 September 1845November 1846, describing Boston, Mass. “A Chapter on Lawns” (1849: ''Horticulturist'' 1:30204) <ref>Sir Charles LyellA. J. Downing, “A Chapter on Lawns, ''A Second Visit to the United States Horticulturist and Journal of North AmericaRural Art and Rural Taste''1, 2 vols no 5. (New YorkNovember 1846): Harper, 1849)202–4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 NCDFIGSN/q/chapter%20on%20lawns view on Zotero].</ref>:“After your [[lawn]] is once fairly established, there are but two secrets in keeping it perfect— frequent mowing and rolling. Without the first, it will soon degenerate into a coarse '''meadow'''; the latter will render it firmer, closer, shorter, and finer every time it is repeated.”
: “The extreme heat of summer does not allow of the green '''meadows''' and verdant [[lawn]]s of England, but there are some well-kept gardens here—a costly luxury where the wages of labor are so high.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 106)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Considerable familiarity with the country-[[seat]]s on the Hudson, enables us to state that for the most part, few persons keep up a fine country place. . .
:“The remedy for this unsatisfactory condition of the large country places is, we think, a very simple one—that of turning a large part of their areas into park '''meadow''', and ''feeding'' it, instead of mowing and cultivating it.
:“The great and distinguishing beauty of England, as every one knows, is its [[park]]s. And yet the English parks are only very large '''meadows''', studded with great oaks and elms—and grazed—''profitably grazed'', by deer, cattle and sheep.”
[[File:0363.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 5, Anonymous, "View in the Meadow Park at Geneseo," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. p. 153.]]
* [[Downing, A. J.]], October 1848, describing [[Geneseo]], seat of James S. Wadsworth, Genesee River Valley, N.Y. (''Horticulturist'' 3: 163–65)
: “The great agricultural estate of the WADSWORTH family, is the pride and centre of this precious family. That magnificent tract, of thousands of acres of the finest land, which surpasses in extent and value many principalities of the old world; those broad '''meadows''', where herds of the finest cattle crop the richest herbage, or rest under the deep shade of giant trees. ... : “And what a [[prospect]]! The whole of that part of the valley embraced by the eye-say a thousand acres—is a [[park]], full of the finest oaks,—and such oaks as you may have dreamed of, (if you love trees,) or, perhaps, have seen in pictures by CLAUDE LORRAINE, or our own DURAND; but not in the least like those which you meet every day in your [[wood]]land [[walk]]s through the country at large. Or rather, there are thousands of such as you may have seen half a dozen examples of in your own country. . . . “No underwood, no bushes, no [[thicket]]s; nothing but single specimens or groups of giant old oaks, (mingled with, here and there, an elm,) with level glades of broad '''meadow''' beneath them! An Englishman will hardly be convinced that it is not a [[park]], planted by the skilful hand of man hundreds of years ago. : “This great '''meadow''' [[park]] is filled with herds of the finest cattle—the pride of the home—farm.” [Fig. 5] <hr>
==Images==
===Inscribed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:0993.jpg|Unknown, Map showing the Bowery Lane area of Manhattan, c. 1760.
[[File:10010799.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 6Bernard Ratzer, Anonymous''PLAN of the CITY of NEW YORK'', "Mount Fordham—the Country Seat of Lewis Gc. Morris, Esq1767.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., Sall '''Meadows'Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (Aug. 1, 1851): pl. opp. p. 345.]]* [[Downing, A. J.]], August 1851, “The Annual Cattle Sale " is at Mount Fordham,” describing Mount Fordham, seat right hand side of Lewis G. Morris, New York, N.Ymap. (''Horticulturist'' 6: 372)
File: “Around the house at Mount Fordham, extends on all sides a kind of '''meadow'''-[[lawn]], enclosed and divided by pretty wire [[fence]]s of various patterns2255. This jpg|[[lawnPierre Pharoux]] is kept short by the grazing of improved dairy stock, and we were glad to see successfully practiced what we have been commending so strongly “General Map of late to our readers, as the most available point honorable Wm. frederic Baron of English country placesSteuben’s Mannor”, that we saw on the other side c. 1793. The “60 acres of the Atlantic—that is the maintenance of a neat and handsome [[lawn]] about a country house, not only without the expense of mowing, but with united profit and beauty—the profit of grazing the grass and the beauty—the real pastoral beauty—of fine cattle, soft turf, and pleasant groups of trees, as the home landscape of our country places generally. By adopting this course, the ''hay-field'Meadow''' aspect of many so-called gentlemen’s country-” is indicated at “j” in the four [[seatsquare]]s, would disappear, and a more complete and satisfactory [[lawn]] or [[park]] be acquired, with no loss of money, and below the attainment of a higher species of keeping to one’s country homehemicycle.” [Fig. 6]{{break}}
===Citations===File:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, Nov. 7, 1807. “'''Meadow'''” is noted in the center between the [[woods]] and cornfield.
*File:0116.jpg|[[Batty Langley|Langley, BattyCharles Willson Peale]], 1728, ''New Principles Sketches of Gardening'', ([1728[Belfield]] 1982: 195–201) <ref>Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c.'' (Originally published London: A. Bettesworth and J. Batley, etc., 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MRDTAEKC view on Zotero]1810.</ref>
File: “General DIRECTIONS, &c.... : “XIX0572. That in those serpentine Meanders, be placed at proper Distances, large Openings, which you surprizingly come to; and in the first are entertain’d with a pretty Fruitjpg|Georges-Garden, or ParadiceHenri-Stocks . . . from which you are insensibly led through the pleasant Meanders of a shady delightful [[Plantation]]; firstVictor Collot, into an oven [''sic''] Plain environ’d with lofty Pines . . . secondly, into a [[Flower-Garden]] . . . and from thence through small Inclosures Plan of Corn, open Plains, or small Fort Niagara'''Meadows'''.... : “XXVIII. Distant Hills in [[Park]]s, &c. are beautiful Objects, when planted with little [[Wood]]s; as also are Valleys, when intermix’d with Water, and large Plains; and a rude [[Coppice]] in the Middle of a fine ''Meadow'', is a delightful Object. : “XXIX. Little [[Walk]]s by purling streams in '''MeadowsVoyage dans l'Amérique Septentrionale'', and through Corn-Fields, [[Thicket]]s, &c. are delightful Entertainments(1826).
File:0591.jpg|George Kendall, after Isaac Newton Youngs, ''Sketches of the Various Situations at Union Village'', in ''Sketches of the various Societies of Believers in the states of Ohio & Kentucky'', July 1835.
*[[Samuel JohnsonFile:0823.jpg|Johnson, Samuel]], 1755Joshua Barney, ''A Dictionary Map of the English LanguageHampton'' (2:n, 1843.p.) <ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English LanguageCourtesy: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers,'' 2 vols (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755)Hampton National Historic Site, National [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on ZoteroPark]]Service.</ref>
File: “MEAD0363. jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the '''n.s.Meadow''' [meade[Park]] at Geneseo, Sax” in [[A. J.Downing]] Ground somewhat watery, not ploweded., but covered with grass and flowers. : “'''ME’ADOW'Horticulturist''3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
File:1111.jpg|Henry Clay Blinn, ''Plan of Canterbury'', 1848. '''Meadow''' is inscribed between the word "PAST" "URE" on the right hand corner.
</gallery>
* Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 645, 651) <ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>===Associated===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">File: “A '''meadow''' and its 0560.jpg|[[hedgeCharles Willson Peale]] excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the , Ground [[parterreplot]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the [[hedge]] lost the very vegetable character. . .. : “Let us lead such as still prefer it [[[geometric style|geometricBelfield]] flower [[bed]]s] to more free dispositions, into a May '''meadow''', full of the common weedy flowers of that healthy season, and terminated by a hawthorn [[hedge]] in bloom. ..1810.
File:0607.jpg|W. Weingartner, Map of Harmony, PA, 1833
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (n.p.) <ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners DictionaryFile: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden1001. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard... Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th edn (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].</ref> : “Under the general title of '''Meadow''', is commonly comprehended all Pasture land, or at least all Grass Land, which is mown for Hay; but I choose rather to distinguish such land only by this Apellation, which is so low, as to be too moist for Cattle to graze upon them in winter, being too wet to admit heavy cattle, without poaching & spoiling the Sward, and those grass lands which I shall distinguish by the title of pasture.”   * Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....'', 5th edn (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789)jpg|Anonymous, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ/ view on Zotero].</ref> : '''MEADOW''', med’-do. s. A rich pasture ground, from which hay is made.”   * [[Webster, NoahMount]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref> : “MEAD, '''MEADOW''', ''n. meed'', ''med’o''. [Sax. ''moede'', ''moedewe''; G. ''matte'', a mat, and a '''meadow'''; Ir. ''madh''. The sense is extended or flat depressed land. It is supposed that this word enters into the name ''Mediolanum'', now ''Milan'', in Italy; that is, ''mead-land''.] : “A tract of low land. In America, the word is applied particularly to the low ground on the banks of rivers, consisting of a rich mold or an alluvial soil, whether grass land, pasture, tillage, or Fordham—the Country [[woodSeat]] land; as the '''''meadows''''' on the banks of the Connecticut. The word with us does not necessarily imply wet landLewis G. This species of land is called, in the western statesMorris, ''bottoms'', or ''bottom land''Esq. The word is also used for other low or flat lands, particularly lands appropriated to the culture of grass. : “The word is said to be applied in Great Britain to land somewhat watery, but covered with grass. [[Samuel Johnson|''Johnson'']]. : “'''Meadow''' means pasture or grass land, annually mown for hay; but more particularly, land too moist for cattle to graze on in winter, without spoiling the sward. ''Encyc. Cyc''. : “[''Mead'' is used chiefly in poetry.]”   * [[Downing, A. J.Downing]], November 1846ed., “A Chapter on Lawns” (''Horticulturist'' 1: 204)  : “After your [[lawn]] is once fairly established6, there are but two secrets in keeping it perfect— frequent mowing and rollingno. Without the first, it will soon degenerate into a coarse '''meadow'''; the latter will render it firmer, closer, shorter, and finer every time it is repeated.”   * [[Downing, A. J.]], March 8 (August 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 106)  : “Considerable familiarity with the country-[[seat]]s on the Hudson, enables us to state that for the most part, few persons keep up a fine country place. pl.opp.345. : “The remedy for this unsatisfactory condition of the large country places is, we think, a very simple one—that of turning a large part of their areas into park '''meadow''', and ''feeding'' it, instead of mowing and cultivating it. : “The great and distinguishing beauty of England, as every one knows, is its [[park]]s. And yet the English parks are only very large '''meadows''', studded with great oaks and elms—and grazed—''profitably grazed'', by deer, cattle and sheep.” ==Images== ===Inscribed===</gallery>
===Attributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:0993.jpg|Unknown, Map showing the Bowery Lane area of Manhattan, c. 1760.
File:07990201.jpg|Bernard RatzerAnonymous, Plan of the city ''Perry Hall, Home of New YorkHarry Dorsey Gough'', cn. 1767d.
File:09720285.jpg|Pierre PharouxNicholas Garrison, "General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben's Mannor" 'A [detail[View]]of Bethlehem, c. 1793. The "60 acres one of Meadow" is indicated at "j" the Brethren’s Principal Settlements, in the four squares below the hemicyclePennsylvania, North America'', 1757.
File:07280991.jpg|Samuel Hill, “[[William Russell BirchView]]of the [[Seat]] of the Hon. Moses Gill Esq. at Princeton, ''Plan in the County of Springland''Worcester, c. 1800Massa<sup>ts</sup>, in Emily T. Cooperman and Lea Carson Sherk, ''William Birch: Picturing the American SceneMassachusetts Magazine'' 4, no. 11 (2011November 1792), p: pl. 20618, figopp. 117648.
File:06010263.jpg|AnonymousJohn Brewster, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, Nov. 7''Mother with Son (Lucy Knapp Mygatt and George Mygatt)'', 1807. "Meadow" is noted in the center between the woods and cornfield. 1799
File:01160202.jpg|Francis Guy, ''Perry Hall, Slave [[Charles Willson PealeQuarter]]s with Field Hands at Work'', Sketches of Belfield, 1810c. 1805.
File:06760152.jpg|Anonymous, Garden Plan of "Newington" in Allegheny County, Pa, 1823, in Alice BGeorge Hayward after J. LockwoodAnderson, ''Gardens [[View]] of Colony and StateThe [[Belvedere]] Club House, 1794'' (1931), vol. 1, p. 380. "Meadow" is indicated in the lower right quadrant1828.
File:05910608.jpg|George KendallW. Weingartner, after Isaac Newton Youngs, ''Sketches Map of the Various Situations at Union Village''Harmony, in ''Sketches of the various Societies of Belivers in the states of Ohio & Kentucky''IN, July 18351832.
File:08230133.jpg|Joshua BarneyRufus Porter, ''Map of Hampton''Landscape mural from Howe House, 18431838.
File:03630435.jpg|Anonymous, "View in the Meadow Park at Geneseo," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. p. 153. File:1111.jpg|Henry Clay BlinnEdward Hicks, ''Plan of CanterburyThe Cornell Farm'', 1848. See detail.  </gallery>
===Associated===File:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the [[Seat]] of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of [[Landscape Gardening]]'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:0560.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Ground plot of Belfield, 1810.
File:0608.jpg|W. Weingartner, Map of Harmony, Ind., 1832.
File:0607.jpg|W. Weingartner, Map of Harmony, Pa., 1833
File:0361.jpg|Anonymous, "Beaverwyck, the Seat of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 51, fig. 7.
File:1001.jpg|Anonymous, "Mount Fordham—the Country Seat of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (Aug. 1, 1851): pl. opp. p. 345.
</gallery>
===Attributed=== <gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">File:0201.jpg|Anonymous, ''Perry Hall, Home of Harry Dorsey Gough'', n.d.File:0285.jpg|Nicholas Garrison, ''A View of Bethlehem, one of the Brethren's Principal Settlements, in Pennsylvania, North America'', 1757. File:0991.jpg|Samuel Hill, "View of the seat of the Hon. Moses Gill Esq. at Princeton, in the County of Worcester, Massa.ts," in ''The Massachusetts Magazine'' 4, no. 11 (November 1792): pl. 18, opp p. 648. File:0263.jpg|John Brewster, ''Mother with Son (Lucy Knapp Mygatt and George Mygatt)'', 1799File:0202.jpg|Francis Guy, ''Perry Hall, Slave Quarters with Field Hands at Work'', c. 1805.File:0152.jpg|George Hayward after J. Anderson, ''View of The Belvedere Club House, 1794'', 1828.File:0133.jpg|Rufus Porter, Landscape mural from Howe House, 1838. File:0435.jpg|Edward Hicks, ''The Cornell Farm'', 1848.  </galleryhr>
==Notes==
 
<references></references>
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Topographic Features]]

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