==History==
[[File:1009.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 1, Anonymous, ''Homestead of Humphrey H. Nye, New Bedford'', 1860-651860–65.]]Throughout the history of American gardens, hedges were used for a variety of practical and ornamental purposes. The feature created divisions within the garden, protected tender plants from cross-winds, formed barriers against both animal and human intruders, screened unsightly [[view]]s, outlined ornamental [[bed]]s and [[walk]]s [Fig. 1], and brought flowering variety to the garden. <span id="Downing_cite"></span>According to [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] (1838), hedges were ideal for these purposes because their architectural form functioned much like a [[fence]] or [[wall]], while their organic material allowed them to harmonize with planting arrangements and to articulate other forms of architecture to the landscape ([[#Downing|view citationtext]]). <span id="Deane_cite"></span>As [[Samuel Deane]] noted in 1790, live hedges were preferable to [[fence]]s and "dead hedges" “dead hedges” (wattle [[fence]]s using woven plant material) because the living plants created a "perpetual fence" “perpetual fence” whose posts never decayed and stakes never failed ([[#Deane|view citationtext]]). Their versatility also made them adaptable to any scale, whether enclosing a field, screening a privy, or edging a [[bed]] (see [[Fence]]).
<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, William Prince praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view citationtext]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the [[Elias Hasket Derby House]] in Salem, Mass.Massachusetts, as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view citationtext]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing ]] noted that "there “there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe." <ref>A. J. Downing, "A “A Chapter on Hedges," ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at [[Oatlands]], D. P. Manice's Manice’s residence in Hempstead, N.YNew York. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3]. <ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, "Early “Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: 'Adapted ‘Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,'" ’” ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero].]</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello ]] Mountain, before May 1768.]]Climate was also a factor in plant choice for hedges. In warmer regions ornamental hedges were composed of orange, yucca, Cherokee rose, and gardenia, while cedar, spruce, and juniper were used in colder areas such as New England. Prince recommended maclura or osage orange for Philadelphia and areas to the south. <span id="Hooper_cite"></span>Edward James Hooper, in The ''The Practical Farmer'' (1842), maintained that buckthorn was suited to New England’s climate while European hawthorn did better in the west, although other descriptions suggest that the use of thorn varieties was not regionally specific ([[#Hooper|view citationtext]]).
[[File:0932.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, R. W. Dickson, "Hedge Fences“Hedge [[Fence]]s," in ''Practical Agriculture'' (1805), vol. 1, pl. 31, opp. p. 110.]]Early evidence of hedges in the American landscape may be found in books of instruction on the delineation or division of arable fields, a practice taken directly from European agricultural tradition. Hedges created by close planting and interweaving of [[shrub]]s to create a dense barrier were categorized in many horticultural and agricultural treatises as a type of [[fence]], rather than identified with other planting arrangements such as [[thicket]], [[grove]], and group. The discourse about the advantages of hedges over [[fence]]s was particularly rich in the American agricultural literature of the early nineteenth 19th century. Proponents of the new "scientific “scientific agriculture," such as John Adams and Ezekiel Hersey Derby, reported their experiments with different plant varieties and techniques for forming hedges [Fig. 4]. <ref>For example, see Ezekiel Hersey Derby, "Cultivation “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn . . . for Live Hedges," ''Horticultural Register'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27–29. For a discussion of scientific farming in the Boston area, see Charles Arthur Hammond, "'Where “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite'Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864" 1637–1864” (Ph.D. PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), chapters 2 and 3. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].]</ref>
The aesthetic treatment of garden hedges was discussed and debated throughout much of the eighteenth 18th and nineteenth 19th centuries. Authors and gardeners variously praised and dismissed both trimmed and untrimmed hedges, depending upon the prevailing taste and the particular situation of the hedge. <span id="Stiles_cite"></span>[[Ezra Stiles]] admired the spruce hedges at [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, which were cut into beautiful figures in 1754 ([[#Stiles|view citationtext]]), and in 1762 <span id="Callender_cite"></span>[[Hannah CallenderSansom]] described a hedge [[labyrinth]] at [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], [[William Peters|Judge William Peters's]]'s estate near Philadelphia ([[#Callender|view citationtext]]). <span id="Ware_cite"></span>In contrast, [[Isaac Ware]], writing in 1756, praised the "natural “natural hedge . . . mimicking savage nature" nature” ([[#Ware|view citationtext]]). In 1832, both [[H.A.S. Dearborn]] and [[Thomas Bridgeman]] commended trimmed and trained hedges while other writers, such as [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] and [[Jane Loudon]], allowed the merits of both formal and [[natural style|naturalistic ]] styles. <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>In 1845 [[Jane Loudon|Loudon]] praised evergreen hedges "neatly “neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s," while in the [[flower garden]] she proposed a less "stiff “stiff and formal" formal” appearance that would "harmonize “harmonize. . . with the flowers" flowers” ([[#Loudon|view citationtext]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the 1849 edition of his treatise, [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that trimmed hedges were "elegant “elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s," while irregular or [[picturesque]] hedges were handsome additions to a landscape of the "[[natural style]]" ([[#Downing_1849|view citationtext]]).
-- ''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid'' <hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
*Virginia General Assembly, October 23, 1705, describing a legislative ruling in Virginia (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“(I) Be it enacted. . . that if any horses, mares, cattle, hogs, sheep, or goats, shall break into any grounds, being inclosed with a strong and sound [[fence]]. . . or with an '''hedge''' two foot high, upon a ditch of three foot deep, and three foot broad, or instead of such '''hedge''', a rail [[fence]] of two foot and half high, the '''hedge''' or [[fence]] being so close that none of the creatures aforesaid can creep through, (which shall be accounted a lawful [[fence]],) the owner. . . shall for the first trespass by any of them committed, make reparation to the party injured.”
* Virginia General Assembly, October 23, 1705, describing a legislative ruling in Virginia (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
 
:"(I) Be it enacted . . . that if any horses, mares, cattle, hogs, sheep, or goats, shall break into any grounds, being inclosed with a strong and sound [[fence]] . . . or with an '''hedge''' two foot high, upon a ditch of three foot deep, and three foot broad, or instead of such '''hedge''', a rail [[fence]] of two foot and half high, the '''hedge''' or [[fence]] being so close that none of the creatures aforesaid can creep through, (which shall be accounted a lawful [[fence]],) the owner . . . shall for the first trespass by any of them committed, make reparation to the party injured."
 
 
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Virginia (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 35) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., "Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove," ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero.]</ref>
 
:"They also make strong '''hedges''' of Peach plants in their gardens."
 
 
* Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. (''New York Gazette'')
 
:"TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country [[Seat]], fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper; . . . a very good [[Kitchen Garden]], at the Rear of which is a Grass-[[plat]], with a Prim '''Hedge''' round and pale’d, situate on level Up Land."
 
 
*Kalm, Pehr, September 21, 1748, describing the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa. (1937: 1:47) <ref>Pehr Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770'', 2 vols. (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
 
:"The [[fence]]s and pales are generally made here of wooden planks and posts. But a few good economists, having already thought of sparing the [[wood]]s for future times, have begun to plant quick '''hedges''' round their fields; and for this purpose they take the above-mentioned privet, which they plant in a little bank that is thrown up for it."
 
 
* Anonymous, May 22, 1749, describing the property of [[Alexander Garden]], Charleston, S.C. (''South Carolina Gazette'')
 
:"With in a few weeks will be raffled for, A LOT . . . belonging to ''[[Alexander Garden|Alexander Gordon]], Esq''. . . . Together with a garden, genteelly laid out in [[walk]]s and [[alley]]s, with flower-knots, &c. laid round with bricks, having also several kinds of fruit trees now bearing, and many orange trees now growing like-wise, cassini and other '''hedges'''."
 
 
*<div id="Stiles"></div>Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (1892: 375), <ref>"Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754," ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Stiles_cite|back up to history]]
 
:"besides the beautiful [[walk]], ornamented with evergreens, we saw . . . Spruce '''hedges''' cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder."
 
 
*[[Hannah Callender|Callender, Hannah]], June 30, 1762, diary entry describing [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], estate of [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Callender 2010: 183) <ref name="Callender 2010">Hannah Callender Sansom, ''The Diary of Hannah Callender Sansom: Sense and Sensibility in the Age of the American Revolution'', ed. by Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
: "...on the right you enter a [[labyrinth|Labarynth]] of '''hedge''' and low ceder with spruce..."
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Virginia (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 35)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“They also make strong '''hedges''' of Peach plants in their gardens.”
* [[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, Va. (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:102, 115) <ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. by Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKQVPUC3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (''New York Gazette'') :"“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country [[14 MarchSeat]] Planted the 9 young peach Trees which I brought from Mr. Cockburns in the No, fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper; . Garden—viz . . . 2 in the a very good [[borderKitchen Garden]] , at the Rear of the Walk leading from the which is a Grass-[[Espalierplat]] , with a Prim '''hedgeHedge''' towards the other cross [[walk]]. . . . :"[8 April] The ground being too wet ...I was unable to touch that which I had been preparing for grass; round and therefore began to hoe that wch. lyes between the New circular ditchespale’d, & the Wild rose '''hedges'''situate on level Up Land."
* [[J. P. Brissot de Warville|Brissot de WarvilleKalm, J. P.]]Pehr, September 621, 17881748, describing the enclosure vicinity of pastures in America Philadelphia (17921937: 1: 25347) <ref>J.-P. (Jacques-Pierre) Brissot de WarvillePehr Kalm, ''New The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in the United States Performed in 1788North America. The English Version of 1770'' , 2 vols. (New York: T. & J. SwordsWilson-Erickson, 17921937), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TKXB2WAU 94EZM2V4 view on Zotero].]</ref>:“The [[fence]]s and pales are generally made here of wooden planks and posts. But a few good economists, having already thought of sparing the [[wood]]s for future times, have begun to plant quick '''hedges''' round their fields; and for this purpose they take the above-mentioned privet, which they plant in a little bank that is thrown up for it.”
: "Mr. L. thinks it best to replace them [wooden rail [[fence]]s] by ditches six feet deep, of which he throws the earth upon his [[meadow]]s, and [[border]]s the sides with '''hedges'''; and thus renders the passage impracticable to the cattle. This is an agricultural operation, which cannot be too much recommended to the Americans."
*Anonymous, May 22, 1749, describing the property of [[Alexander Garden]], Charleston, SC (''South Carolina Gazette'')
:“With in a few weeks will be raffled for, A LOT. . . belonging to ''[[Alexander Garden|Alexander Gordon]], Esq''. . . Together with a garden, genteelly laid out in [[walk]]s and [[alley]]s, with flower-knots, &c. laid round with bricks, having also several kinds of fruit trees now bearing, and many orange trees now growing like-wise, cassini and other '''hedges'''.”
*Strickland, William, October 9, 1794, describing the country from Fishkill, N.Y., to Poughkeepsie, N.Y. (1971: 99–100) <ref>William Strickland, ''Journal of a Tour in the United States of America, 1794-1795'', ed. by J. E. Strickland (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DR8FH6KF view on Zotero.]</ref>
: *<div id="Stiles"The country in general is divided into fields . . . it wants only the ornament of live ></div>Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[fenceSpringettsbury]]s to be one , near Philadelphia, PA (1892: 375)<ref>“Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero].</ref>:“. . . besides the most beautiful [[picturesquewalk]] that can be seen, and those even have been attempted though they have unfortunately failedornamented with evergreens, we saw. . . Near Fishkyl the fields were formerly divided by Privet Spruce '''Hedgeshedges''' a shrub imported from Europe by the Dutchcut into beautiful figures, &c., which answerd all forming the purposemost agreeable variety, and throve well for many years, and some of them are still to be seen; but an insect attacked them some years since by which they were destroyed, and they never have been replaced, or any substitute adopted or tried; though no doubt shrubs better calculated for making durable strong & even regular confusion & disorder.” [[fence#Stiles_cite|back up to History]]s might be found among the natives of this country."
* [[Timothy DwightHannah Callender Sansom|DwightSansom, TimothyHannah Callender]], 1796June 30, 1762, diary entry describing Worcester County[[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], Mass. estate of [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia, PA (1821quoted in Sansom 2010: 1:375183) <refname="Callender 2010">Timothy DwightHannah Callender Sansom, ''Travels The Diary of Hannah Callender Sansom: Sense and Sensibility in New England and New Yorkthe Age of the American Revolution'', 4 volsed. Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf (New Haven, Conn.Ithaca: Timothy DwightCornell University Press, 18212010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KHT2AUCG 33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].]</ref>: “. . . on the right you enter a [[labyrinth|Labarynth]] of '''hedge''' and low ceder with spruce. . .”
:"An eye accustomed to the beautiful '''hedges''' of England, would probably regard these inclosures [stone [[wall]]s] with little pleasure. But emotions of this nature depend much on comparison. There are no '''hedges''' in New-England: those which formerly existed, having perished by some unknown misfortune. Few persons therefore, who see these [[wall]]s, will be able to compare them with '''hedges'''."
*Washington, George, 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:102, 115)<ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKQVPUC3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[March 14] Planted the 9 young peach Trees which I brought from Mr. Cockburns in the No. Garden—viz.. . . 2 in the [[border]] of the Walk leading from the [[Espalier]] '''hedge''' towards the other cross [[walk]]. . .
:“[April 8] The ground being too wet. . . I was unable to touch that which I had been preparing for grass; and therefore began to hoe that wch. lyes between the New circular ditches, & the Wild rose '''hedges'''.”
[[File:0090a.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a "Garden Olitory," c. 1804.]]
* [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], c. 1804, describing [[Monticello]], plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Coolidge Collection)
*Brissot de Warville, J. P., September 6, 1788, describing the enclosure of pastures in America (1792:"make the upper [[slope]] thus at 253)<ref>J.-P. (Jacques-Pierre) Brissot de Warville, ''aNew Travels in the United States Performed in 1788'' plant a '''hedge''' of hedgethorn (New York: T. & at ''b'' one of privetJ. Swords, or Gleditria1792), or cedar [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TKXB2WAU view on Zotero].</ref>:“Mr. L. thinks it best to be trimmed down to 3 ft. highreplace them [wooden rail [[fence]]s] by ditches six feet deep, of which he throws the whole appearance this taking a earth upon his [[bordermeadow]] of 8 ft. at the foot of the s, and [[terrace|terrasborder]]s the sides with '''hedges'''; and thus renders the passage impracticable to the cattle." [FigThis is an agricultural operation, which cannot be too much recommended to the Americans. 5]
*DraytonStrickland, CharlesWilliam, November 2October 9, 18061794, describing [[The Woodlands]]the country from Fishkill, seat of [[William Hamilton]]NY, near Philadelphiato Poughkeepsie, Pa. NY (18061971: 54, 57&ndash;5899–100)<ref>Charles DraytonWilliam Strickland, "The Diary ''Journal of a Tour in the United States of Charles Drayton IAmerica, 1806," 1806, Drayton Hall: A National Historic Trust Site1794-1795'', http://lcdled.libraryJ.cofcE.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdlStrickland (New York:27554New-York Historical Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN DR8FH6KF view on Zotero].</ref>: "The [[Fence|<u>Fences</u>]] separating “The country in general is divided into fields. . . it wants only the ornament of live [[Parkfence]]-[[lawn]] from the Garden on s to be one hand, & of the office most [[yardpicturesque]] on the otherthat can be seen, are 4 ft. 6 highand those even have been attempted though they have unfortunately failed. The former are made with posts & lathes&mdash;Near Fishkyl the latter with posts, rails & boards. They are concealed with evergreeens fields were formerly divided by Privet '''hedgeHedges'''&mdash;of juniper I think. . . .: ". . . . From a shrub imported from Europe by the Cellar one enters under the bow window & into this ScreenDutch, which is about 6 or 7 feet square. Through theseanswerd the purpose, we enter a narrow areaand throve well for many years, & ascend and some few Steps [close of them are still to this side of the house,] into the garden&mdashbe seen;& thro the other opening we ascend a paved winding [[slope]], but an insect attacked them some years since by which spreads as it ascendsthey were destroyed, into the [[yard]]. This sloping passage being a segment of a circleand they never have been replaced, & its two outer or any substitute adopted or tried; though no doubt shrubs better calculated for making durable strong [[wallfence]]s <u>concealed</u> by loose '''hedges''', & by the projection of the flat roofed Screen of masonry, keeps the [[yard]], & I believe might be found among the whole passage <u>out of sight</u> from the house&mdash;but certainly from the garden & [[park]] [[lawn]]. See the plan of the Grounds.: "The <u>Stables</u>, & sheds, form the 3rd side natives of this three sided [[yard]]&mdash;The stables are seen from the front door of the house, over the '''hedge''' that screens the [[Yard]]country."
* [[Thomas JefferonsTimothy Dwight|JeffersonDwight, ThomasTimothy]], March 1, 1808, in a letter to [[William Hamilton]]1796, describing plans for [[Monticello]]Worcester County, [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, Va. MA (19441821: 1: 365375) <ref>Thomas JeffersonTimothy Dwight, ''The Garden BookTravels in New England and New York'', ed4 vols. by Edwin M. Betts (PhiladelphiaNew Haven, CT: American Philosophical SocietyTimothy Dwight, 19441821), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 KHT2AUCG view on Zotero].]</ref>:“An eye accustomed to the beautiful '''hedges''' of England, would probably regard these inclosures [stone [[wall]]s] with little pleasure. But emotions of this nature depend much on comparison. There are no '''hedges''' in New-England: those which formerly existed, having perished by some unknown misfortune. Few persons therefore, who see these [[wall]]s, will be able to compare them with '''hedges'''.”
:"you should know this plant [haw], which is peculiar at least to America & is a real treasure. as a thorn for '''hedges''' nothing has ever been seen comparable to it certainly no thorn in England which I have ever seen makes a '''hedge''' any more to be compared to this than a log hut to a [[wall]] of freestone. if you will plant these 6. I. apart you will be a judge of their superiority soon." [<span id="Fig_2_cite"></span>[[#Fig_2|See Fig. 2]]]
[[File:0090a.jpg|thumb|400 px|Fig. 5, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.]]
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], c. 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Coolidge Collection)
:“. . . make the upper [[slope]] thus at ''a'' plant a '''hedge''' of hedgethorn & at ''b'' one of privet, or Gleditria, or cedar to be trimmed down to 3 ft. high, the whole appearance this taking a [[border]] of 8 ft. at the foot of the [[terrace|terras]].” [Fig. 5]
* [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], July 22, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing a farm in Pennsylvania (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 11) <ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, "The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield" (unpublished Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Drayton, Charles, November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (1806:"54, 57—58)<ref>Charles Drayton, “The Diary of Charles Drayton I visited Job Roberts , 1806,” Drayton Hall: A National Historic Trust Site, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref>:“The [[Fence|<u>Fences</u>]] separating the [[Park]]-[[lawn]] from the day before yesterdayGarden on one hand, his farm is a model of excellence in & the office [[yard]] on the Cultureother, are 4 ft. 6 high. The former are made with posts & lathes—the latter with posts, rails & boards. . He is growing several They are concealed with evergreeens '''hedgeshedge''' —of juniper I think. . .:“. . . From the Cellar one enters under the bow window & into this Screen, which in less than is about 6 or 7 yrsfeet square. will be complete Through these, we enter a narrow area, & ascend some few Steps [close to this side of the house,] into the garden—& thro the other opening we ascend a paved winding [fence[slope]], which spreads as it ascends, into the [[yard]]. This sloping passage being a segment of a circle, & its two outer [[wall]]s against all sorts <u>concealed</u> by loose '''hedges''', & by the projection of Cattlethe flat roofed Screen of masonry, keeps the [[yard]], & I believe the whole passage <u>out of sight</u> from the house—but certainly from the garden & [[park]] [[lawn]]. The management See the plan of which is a good lessonthe Grounds.:“The <u>Stables</u>, & sheds, which I hope to make usefull to form the 3rd side of this placethree sided [[yard]]—The stables are seen from the front door of the house, over the '''hedge''' that screens the [[Yard]]."
*Foster[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], Sir Augustus JohnMarch 1, 18121808, in a letter to [[William Hamilton]], describing Custis-Lee Mansion (Arlington House)plans for [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], ArlingtonCharlottesville, Va. VA (quoted in Lounsbury 19941944: 177365) <ref>Carl R. Lounsbury, ed.Thomas Jefferson, ''An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and LandscapeThe Garden Book'' , ed. Edwin M. Betts (New YorkPhiladelphia: Oxford University PressAmerican Philosophical Society, 19941944), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UK5TCUQQ 8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero].</ref>:“. . . you should know this plant [haw], which is peculiar at least to America & is a real treasure. as a thorn for '''hedges''' nothing has ever been seen comparable to it certainly no thorn in England which I have ever seen makes a '''hedge''' any more to be compared to this than a log hut to a [[wall]] of freestone. if you will plant these 6. I. apart you will be a judge of their superiority soon.” [<span id="Fig_2_cite"></refspan>[[#Fig_2|See Fig. 2]]]
:"the [[fence]]s were of hurdles to keep out pigs. The American thorn will not grow close enough and the cedar '''hedge''' though pretty is not strong enough for the purpose."
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], July 22, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing a farm in Pennsylvania (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 11)<ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, “The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield” (Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I visited Job Roberts the day before yesterday, his farm is a model of excellence in the Culture. . . He is growing several '''hedges''' which in less than 7 yrs. will be complete [[fence]]s against all sorts of Cattle. The management of which is a good lesson, which I hope to make usefull to this place.”
* [[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing the vicinity of Charleston, S.C. (2:228) <ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing Custis-Lee Mansion (Arlington House), Arlington, VA (quoted in Lounsbury 1994:"Between the tavern and Charleston177)<ref>Carl R. Lounsbury, ed., the road is lined with the ''An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape'hedges''' and (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UK5TCUQQ view on Zotero].</ref>:“. . . the [[fence]]s belonging were of hurdles to several handsome [[plantation]]s: keep out pigs. The American thorn will not grow close enough and the cedar '''hedge''' though pretty is not strong enough for the houses are, however, seldom seen, being built a considerable distance backpurpose."
* [[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing the northern and mid-Atlantic States vicinity of Charleston, SC (1816: 2:231–32228) <ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Between the tavern and Charleston, the road is lined with the '''hedges''' and [[fence]]s belonging to several handsome [[plantation]]s: the houses are, however, seldom seen, being built a considerable distance back.”
:"A contrary practice is adopted in the northern and middle states, where a succession of farms, [[meadow]]s, gardens, and habitations, continually meet the eye of the traveller; and if '''hedges''' were substituted for rail [[fence]]s, those States would very much resemble some of the English counties."
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing the northern and mid-Atlantic States (1816: 2:231–32)<ref name="Lambert 1816"></ref>
:“A contrary practice is adopted in the northern and middle states, where a succession of farms, [[meadow]]s, gardens, and habitations, continually meet the eye of the traveller; and if '''hedges''' were substituted for rail [[fence]]s, those States would very much resemble some of the English counties.”
* Hulme, Thomas, June 28, 1818, describing the settlement of Morris Birkbeck, [[New Harmony]], Ind. (quoted in Cobbett 1819b: 475) <ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st edn (Claremont, N.H.: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Hulme, Thomas, June 28, 1818, describing the settlement of Morris Birkbeck, New Harmony, IN (quoted in Cobbett 1819b: 475)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].</ref>:"910“910. I very much admire Mr. Birkbeck’s mode of fencing. . . . The banks [of the ditches] were growing beautifully, and looked altogether very neat as well as formidable; though a live '''hedge''' (which he intends to have) instead of dead poles and rails, upon top, would make the [[fence]] far more effectual as well as handsomer."
[[File:0712.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte, ''Battle of New Orleans'', 1815.]]
* [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], February 20, 1819, describing the Montgomery House, New Orleans, La. LA (1951: 43) <ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818-18201818–1820'', ed. by Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69 view on Zotero].]</ref> :"Close “Close to the river, & separated only by the levee & road, is the old fashioned, but otherwise handsome, garden & house of Mr. Montgomery. The garden, which I think covers not less than 4 acres, is laid out in [[square]] [[walk]]s & flower [[bed]]s in the old [[French style]]. It is entirely enclosed by a thick '''hedge''' of orange trees, which have been suffered to run up to 15 or 16 feet high on the flanks & rear, but which are shorn down to the highth [''sic''] of 4 or 5 feet along the road." [Fig. 6]
[[File:0662.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, Rose-Lawn, residence of Edgar M. Vanderburgh, c. 1830-40, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, p. 296.]]
* [[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 21, 1823, describing Rose Hill, home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, Md. MD (1976: 158) <ref name="Forman 1976">Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814-18451814–1845'' (Wilmington, Del.: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero].]</ref> :"The “The hedger, Mr. Green, arrived here this evening, he laid a part of the Apple '''hedge''' and all the thorn '''hedge'''." [Fig. 7]   *Waln, Robert, Jr., 1825, describing the [[Friends Asylum for the Insane]], near Frankford, Pa. (pp. 231–32) <ref>Robert Jr. Waln, "An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia," ''Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences'', 1 (new series) (1825), 225–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D39BHTPH/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The [[flower garden]], extending from the vestibule to a dark green '''hedge''' of cedar, which separates it from the [[kitchen garden]], offers a rich repast to the eye. . . .
:"About twenty acres of the farm are in a state of cultivation; the rest is woodland. It is separated from the road which passes in front of it, by a flourishing thorn-'''hedge'''."
*Waln, Robert, Jr., 1825, describing the Friends Asylum for the Insane, near Frankford, PA (1825: 231–32)<ref>Robert Jr. Waln, “An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia,” ''Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences'' 1 (new series) (1825): 225–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D39BHTPH/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[flower garden]], extending from the vestibule to a dark green '''hedge''' of cedar, which separates it from the [[kitchen garden]], offers a rich repast to the eye. . .
:“About twenty acres of the farm are in a state of cultivation; the rest is woodland. It is separated from the road which passes in front of it, by a flourishing thorn-'''hedge'''.”
*Derby, Ezekiel Hersey, 1828, in a letter to Thomas Green Fessenden, describing his use of the buckthorn in constructing hedges (quoted in Fessenden 1828: 57) <ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 1st edn (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/M8WDX2P7 view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Derby, Ezekiel Hersey, 1828, in a letter to Thomas Green Fessenden, describing his use of the buckthorn in constructing hedges (quoted in Fessenden 1828: 57)<ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828), [https:"After //www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/M8WDX2P7 view on Zotero].</ref>:“After trying several kinds of trees, for the purpose of making a '''hedge''', without much success, I was induced to try this [buckthorn], which has afforded a most beautiful [[fence]], so much so as to attract the attention of every person who has seen it. It divides my garden, is about three hundred feet in length, the plants set nearly a foot apart, is five feet high, and two feet wide at top, which is cut nearly level. It shoots early in the spring, makes a handsome appearance, and continues its verdure till very late in the fall. It has not so much spine as either the English or American hawthorn, but I think sufficient to protect it from cattle. . . . You will observe that Miller speaks of it as not so proper for '''hedges''' as the hawthorn or crab, which may be the case in England, but I cannot agree with him as it respects America."
*Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a "bungalow" “bungalow” in Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389) <ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ed., ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero].]</ref>:“We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange '''hedges''', all in flower.”
:"We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange '''hedges''', all in flower."
*Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a [[plantation]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, SC, to Savannah, GA (quoted in Jones 1957: 98)<ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From the top of the bank, on which the house stood, we could see over a '''hedge''' into the rice fields which lay beyond, and stretched over the plain for several miles, their boundary line being the black edge of the untouched forest.”
*Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a [[plantation]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, S.C., to Savannah, Ga. (quoted in Jones 1957: 98) <ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Bell, Caroline, April 6, 1829, describing Iberville Plantation, LA (Historic New Orleans Collection, Butler Family Papers, folder 459, MS 102) :"From the top “I have set out a great deal of the bankbeautiful [[shrubbery]] & Flowers, on which the house stoodtomorrow shall plant, we could see over a all my orange seed for '''hedgehedges''' into the rice fields which lay beyond, & plant all my Myrtle and stretched over the plain for several miles, their boundary line being the black edge of the untouched forestsweet orange Trees."
*Bell, CarolineAnonymous, April 617, 1829, describing Iberville Plantation“Neglected Grave Yards” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 307)<ref>Anonymous, “Neglected Grave Yards,” ''New England Farmer, Laand Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 39 (Historic April 17, 1829): 307, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BRBQGV63 view on Zotero].</ref>:“I wish to call your attention to the subject of repairing, clearing, and ornamenting the [[burial ground]]s of New Orleans CollectionEngland. These enclosures are commonly neglected by the sexton, Butler Family Papersand present to the curious traveller, folder 459an ugly collection of slate slabs, Mss 102) of weeds, and rank or dried grass. A small effort in each sexton or clergyman, would suffice to awaken attention, to bring to the recollection of some, and to the fancy of all, a scene which every village should present, a [[grove]] sacred to the dead and to their recollection, to calm religious conversation, and to melancholy musing—inclosed with [[shrubbery]], and evergreen, and dignified by the lofty maple, and elm, and oak, and guarded by a living '''hedge''' of hawthorn.:“Every sexton should procure some oak, elm, and locust seed, and make it a part of his vocation to scatter it for chance growth.”
:"I have set out a great deal of beautiful [[shrubbery]] & Flowers, tomorrow shall plant, all my orange seed for '''hedges''' & plant all my Myrtle and sweet orange Trees."
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing Sweet Briar, seat of Samuel Breck, vicinity of Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 425)<ref name="Boyd 1929">James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827–1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. Breck has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate.”
* Anonymous, April 17, 1829, "Neglected Grave Yards" (''New England Farmer'' 7: 307) <ref>Anonymous, "Neglected Grave Yards," ''The New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 39 (April 17, 1829): 307, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BRBQGV63 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"I wish to call your attention to *Committee of the subject of repairingPennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, clearingdescribing a country residence near Philadelphia, and ornamenting the PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 438–39)<ref name="Boyd 1929"></ref>:“On viewing this [[burial groundseat]]s of New England. These enclosures are commonly neglected by the sexton, and present our attention was immediately drawn to the curious traveller, an ugly collection handsome '''hedges''' of slate slabs, of weeds, Hornbeam and rank or dried grassPinus Canadensis. A small effort in each sexton or clergyman, would suffice to awaken attention, to bring to We were delighted with the recollection of some, and to latter; never having seen it before. Its fine green foliage contrasts very sweetly with the fancy delicate appearance of all, a scene which every village should present, a [[grove]] sacred to the dead and to their recollection, to calm religious conversation, and to melancholy musing—inclosed with [[shrubbery]], and evergreen, and dignified by the lofty maple, and elm, and oak, and guarded by a living tender shoots. These '''''hedge''' of hawthorn. :"Every sexton should procure some oak, elm, ’s are trimmed periodically and locust seed, and make it a part of his vocation to scatter it for chance growthkept in excellent order." ''
* Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural SocietyDearborn, H. A. S., 18301832, describing Sweet Briar, seat of [[Samuel BreckMount Auburn Cemetery]], vicinity of PhiladelphiaCambridge, Pa. MA (quoted in Boyd 1929Harris 1832: 42582–83) <ref name="Boyd 1929">James BoydThaddeus William Harris, ''A History of Discourse Delivered before the Pennsylvania Massachusetts Horticultural Societyon the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1827-19271832'' (PhiladelphiaCambridge, MA: Pennsylvania Horticultural SocietyE. W. Metcalf, 19291832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T 3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].]</ref>:'''''Hedges''', used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a mere [[parterre]], a buisson of roses, or a [[bed]] of hyacinths. To look even beautiful, '''hedges''', of all kinds, require constant attention; they must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by a skilful hand.''
:"[[Samuel Breck|Mr. Breck]] has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate."
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), June 1835, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia,” describing D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last,” ''American Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201–6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The object of a '''hedge''' is generally to keep from the grounds cattle and other animals; though in some instances, they are only set to obscure one part of the garden from the other, or to hide some disagreeable object from the eye.”
* Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing a country residence near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Boyd 1929: 438–39) <ref name="Boyd 1929"></ref>
*Martineau, Harriet, 1835, describing Charleston, SC (1838:"On viewing this [[seat]]1:228)<ref>Harriet Martineau, our attention was immediately drawn to the handsome ''Retrospect of Western Travel'hedges''' of Hornbeam , 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Pinus CanadensisOtley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU view on Zotero]. We were delighted with </ref>:“The country is flat and sandy, and the latter; never having seen it before. Its fine green foliage contrasts very sweetly only objects are planters’ mansions, surrounded with evergreen [[wood]]s, the delicate appearance of gardens exhibiting the tender shoots. These tropical yucca, and fenced with '''hedgehedges'''s are trimmed periodically and kept in excellent orderof the Cherokee rose."
* [[H.A.S. Dearborn|Dearborn, H.A.S.]]Derby, 1832Ezekiel Hersey, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]]January 1, Cambridge1836, Mass. “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges” (quoted in Harris 1832''Horticultural Register'' 2: 82–8328) <ref>Thaddeus William HarrisEzekiel Hersey Derby, “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832Register and Gardener’s Magazine'' 2 (CambridgeJanuary 1, Mass.1836): E. W. Metcalf, 1832)27–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 P93RF7HA view on Zotero].]</ref>:“The rapid increase of our population, and the consequent vast consumption of timber for other and more valuable purposes, by increasing the relative cost of the old fashioned wooden [[fence]]s, must eventually render the introduction of '''hedges''' here, advantageous, if not absolutely essential, from motives of utility and economy; while the lover of rural scenery will hail with pleasure the [[picturesque]] charm of their verdant beauty. :“It is now about thirtytwo [''sic''] years, since I first attempted the formation of a live '''hedge''' as a boundary for my own pleasure-grounds.”
:"'''Hedges''', used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a mere [[parterre]], a buisson of roses, or a [[bed]] of hyacinths. To look even beautiful, '''hedges''', of all kinds, require constant attention; they must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by a skilful hand."
*Forman, Martha Ogle, April 30, 1838, describing Rose Hill, home of Martha Ogle Forman, Baltimore County, MD (1976: 396)<ref name="Forman 1976"></ref>
:“The General planting a '''hedge''' of Osage apple from the poplar tree [[gate]] to the [[wood]]s [[gate]] between the horse chestnuts row.”
* [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], June 1835, "Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia," describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth's Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last," ''The American Gardener's Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201-06 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero.]</ref>
:*<div id="Hovey"The object ></div>Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing Elias Hasket Derby House, Salem, MA (''Magazine of a Horticulture''5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” 'hedge'Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is generally several acres. The garden lies to keep from the grounds cattle south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and other animalsthe [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; though the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in some instancesthe centre of the garden, they and are only set to obscure one part screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.:“In the centre of the garden from is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the otherbuckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, or to hide some disagreeable object and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the eyetop to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable." ” [[#Hovey_cite|back up to History]]
* [[Harriet Martineau|MartineauKemble, Fanny, March 24–28, Harriet]]1839, 1835in a letter to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, describing Charlestonan estate on St. Simon’s Island, SGA (1961; repr.C. (1838: 1, 1984:228284–85) <ref>Harriet MartineauFrances Anne Kemble, ''Retrospect Journal of Western Travela Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839'', 2 volsed. John A. Scott (London1961; repr., Athens: Saunders and OtleyUniversity of Georgia Press, 18381984), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU UWZQAT2D view on Zotero].]</ref>:“Hamilton struck me very much—I mean the whole appearance of the place; the situation of the house, the noble water [[prospect]] it commanded, the magnificent old oaks near it, a luxuriant vine [[trellis]], and a splendid '''hedge''' of Yucca gloriosa, were all objects of great delight to me.”
:"The country is flat and sandy, and the only objects are planters’ mansions, surrounded with evergreen [[wood]]s, the gardens exhibiting the tropical yucca, and fenced with '''hedges''' of the Cherokee rose."
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), October 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 363)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 10 (October 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Passing into a straight [[walk]] which leads from the [[conservatory]], by the [[flower garden]], (which is screaned by a [[hedge]] from the [[lawn]] front,).”
*Derby, Ezekiel Hersey, January 1, 1836, "Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges" (''Horticultural Register'' 2: 28) <ref>Ezekiel Hersey Derby, "Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges," ''The Horticultural Register and Gardener's Magazine'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27-29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P93RF7HA view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The rapid increase of our population, and the consequent vast consumption of timber for other and more valuable purposes, by increasing the relative cost of the old fashioned wooden [[fence]]s, must eventually render the introduction of '''hedges''' here, advantageous, if not absolutely essential, from motives of utility and economy; while the lover of rural scenery will hail with pleasure the [[picturesque]] charm of their verdant beauty. :"It is now about thirtytwo [''sic''] years, since I first attempted the formation of a live '''hedge''' as a boundary for my own pleasure-grounds."   * [[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 30, 1838, describing Rose Hill, home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, Md. (1976: 396) <ref name="Forman 1976"></ref> :"The General planting a '''hedge''' of Osage apple from the poplar tree [[gate]] to the [[wood]]s [[gate]] between the horse chestnuts row.}   *<div id="Hovey"></div>C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], November 1839, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11), <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401-16 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to history]] :"The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''. :"In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge'''d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable."  *Kemble, Fanny, March 24-28, 1839, in a letter to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, describing an estate on St. Simon's Island, Ga. ([1961] 1984: 284–85) <ref>Frances Anne Kemble, ''Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839'', ed. by John A. Scott (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1984), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UWZQAT2D view on Zotero.]</ref> :"Hamilton struck me very much—I mean the whole appearance of the place; the situation of the house, the noble water [[prospect]] it commanded, the magnificent old oaks near it, a luxuriant vine [[trellis]], and a splendid '''hedge''' of Yucca gloriosa, were all objects of great delight to me."   * [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], October 1840, "Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.," describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 363) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 10 (October 1840): 361-66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero.]</ref> :"Passing into a straight [[walk]] which leads from the [[conservatory]], by the [[flower garden]], (which is screaned by a [[hedge]] from the [[lawn]] front,)."   [[File:0878_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, "Ground “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing'Downing’s [[Botanic Garden]]s Botanic Gardens and [[Nursery|Nurseries ]] [detail]," in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.]]* [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]](Charles Mason), November 1841, "Select “Select Villa Residences," describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[A. J. Andrew Jackson Downing]], Newburgh, N.Y. NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Select “Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401-11401–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero].]</ref> :"18“18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . . Under the arbor vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer. :"19“19. '''Hedge''' or screen of arbor vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The arbor vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years." [Fig. 8]
[[File:1047.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844.]]
*Longfellow, Samuel, September 3, 1845, in a letter to Annie Pierce, describing [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, Mass. MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 40) <ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].]</ref> :"A “A buckthorn '''hedge''' has been made between us & Mr. Hastings, and Mr. Worcester not satisfied with the rustic open [[fence]] which separates between us demands a '''hedge''' there also which will cover up entirely the glimpse that I get from my western window and which I do not at all like to loose [''sic'']." [Fig. 9]  * [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], August 1846, "Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York," describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth's Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281-85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens."
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), August 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens.”
* Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1847, excerpt from "Walden" (Clarke, ed., 1993: 2:47) <ref>Graham Clarke, ed., ''The American Landscape: Literary Sources and Documents'', 3 vols. (East Sussex, England: Helm Information, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TRGJ9W95/]</ref>
*Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1847, excerpt from “Walden” (Clarke, ed., 1993:"Self2:47)<ref>Graham Clarke, ed., ''The American Landscape: Literary Sources and Documents'', 3 vols. (East Sussex, England: Helm Information, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TRGJ9W95/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Self-sown my stately garden grows;
::The winds and wind-blown seed,
:Cold April rain and colder snows
::My '''hedges''' plant and feed."
*Lyell, Sir Charles, 1849, describing Natchez, Miss. MS (1849: 2:153) <ref>Sir Charles Lyell, ''A Second Visit to the United States of North America'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero].]</ref>:“Many of the country-houses in the neighborhood are elegant, and some of the gardens belonging to them laid out in the English, others in the [[French style]]. In the latter are seen [[terrace]]s, with [[statue]]s and cut evergreens, straight [[walk]]s with [[border]]s of flowers, terminated by [[view]]s into the wild forest, the charms of both being heightened by contrast. Some of the '''hedges''' are made of that beautiful North American plant, the Gardenia, miscalled in England the Cape jessamine, others of the Cherokee rose, with its bright and shining leaves.”
:"Many of the country-houses in the neighborhood are elegant, and some of the gardens belonging to them laid out in the English, others in the [[French style]]. In the latter are seen [[terrace]]s, with [[statue]]s and cut evergreens, straight [[walk]]s with [[border]]s of flowers, terminated by [[view]]s into the wild forest, the charms of both being heightened by contrast. Some of the '''hedges''' are made of that beautiful North American plant, the Gardenia, miscalled in England the Cape jessamine, others of the Cherokee rose, with its bright and shining leaves."
{{break}}*Turnbull, Martha, January 22, 1849, diary entry describing tasks completed on [[Rosedown Plantation]], Lousiana (Turner, ed., 2012: 65–66)<ref>Martha Barrow Turnbull, ''The Garden Diary of Martha Turnbull, Mistress of Rosedown Plantation'', ed. Suzanne Turner (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2012), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/FQ4JFX7V/q/turnbull view on Zotero].</ref>:“20th put down corn, green house in good order—sewed Beets.:“22 Some more Mashanoc Irish Potatoes, still putting down box cuttings & trimed down the Wild Peach '''hedge''' to 14 inches—set out Pinks sown in October & all kinds of flowers—” 
===Citations===
 * [[John Parkinson|Parkinson, John]], 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' ([1629] ; repr., 1975: 5) <ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (Norwood, N.J.NJ: W.J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero].]</ref> :"To “To forme it [the garden] therfore with [[walk]]s, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with '''hedges''', with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge."   *Smith, John, 1629, ''Advertisement for the Unexperienced Planters'' (quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963: 2:399) <ref>Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson, eds., ''The Puritans'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9XGR26VH view on Zotero.]</ref> :"you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s . . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”   * [[Richard Bradley|Bradley, Richard]], 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28) <ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical; Explaining the Motion of the Sapp and Generation of Plants. With Other Discoveries Never before Made in Publick, for the Improvement of Forest-Trees, Flower-Gardens or Parterres; with a New Invention Where by More Designs of Garden Platts May Be Made in an Hour, than Can Be Found in All the Books Now Extant. Likewise Several Rare Secrets for the Improvement of Fruit-Trees, Kitchen-Gardens, and Green-House Plants.'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero.]</ref> :"[vol. 1] They [ever-greens] are so ornamental where they are rightly managed, that I think no Garden can be compleat without ’em; they make beautiful and useful '''Hedges'''.... :"It [the Yew-Tree] is of great use for '''Hedges''', and make most agreeable Divisions in Gardens; it is customary to [[fence]] in the [[Quarter]]s of [[Wilderness]] Works with these Plants, where they have a very good Effect. . . . :"[vol. 2] In these several [[Quarter]]s plant your Trees at about sixteen Foot distance, if you design a close [[Orchard]], or near thirty Foot asunder if the Ground is design'd for Beans, Peas, or such like Under-crops. . . . The Ground thus planted may be fenced about with '''Hedges''' of ''Philbuds'' and ''Berberries'', to make it still the more compleat and delightful."   [[File:1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[Batty Langley]], "Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner," in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III.]][[File:1383.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, [[Batty Langley]], One of two "Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House . . . ," in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X.]]* [[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (p. vii-ix, xiii) <ref name="Langley">Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley [and 4 others], 1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AN26GF5X view on Zotero.]</ref>  :"Plate III. is the Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,...:"The '''Hedges''' that are planted between the aforesaid Trees which form the Sides of the [[Walk]]s are of ''English'', ''Dutch'' and ''French Elms'', ''Lime'', ''Hornbeam'', ''Maple'', ''Privet'', ''Yew'', ''Holly'', ''Arbutus'', ''Phillyrea'', ''Norway Fir'', ''Ilex'', ''Bay'', ''Laurel'', ''Laurus-Tinnus'', ''Piracantha'', ''Juniper'', and the ''English Furze''; and indeed, a beutiful [[Plantation]] should not only be adorned with entire [[Walk]]s and '''Hedges''' of Trees of all Sorts, as well as Fruit as others; but intermix'd together in many parts, as if Nature had placed them there with her own Hand....[Fig. 10]:"Plates X and XI, are Designs for gardens that lye [''sic''] irregularly to the grand House. In Plate X, the House opens to the ''North'' upon the ''[[Park]]'' A, to the ''East'' upon ''Court'' B, to the ''South'' upon the ''[[Parterre]] of Grass and Water'' C; and Lastly to the ''West'' upon the ''circular [[basin|Bason]]'' D, from which leads a ''pleasant [[Avenue]]'' Z X. The ''[[Mount]]'' F, is raised with the Earth that came out of the ''[[Canal]]'' E E, and its [[Slope]] H is planted with '''''Hedges''''' of ''different Ever-Greens'', that rising behind one another of different Colours have a very good Effect, being view'd from M...."[Fig. 11]  * [[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (p. 195–99) <ref name="Langley"></ref> :"''General'' DIRECTIONS, ''&c''.... :"XIX. . . . :"And to add to the Pleasure of these delightful Meanders, I advise that the '''Hedge'''-Rows of the [[Walk]]s be intermix'd with Cherries, Plumbs [sic], Apples, Pears, Bruxel Apricots, Figs, Gooseberries, Currants, Rasberrries [''sic''], ''&c''. and the [[Border]]s planted with Strawberries, Violets, ''&c''. :"The most beautiful Forest-Trees for '''Hedges''', are the English Elm, the ''Dutch'' Elm, the Lime-Tree, and Hornbeam: And altho' I have advis’d the Mixing of these '''Hedges''' of Forest-Trees with the aforesaid Fruits, yet you must not forget a Place for those pleasant and delightful Flowering-[[Shrub]]s, the White Jessemine, Honey-Suckle, and Sweet-Brier. . . . :"XXI. Such [[Walk]]s as must terminate within the Garden, are best finish'd with [[Mount]]s, [[aviary|Aviaries]], [[Grotto]]’s, [[Cascade]]s, Rocks, Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, variously mix'd, with circular '''Hedges''' ascending behind one another, which renders a very graceful Appearance."  * [[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1:n.p.) <ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th edn, 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al, 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero.]</ref> :"[[espalier|ESPALIER]]. . . . :"As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . . . :"'''HEDGE'''*, in agriculture, &c. a [[fence]], inclosing a field, garden, or the like; made of branches of trees interwoven. See [[fence|FENCE]]. :"* The word is formed of the German ''hag'', or ''haeg'', or the Anglo Saxon ''hegge'', or ''hege''; which signifies simply ''inclosure'', ''circumference''. :"''Quick-set'' '''HEDGE''', is that made of quick or live trees, which have taken root; in contradistinction to that made of faggots, hurdles, or dry boughs."  * [[Samuel Johnson|Johnson, Samuel]], 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1:n.p.) <ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero.]</ref> :"'''HEDGE'''. ''n.s''. [. . . Saxon.] A [[fence]] made round grounds with prickly bushes."   *<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 641, 645), <ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to history]] :"When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . . :"A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety."
*HaleSmith, ThomasJohn, 17581629, ''A Compleat Body of HusbandryAdvertisement for the Unexperienced Planters'' (1quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963:209–10, 2302:399) <ref>Perry Miller and Thomas HaleH. Johnson, eds., ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry Containing Rules for Performing, in the Most Profitable Manner, the Whole Business of the Farmer and Country GentlemanThe Puritans'', 2nd edn, 4 2 vols. (LondonNew York: T. OsborneHarper and Row, 17581963), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KRKU9TFT 9XGR26VH view on Zotero].]</ref>:“. . . you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s. . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”
:"Where the soil is too barren for the growth of an '''hedge''', there is often stone ready for a [[wall]]. . . .
:"In the dry pastures '''hedges''' are the proper [[fence]]s. They are of great service; beside their sheltering the cattle, they defend the grass from the summer heats, and shelter it in the spring from the drying winds. ...The '''hedges''' also are of value for their produce in useful [[wood]]. . . .
:"Of '''hedges'''....
:"No article [inclosure], in the husbandman's whole concern, is of more importance. '''Hedges''' are the first object that naturally should strike his imagination, as they are the defence and guard of all the rest. . . .
:"In all inclosed lands the farmer must keep up a good [[fence]], if he expect [''sic''] to reap the fruit of his labours. The better and the more perfectly the [[fence]] is kept in repair, the greater will be his security of his profits: one little defect may do him more injury, by letting in cattle upon his crop, than would have been the cost of a most perfect repair."
*Bradley, Richard, 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28)<ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical. . .'' 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719–20), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[vol. 1] They [ever-greens] are so ornamental where they are rightly managed, that I think no Garden can be compleat without ’em; they make beautiful and useful '''Hedges'''. . .
:“It [the Yew-Tree] is of great use for '''Hedges''', and make most agreeable Divisions in Gardens; it is customary to [[fence]] in the [[Quarter]]s of [[Wilderness]] Works with these Plants, where they have a very good Effect. . .
:“[vol. 2] In these several [[Quarter]]s plant your Trees at about sixteen Foot distance, if you design a close [[Orchard]], or near thirty Foot asunder if the Ground is design’d for Beans, Peas, or such like Under-crops. . . The Ground thus planted may be fenced about with '''Hedges''' of ''Philbuds'' and ''Berberries'', to make it still the more compleat and delightful.”
* [[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (n.p.) <ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard... Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th edn (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero.]</ref>
[[File:"[After 1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, Batty Langley, “Design of a description of ''rural Garden'', after the types new manner,” in ''New Principles of trees used in Gardening''(1728), pl. III.]][[File:1383.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House. . . ,” in 'hedges'New Principles of Gardening''(1728), Miller notes thatpl. X.]] *Langley, Batty, 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'[h]edges'(1728: vii–ix, xiii)<ref name="Langley">Batty Langley, '' are either planted to make New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley et al.,1728), [[fencehttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AN26GF5X view on Zotero]]s around enclosures, or to part off or divide several parts .</ref> :“Plate III. is the Design of a ''rural Garden; when they '', after the new manner, . . .:“The '''Hedges''' that are designed as outward planted between the aforesaid Trees which form the Sides of the [[fenceWalk]]sare of ''English'', ''Dutch'' and ''French Elms'', ''Lime'', ''Hornbeam'', ''Maple'', ''Privet'', ''Yew'', ''Holly'', ''Arbutus'', ''Phillyrea'', ''Norway Fir'', they are planted either with Hawthorne''Ilex'', ''Bay'', ''Laurel'', Crabs''Laurus-Tinnus'', or Blackthorn''Piracantha'', which is slow; but those ''Juniper'', and the 'hedges'English Furze'' which are planted in Gardens; and indeed, either to surround a beutiful [[WildernessPlantation]] should not only be adorned with entire [[QuarterWalk]]s, or to screen the other parts of a Garden from Sight, are planted with various Sorts of plants, according to the fancy of the Owner some preferring Evergreen and '''Hedges'''of Trees of all Sorts, as well as Fruit as others; but intermix’d together in which case the Holly is bestmany parts, next to the Yew, then Laurel, &cas if Nature had placed them there with her own Hand. . . [Fig. 10]:"The taste in Gardening having been greatly altered of late Years “Plates X and XI, are Designs for gardens that lye [''sic''] irregularly to the bettergrand House. In Plate X, these clipped the House opens to the ''North''upon the 'Hedges'[[Park]]'' have been almost excluded; and it is hoped that a little Time will entirely banish them out of English gardensA, as it has done by to the shorne evergreens''East'' upon ''Court'' B, which a few years since were esteemed to the greatest beauties in gardens. The latter was introduced by the Dutch Gardeners, and that of tall ''South'Hedges'upon the '' with Trellage work was in imitation [[Parterre]] of the French gardensGrass and Water'' C; in some of which of and Lastly to the Iron Trellage to support ''West'' upon the trees ''circular [[basin|Bason]]'' D, from which composed their cabinets, leads a ''pleasant [[porticoAvenue]]s, '' Z X. The ''[[bowerMount]]s'' F, is raised with the Earth that came out of the ''[[pavilion|PavilonsCanal]]'' E E, and other pieces its [[Slope]] H is planted with '''''Hedges''''' of rural architecture''different Ever-Greens'', amounted to that rising behind one another of different Colours have a very great sumgood Effect, being view’d from M. . ."” [Fig. 11]
*SquibbLangley, RobertBatty, 17871728, ''The Gardener's Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North CarolinaNew Principles of Gardening'' ([1787] 19801728: 51195–99) <ref name="Langley"></ref>Robert Squibb:“''General'' DIRECTIONS, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South&c''. . .:“XIX. . . .:“And to add to the Pleasure of these delightful Meanders, I advise that the '''Hedge'''-CarolinaRows of the [[Walk]]s be intermix’d with Cherries, GeorgiaPlumbs [sic], Apples, Pears, Bruxel Apricots, and North CarolinaFigs, Gooseberries, Currants, Rasberrries [''sic'' (Charleston], S''&c''.Cand the [[Border]]s planted with Strawberries, Violets, ''&c''.: Samuel Wright “The most beautiful Forest-Trees for '''Hedges''', are the English Elm, the ''Dutch'' Elm, the Lime-Tree, and Co.Hornbeam: And altho' I have advis’d the Mixing of these '''Hedges''' of Forest-Trees with the aforesaid Fruits, yet you must not forget a Place for those pleasant and delightful Flowering-[[Shrub]]s, the White Jessemine, 1787)Honey-Suckle, [https://wwwand Sweet-Brier. .zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JHHVPH9K view on Zotero:“XXI.Such [[Walk]]s as must terminate within the Garden, are best finish’d with [[Mount]]s, [[aviary|Aviaries]], [[Grotto]]’s, [[Cascade]]</ref>s, Rocks, Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, variously mix’d, with circular '''Hedges''' ascending behind one another, which renders a very graceful Appearance.”
:"If you plant the orange trees for a '''hedge''', about ten feet will be a good distance; but if intended for an [[orchard]] or a [[grove]], twenty feet will not be too much."
*[[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . '', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[espalier|ESPALIER]]. . .
:“As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . .
:“'''HEDGE'''*, in agriculture, &c. a [[fence]], inclosing a field, garden, or the like; made of branches of trees interwoven. See [[fence|FENCE]].
:“*The word is formed of the German ''hag'', or ''haeg'', or the Anglo Saxon ''hegge'', or ''hege''; which signifies simply ''inclosure'', ''circumference''.
:“''Quick-set'' '''HEDGE''', is that made of quick or live trees, which have taken root; in contradistinction to that made of faggots, hurdles, or dry boughs.”
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (pp. 91–92) <ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to history]]
:"[[FENCE]]. . . . :"In some places it is best to make *Johnson, Samuel, 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'hedge'(1755: 1:n.p.)<ref>Samuel Johnson, '' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds A Dictionary of [[fence]] that go the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by this name, dead '''hedge'Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and quickset '''hedge'''P. :"To make a good dead '''hedge''', take stakes about six feet longKnapton, and set them fast in the ground1755), upon the line of your [[fence]], about four feet apart, or a less distance if your bushes be shorthttps://www. Then interweave bushes, young trees, or small slender limbs of treeszotero. This [[fence]org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero] will answer with a yearly repairing till the stakes fail. </ref>:"But quickset “'''HEDGE''hedge'. '' is much better, as it is a perpetual [[fence]]n. It must be made with different sets in different groundss''. [. . . :"It takes time to make these '''hedges'''Saxon. But on the whole they are cheap ] A [[fence]]s, as they require but little repairing, besides trimming and pruning, to prevent their growing so high as to cast too great a shadowmade round grounds with prickly bushes."
*Main<div id="Ware"></div>Ware, ThomasIsaac, September 28, 18071756, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management A Complete Body of Young Thorn or Other Hedge PlantsArchitecture'' (pp. 151756: 641, 37645) ,<ref>Thomas MainIsaac Ware, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management A Complete Body of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants, Preparative to Their Being Set in Hedges, with Some Practical Observations on the Method of Plain HedgingArchitecture'' (Washington, D.C.London: AT. GOsborne and J. and WayShipton, 18071756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UEDDDN6J 2EK2USKV view on Zotero].]</ref>:“When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds. . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . .:“A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety.” [[#Ware_cite|back up to History]]
:"A row of suitable shrubs or trees, planted at a proper distance from each other, on the plain cultivated surface of the ground, in order to form a [[fence]] is what here is meant by plain hedging, to distinguish it from the common method used in Britain, called '''hedge''' and ditch. . . . Those who are curious to understand the manner of conducting this old way of hedging, will find in Mr. [[Bernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]]'s 'American Gardener's Callender [''sic''],' a clear and excellent description thereof, with much other useful information in this art, as well as in the various departments of horticulture, &c. . . .
:"A promiscuous assemblage of several different kinds of plants in a '''hedge''' cannot be recommended; such a heterogeneous composition will neither make a good [[fence]] nor look handsome."
*Hale, Thomas, 1758, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry'' (1758: 1:209–10, 230)<ref>Thomas Hale, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry Containing Rules for Performing, in the Most Profitable Manner, the Whole Business of the Farmer and Country Gentleman'', 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: T. Osborne, 1758), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KRKU9TFT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Where the soil is too barren for the growth of an '''hedge''', there is often stone ready for a [[wall]]. . .
:“In the dry pastures '''hedges''' are the proper [[fence]]s. They are of great service; beside their sheltering the cattle, they defend the grass from the summer heats, and shelter it in the spring from the drying winds. . . The '''hedges''' also are of value for their produce in useful [[wood]]. . .
:“Of '''hedges'''. . .
:“No article [inclosure], in the husbandman’s whole concern, is of more importance. '''Hedges''' are the first object that naturally should strike his imagination, as they are the defence and guard of all the rest. . .
:“In all inclosed lands the farmer must keep up a good [[fence]], if he expect [''sic''] to reap the fruit of his labours. The better and the more perfectly the [[fence]] is kept in repair, the greater will be his security of his profits: one little defect may do him more injury, by letting in cattle upon his crop, than would have been the cost of a most perfect repair.”
* Neil, William, November 28, 1812, "On Hedging and Ditching, by William Neill, Delaware County, Pennsylvania" (quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 146) <ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818">John Gardiner and David Hepburn, ''The American Gardener, Expanded ed. of 1804 original'' (Georgetown, D.C.: Joseph Milligan, 1818), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RISZAN8M/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Miller, Philip, 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.p.)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary:"Where I became first acquainted Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard. . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].</ref>:“[After a description of the types of trees used in '''hedges''', unless Miller notes that] '''[h]edges''' are either planted to make [[fence]]s around enclosures, or to part off or divide several parts of a Garden; when they are designed as outward [[kitchen gardenfence]]s, they are planted either with Hawthorne, Crabs, or townsBlackthorn, which is slow; but those '''hedges''' which are planted in Gardens, either to surround [[Wilderness]] [[Quarter]]s, or villagesto screen the other parts of a Garden from Sight, are planted with various Sorts of plants, where lots were smallaccording to the fancy of the Owner some preferring Evergreen '''Hedges''', you would not see one in five hundred trimmedwhich case the Holly is best, next to the Yew, then Laurel, &c. . . They, :“The taste in generalGardening having been greatly altered of late Years for the better, let these clipped '''Hedges''' have been almost excluded; and it is hoped that a little Time will entirely banish them grow till tenout of English gardens, twelveas it has done by the shorne evergreens, or perhaps twenty which a few years oldsince were esteemed the greatest beauties in gardens. The latter was introduced by the Dutch Gardeners, thenand that of tall '''Hedges''' with Trellage work was in imitation of the French gardens; in some of which of the Iron Trellage to support the trees which composed their cabinets, with a sharp handsaw[[portico]]s, take them off a few inches above the bank[[bower]]s, when you would immediately have a more formidable [[fencepavilion|Pavilons]] then ever, and so on for agesother pieces of rural architecture, amounted to a very great sum."
* [[George Gregory|GregorySquibb, G.]]Robert, 18161787, ''A New The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and Complete Dictionary of Arts and SciencesNorth Carolina'' (21787:n.p.51) <ref>George GregoryRobert Squibb, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and SciencesThe Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, First AmericanGeorgia, from the second London edition, considerably improved and augmentedNorth Carolina''(Charleston, 3 volsSC: Samuel Wright and Co. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 18161787), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E JHHVPH9K view on Zotero].]</ref>:“If you plant the orange trees for a '''hedge''', about ten feet will be a good distance; but if intended for an [[orchard]] or a [[grove]], twenty feet will not be too much.”
:"GARDENING. . . .
:"Yet the fall of the leaves by autumnal winds is troublesome, and a high [[wall]] is therefore advisable. Spruce firs have been used in close-shorn '''hedges'''; which, as evergreens, are proper enough to plant for a screen in a single row, though not very near to the [[wall]]; but the best evergreens for this purpose are the evergreen oak and the cork-tree. . . .
:"Here it may be observed, that if any evergreen '''hedges''' are desired in or about the garden, yew, box, alaternus, celastrus, phillyrea, and pryacantha, may be kept low, and clipped in form, if so desired; in addition to which, if a few roses were intermixed, it would have a very pretty effect. A deciduous '''hedge''' for subdivision, or screen, &c. may be made of elms or limes, setting the larger plants at five feet asunder, and a smaller one between. Or an ordinary [[fence]], or subdivision, may be quickly formed of elder cuttings, stuck in at two feet asunder, which may be kept cut within bounds."
*<div id="Deane"></div>Deane, Samuel, 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (1790: 91–92)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[FENCE]]. . .
:“In some places it is best to make '''hedge''' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds of [[fence]] that go by this name, dead '''hedge''', and quickset '''hedge'''.
:“To make a good dead '''hedge''', take stakes about six feet long, and set them fast in the ground, upon the line of your [[fence]], about four feet apart, or a less distance if your bushes be short. Then interweave bushes, young trees, or small slender limbs of trees. This [[fence]] will answer with a yearly repairing till the stakes fail.
:“But quickset '''hedge''' is much better, as it is a perpetual [[fence]]. It must be made with different sets in different grounds. . .
:“It takes time to make these '''hedges'''. But on the whole they are cheap [[fence]]s, as they require but little repairing, besides trimming and pruning, to prevent their growing so high as to cast too great a shadow.” [[#Deane_cite|back up to History]]
* Taylor, John, 1817, ''Arator'' (p. 147) <ref>John Taylor, ''Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political'' (Georgetown, D.C.: J. M. and J. B. Carter, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RG7QHU4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"If these *Main, Thomas, September 28, 1807, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants''(1807: 15, 37)<ref>Thomas Main, 'hedges'Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants, Preparative to Their Being Set in Hedges, with Some Practical Observations on the Method of Plain Hedging'' are cultivated properly(Washington, DC: A. G. and Way, 1807), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UEDDDN6J view on Zotero].</ref>:“A row of suitable shrubs or trees, planted at a proper distance from each other, on the plain cultivated surface of the land is strongground, they will in order to form an elegant live ever-green a [[fence]]is what here is meant by plain hedging, to distinguish it from the common method used in a shorter timeBritain, than is necessary called '''hedge''' and ditch. . . Those who are curious to raise a thorn understand the manner of conducting this old way of hedging, will find in Mr. [[fenceBernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]] ’s 'American Gardener’s Callender [''sic''],' a clear and excellent description thereof, with much other useful information in Englandthis art, according to as well as in the booksvarious departments of horticulture, &c. . .:“A promiscuous assemblage of several different kinds of plants in a '''hedge''' cannot be recommended; such a heterogeneous composition will neither make a good [[fence]] nor look handsome."
*GardinerNeil, William, November 28, 1812, John “On Hedging and David HepburnDitching, by William Neill, 1818Delaware County, ''The American Gardener'' Pennsylvania” (pp. 117–19, 136–37quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 146) <ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818">John Gardiner and David Hepburn, ''The American Gardener'', expanded ed. (Georgetown: Joseph Milligan, 1818), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RISZAN8M/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Where I became first acquainted with '''hedges''', unless around [[kitchen garden]]s, or towns, or villages, where lots were small, you would not see one in five hundred trimmed. They, in general, let them grow till ten, twelve, or perhaps twenty years old, then, with a sharp handsaw, take them off a few inches above the bank, when you would immediately have a more formidable [[fence]] then ever, and so on for ages.”
:"In those parts of the union where the ripening of fruit requires no aid from artificial warmth and where therefore brick or stone [[wall]]s can be preferable, only on account of their superior strength as [[fence]]s, live '''hedges''', or banks with live '''hedges''' upon them, if well made, not only present an excellent resistance to incroachments, but are an exquisitely beautiful ornament to the mansion and its adjacent grounds. And as the propagation of live '''hedges''' is everyday becoming a subject of more serious importance, and will soon be one of indisputable necessity, in the long inhabited parts of the union where timber is becoming very scarce and dear, it may not be amiss, in this place, to turn for a moment from our particular object of enquiry, for the purpose of awakening all our agriculturalists to a consideration of the expediency of cultivating them, and of offering them a few instructions on [''sic''] this point of rural economy. . . .
:"For gardens, '''hedges''' are advisable for two distinct purposes: The first, outward [[fence]]s to serve as a [[wall]] for the exclusion of tresspassers [''sic'']; the other inward, for the purposes of ornament and shade.
:"For the former, the haw-thorn is excellent. . . .
:"For internal ornamental '''hedges''', privet, yew, laurel and box, cedar and juniper, are most generally used."
*[[G. (George) Gregory|Gregory, G. (George)]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', 1st American ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero].</ref>
:“GARDENING. . .
:“Yet the fall of the leaves by autumnal winds is troublesome, and a high [[wall]] is therefore advisable. Spruce firs have been used in close-shorn '''hedges'''; which, as evergreens, are proper enough to plant for a screen in a single row, though not very near to the [[wall]]; but the best evergreens for this purpose are the evergreen oak and the cork-tree. . .
:“Here it may be observed, that if any evergreen '''hedges''' are desired in or about the garden, yew, box, alaternus, celastrus, phillyrea, and pryacantha, may be kept low, and clipped in form, if so desired; in addition to which, if a few roses were intermixed, it would have a very pretty effect. A deciduous '''hedge''' for subdivision, or screen, &c. may be made of elms or limes, setting the larger plants at five feet asunder, and a smaller one between. Or an ordinary [[fence]], or subdivision, may be quickly formed of elder cuttings, stuck in at two feet asunder, which may be kept cut within bounds.”
*Cobbett, William, 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819a: 22, 28–29) <ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st edn (Claremont, N.H.: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"38. Yet, with all these circumstances in my favour, I proceed with faultering accent to propose, even for a garden, a live [[fence]]*Taylor, especially when I have to noticeJohn, that I know not how to get the plants, unless I, in the outset, bring them, or their seeds1817, ''from England!Arator'' However, I must suppose this difficulty surmounted; then proceed to describe this [[fence]] that I would have, if I could. (1817:"39. In England it is called a ''Quick-Set '''Hedge'''''. The truth is, however147)<ref>John Taylor, that it ought rather to be called an ''Everlasting '''Hedge'''''; forArator, it is notBeing a Series of Agricultural Essays, as will be seen by-Practical and-by, so Political''very quickly set''; or(Georgetown: J. M. and J. B. Carter, at least1817), so very quickly raised. [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RG7QHU4 view on Zotero]. </ref>:"49. And why should America not possess this most beautiful and useful plant [the Haw-Thorn]? She has English gew-gaws, English Play-Actors, English Cards and English Dice and Billiards; English fooleries and English vices enough in all conscience; and why not English “If these '''Hedgeshedges'''are cultivated properly, instead of post-andthe land is strong, they will form an elegant live ever-rail and board green [[fence]]s? If, instead of these steril-looking and cheerless enclosures the gardens and in a shorter time, than is necessary to raise a thorn [[meadowfence]]s and fields, in the neighbourhood of New York and other cities and townsEngland, were divided by quick-set '''hedges''', what a difference would according to the alteration make in the look, and in the real value too, of those gardens, [[meadow]]s and fields!" books.”
*Gardiner, John and David Hepburn, 1818, ''The American Gardener'' (1818: 117–19, 136–37)<ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818"></ref>:“In those parts of the union where the ripening of fruit requires no aid from artificial warmth and where therefore brick or stone [[File:1372.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12wall]]s can be preferable, only on account of their superior strength as [[J. C. Loudonfence]]s, live '''hedges''', or banks with live '''hedges''' upon them, if well made, not only present an excellent resistance to incroachments, Plan but are an exquisitely beautiful ornament to the mansion and its adjacent grounds. And as the propagation of live '''hedges''' is everyday becoming a ferme ornée with wild subject of more serious importance, and will soon be one of indisputable necessity, in the long inhabited parts of the union where timber is becoming very scarce and irregular hedgesdear, it may not be amiss, in this place, to turn for a moment from our particular object of enquiry, for the purpose of awakening all our agriculturalists to a consideration of the expediency of cultivating them, and of offering them a few instructions on [''An Encyclopædia of Gardeningsic'' (1826), p] this point of rural economy. 1023, fig. 722.:“For gardens, '''hedges''' are advisable for two distinct purposes: The first, outward [[fence]]* s to serve as a [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C.wall]], 1826, for the exclusion of tresspassers [''An Encyclopaedia of Gardeningsic'' (pp]; the other inward, for the purposes of ornament and shade. 106:“For the former, 355, 1023) <ref>Jthe haw-thorn is excellent. . C. (John Claudius) Loudon, A:“For internal ornamental '''hedges'''n Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floricultureprivet, Arboricultureyew, laurel and Landscape-Gardening''box, 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826)cedar and juniper, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zoteroare most generally used.]</ref>
:"486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live [[fence]]s are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:"1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .
:"7280. ''The ferme ornée'' differs from a common farm in having a better dwelling-house, neater approach, and one partly or entirely distinct from that which leads to the offices. It also differs as to the '''hedges''', which are allowed to grow wild and irregular (''fig''. 722.), and are bordered on each side by a broad green [[drive]], and sometimes by a gravel-[[walk]] and [[shrub]]s." [Fig. 12]
*Cobbett, William, 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819a: 22, 28–29)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].</ref>
:“38. Yet, with all these circumstances in my favour, I proceed with faultering accent to propose, even for a garden, a live [[fence]], especially when I have to notice, that I know not how to get the plants, unless I, in the outset, bring them, or their seeds, ''from England!'' However, I must suppose this difficulty surmounted; then proceed to describe this [[fence]] that I would have, if I could.
:“39. In England it is called a ''Quick-Set '''Hedge'''''. The truth is, however, that it ought rather to be called an ''Everlasting '''Hedge'''''; for, it is not, as will be seen by-and-by, so ''very quickly set''; or, at least, so very quickly raised. . .
:“49. And why should America not possess this most beautiful and useful plant [the Haw-Thorn]? She has English gew-gaws, English Play-Actors, English Cards and English Dice and Billiards; English fooleries and English vices enough in all conscience; and why not English '''Hedges''', instead of post-and-rail and board [[fence]]s? If, instead of these steril-looking and cheerless enclosures the gardens and [[meadow]]s and fields, in the neighbourhood of New York and other cities and towns, were divided by quick-set '''hedges''', what a difference would the alteration make in the look, and in the real value too, of those gardens, [[meadow]]s and fields!”
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112), <ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]]
[[File:"''Live '''hedges'''''1372.jpg|thumb|Fig.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn12, the Holly[[J. C. Loudon]], the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity Plan of Baltimore a ferme ornée with wild and Washington citiesirregular hedges, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful in '''hedge'An Encyclopædia of Gardening''(1826), 1023, fig.722.]]*[[J.C. :"''Crataegus oxycantha(John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, or European White ThornJ. C.(John Claudius)]], 1826, ''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges'An Encyclopaedia of Gardening''(1826: 106, 355, and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose1023)<ref>J. C. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]](John Claudius) Loudon, but is far less suitable for ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'hedges''' than many of our native species, 4th ed. (London: Longman et al. , 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero]. </ref>:"“486. ''Ilex aquifolium, or Common European.Forest trees''. . . It is found very suitable for From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''', for which purpose it is extensively used and other live [[fence]]s are generally adopted in England. In addition to the Common Holly, there are a great number of varieties, viz. cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . :"''Privet, or Prim.—Ligustrum vulgare“1804.''—This [[shrubWall]] is generally known, and was formerly greatly cultivated for '''hedges''' in this country, and is still so in many parts of Europe. The '''hedgess''' formed of it are beautiful in unquestionably the extreme, arising from its fine myrtle-like foliage, and its abundant clusters of berries in autumn and wintergrandest [[fence]]s for parks; andarched portals, when the sub-evergreen variety is used for this purpose, it possesses noblest entrances; between these and the advantage of retaining much of its foliage during the winter season. . . . :"''Mespilus pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn.'hedge'''— This has very dense foliage; the leaves are smallor pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of a fine dark green; it produces abundance of white flowersgradation, both for lodges, which are delicate[[gate]]s, and much admired; but[[fence]]s, like will be found in the foregoingworks of Wright, Gandy, it is its fruit which gives it the greatest claim to beauty. These are of the same size as those of the preceding speciesRobertson, they are of a fiery redAikin, and are produced in the greatest abundancePocock, and retain their beauty during other architects who have published on the autumnal and part rural department of the winter months, and serve to decorate this [[shrub]] at a season when nature most needs their aidart. Being a sub-evergreen, and retaining a large portion The pattern books of manufacturers of its foliage during winter, gives it another claim as an appendage to the iron [[shrubberygate]]. It is now considerably planted for '''hedges'''s and hurdles, for which purpose, uniting beauty with usefulnessand of wire workers, it does not appear to may also be surpassed by any other. advantageously consulted... :"“7280. ''Rhamnus catharticus, or Sea Buckthorn.The ferme ornée''—The leaves of this tree are ovaldiffers from a common farm in having a better dwelling-house, and pointed at the endsneater approach, and about two inches long, with serrated edges; the flowers are green, and produced in clusters one partly or entirely distinct from the sides of the branches, and are no way conspicuous; it rises that which leads to the height of 14 or 15 feet, throwing out numerous shoots on all sides, and produces, during the autumn, abundant clusters of black berries, which form its principal ornamentoffices. It has long been used in Europe for also differs as to the '''hedges''', which are allowed to grow wild and had latterly been planted in this country for the same purpose; and I have seldom seen a more beautiful irregular (''fig'hedge''' of any other . 722.), and are bordered on each side by a broad green [[shrubdrive]], and consider it extremely eligible for that purposesometimes by a gravel-[[walk]] and [[shrub]]s.” [Fig."12]
* [[Noah Webster|Webster<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, Noah]]William, 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English LanguageA Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (n.p.1828: 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112) <ref>Noah WebsterWilliam Prince, ''An American Dictionary of the English LanguageA Short Treatise on Horticulture'', 2 vols. (New York: ST. Converseand J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467/ I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero].]</ref>:“''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''. . .:“''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. . .:“''Ilex aquifolium, or Common European.''— . . . It is found very suitable for '''hedges''', for which purpose it is extensively used in England. In addition to the Common Holly, there are a great number of varieties, viz.. . . :“''Privet, or Prim.—Ligustrum vulgare.''—This [[shrub]] is generally known, and was formerly greatly cultivated for '''hedges''' in this country, and is still so in many parts of Europe. The '''hedges''' formed of it are beautiful in the extreme, arising from its fine myrtle-like foliage, and its abundant clusters of berries in autumn and winter; and, when the sub-evergreen variety is used for this purpose, it possesses the advantage of retaining much of its foliage during the winter season. . .:“''Mespilus pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn.''— This has very dense foliage; the leaves are small, and of a fine dark green; it produces abundance of white flowers, which are delicate, and much admired; but, like the foregoing, it is its fruit which gives it the greatest claim to beauty. These are of the same size as those of the preceding species, they are of a fiery red, and are produced in the greatest abundance, and retain their beauty during the autumnal and part of the winter months, and serve to decorate this [[shrub]] at a season when nature most needs their aid. Being a sub-evergreen, and retaining a large portion of its foliage during winter, gives it another claim as an appendage to the [[shrubbery]]. It is now considerably planted for '''hedges''', for which purpose, uniting beauty with usefulness, it does not appear to be surpassed by any other. . .:“''Rhamnus catharticus, or Sea Buckthorn.''—The leaves of this tree are oval, and pointed at the ends, and about two inches long, with serrated edges; the flowers are green, and produced in clusters from the sides of the branches, and are no way conspicuous; it rises to the height of 14 or 15 feet, throwing out numerous shoots on all sides, and produces, during the autumn, abundant clusters of black berries, which form its principal ornament. It has long been used in Europe for '''hedges''', and had latterly been planted in this country for the same purpose; and I have seldom seen a more beautiful '''hedge''' of any other [[shrub]], and consider it extremely eligible for that purpose.” [[#Prince_cite|back up to History]]
:"'''HEDGE''', ''n. hej.'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', '''hedge''', protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . . .]
:"Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden."
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 1: n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''HEDGE''', ''n. hej.'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', '''hedge''', protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . .]
:“Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden.”
*Floy, Michael, September 24 and October 1, 1830, "Description of Trees and Shrubs" (''New England Farmer'' 9: 74, 84) <ref>Michael Floy, "A Description of Trees and Shrubs, Producing a Succession of Flowers from Spring to Autumn," ''The New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal'' 9, no. 10-12 (September 24, October 1, October 8, 1830): 74, 84, 92, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/C3XFHEGJ view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Floy, Michael, September 24 and October 1, 1830, “Description of Trees and Shrubs” (''New England Farmer'' 9: 74, 84)<ref>Michael Floy, “A Description of Trees and Shrubs, Producing a Succession of Flowers from Spring to Autumn,” ''New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal'' 9, no. 10–12 (September 24, October 1, October 8, 1830): 74, 84, 92, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/C3XFHEGJ view on Zotero].</ref>:[Sept. 24] "''Gleditschia triacanthos'',—Honey locust, or three thorn Acacia. It makes a handsome stately tree, the foliage is handsome, but the dreadful long triple thorns with which the tree is armed, give it a forbidding aspect. Trees of this kind are often used for '''hedges''', and if planted thick, they soon make an impenetrable [[fence]] against man and beast, but must be kept cut down to 4 or 5 feet every season, or the '''hedge''' would soon be spoiled. . . :[Oct. 1] “''Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn''. . . Hawthorn '''hedges''' are much used in England, where they look very handsome when kept clipped, but they do not answer so well in this country, the heat of our summers causing the leaves to fall off early, often in July; on that account they are not much used—we have several things which are better calculated for that purpose. . .:“''Ligustrum vulgare virens.'' Large European Privet, a very handsome evergreen [[shrub]], flowering in great profusion, and succeeded by bunches of black round berries. It bears clipping well, and is therefore well calculated for '''hedges''', or to enclose ornamental [[plantation]]s. It grows quick, and is well adapted to our climate, and when planted in a '''hedge''' row, and kept clipped, it makes a beautiful '''hedge''', and ought to be in more general use.
:[Oct. 1] "''Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn''. . . . Hawthorn '''hedges''' are much used in England, where they look very handsome when kept clipped, but they do not answer so well in this country, the heat of our summers causing the leaves to fall off early, often in July; on that account they are not much used—we have several things which are better calculated for that purpose. . . .
*Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832:"110, 133–34)<ref>Thomas Bridgeman, ''Ligustrum vulgare virens.The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' Large European Privet, a very handsome evergreen 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[shrubfence]]s, flowering in great profusion, and succeeded by bunches or [[plantation]]s of black round berries. It bears clipping well[[shrub]]s, forming a close and is therefore well calculated for compact '''hedgeshedge''', or to enclose ornamental which should be neatly trimmed every year. . .:“[[plantationShrub]]s. It grows quick, and is well adapted are not only necessary to our climatethe embellishment of a [[flower garden]], and when planted in a but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedgehedges''' rowto it, and kept clipped, it makes may be planted at a beautiful trifling expense. These '''hedgehedges'''should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and ought also to be in more general useincrease the vigour of their growth."
* [[Thomas Bridgeman|BridgemanFessenden, Thomas]]Green, 18321833, ''The Young Gardener’s AssistantNew American Gardener'' (pp. 110, 133–341833: 158) <ref>Thomas BridgemanFessenden, ed., ''The Young Gardener’s AssistantNew American Gardener'', 3rd edn7th ed. (New YorkBoston: Geo. RobertsonRussell, Odiorne, 18321833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK VPB9HKX3 view on Zotero].]</ref>:“'''Hedges''' may be of various kinds, such as the single '''hedge''' and ditch the '''hedge''' and bank; the level '''hedge''', &c.; of which, descriptions may be found in Loudon’s ''Encyclopedia of Agriculture'', and other books of husbandry.”
:"A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[fence]]s, or [[plantation]]s of [[shrub]]s, forming a close and compact '''hedge''', which should be neatly trimmed every year. . . .
:"[[Shrub]]s are not only necessary to the embellishment of a [[flower garden]], but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedges''' to it, and may be planted at a trifling expense. These '''hedges''' should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and also to increase the vigour of their growth."
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], February 1838, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43),<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. . .
:“The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal.” [[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
*Fessenden, Thomas Green, 1833, ''The New American Gardener'' (p. 158) <ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 7th edn. (Boston: Russell, Odiorne, 1833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VPB9HKX3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'Hedges'(1842: 155)<ref>Edward James Hooper, '' may be The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of various kindsAgriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, OH: George Conclin, 1842), such as the single [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''hedgeHEDGES''' . These are becoming, and ditch in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the '''hedge''' best and bank; in the level end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedgehedges''', &c.; In different sections of which, descriptions may be found in Loudon’s ''Encyclopedia the country different kinds of Agriculture'', and other books plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of husbandrythe most valuable trees in the south." The Buckthorn in New England. . . The European hawthorn. . . in the west.” [[#Hooper_cite|back up to History]]
*<div id="DowningLoudon"></div>[[A. J. DowningJane Loudon|DowningLoudon, A. J.Jane]], February 18381845, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States" (''Magazine of HorticultureGardening for Ladies'' 4(1845: 41206, 43244), <ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United StatesJane Loudon," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, Gardening for Ladies; and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural AffairsCompanion to the Flower-Garden'' 4, noed. A. J. 2 Downing (February 1838New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845): 41-4 , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S 3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero].]</ref> :“'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . .:“'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S.” [[#Downing_citeLoudon_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:"In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. ...
:"The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal."
*Johnson, George William, 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1847: 221, 286–88)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s, and are then known as '''''hedges''''', or dead, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditches'', ''palings'', or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. . .
:“'''HEDGE''', properly includes every kind of [[fence]], but the present details apply for the most part to growing [[fence]]s. . .
:“All full trained '''hedges''', in order to preserve them in proper form, close and neat, must be clipped, both on the sides and top, once or twice a year, but never less than once; . . . regular '''hedges''' should be cut as even as a [[wall]] on the sides, and the top as straight as a line; observing, after the '''hedge''' is formed to its proper height and width, always to cut each year’s clipping nearly to the old of the former year, particularly on the side; for by no means suffer them to grow above a foot or two wide, nor suffer them to advance upon you too much at top, where it is designed or necessary to keep them to a moderate height. But to keep '''hedges''' in perfectly good order, they should be clipped twice every summer. . . Very high '''hedges''' are both troublesome and expensive to cut. The clipping is sometimes performed by the assistance of a high machine, scaffolding or stage. . .
:“A '''hedge''' is not only an imperfect screen, but in other respects is worse than useless, since nothing can be trained to it, and its roots exhaust the soil in their neighborhood very considerably; as the south [[fence]] of a garden it may be employed, and hawthorn is perhaps the worst shrub that could be made use of. It is the [[nursery]] of the same aphides, beetles, and caterpillars, that feed upon the foliage of the apple and pear. . . evergreen are better than deciduous '''hedges''', and more especially the holly, which is not so slow a grower as is generally imagined.
:“In a cloudy day in April or May, the wind seems to be actually refrigerated in passing through a thick hawthorn '''hedge'''. . . When the garden is of considerable extent, three or four acres and upwards, it admits of cross-[[wall]]s or [[fence]]s for an increase of training surface and additional shelter.”
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (p. 155), <ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, Ohio: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]]
[[File:"0998.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, Anonymous, “Mr. Lee’s Hedge,” Salem, MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist''1, no. 8 (February 1847): 355, fig. 84.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], February 1847, “A Chapter on Hedges” ('HEDGES'Horticulturist''. These are becoming1: 345–46)<ref> Andrew Jackson Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges, ” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and in some situations have becomeRural Taste'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 345–55, highly desirable[https://www. Where there is plenty zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].</ref> :“The advantages of rail timber, it will naturally be used for a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these besides its beauty, are the best its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and in the end additional value it confers upon the most economical materials for land which it encloses. A [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are foundof [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and no rail timbertottering affair; soon needing repairs, it will which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be useful broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to substitute live demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedgeshedge'''. In different sections , made of the country different kinds of two plants proper for live we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one ,' at least in any acceptation of the most valuable trees in the southword known to our restless and changing countrymen. The Buckthorn in New England. . :“As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. The European hawthorn Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures, however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it. in the west” [Fig."13]
*<div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|LoudonAnonymous, Jane]]October 1848, 1845“Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'', ” (''Gardening for LadiesHorticulturist'' (pp. 206, 2443: 181), <ref>Jane LoudonAnonymous, “Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life'', ''Gardening for Ladies; Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Companion to the Flower-GardenRural Taste''3, ed. by A. Jno. Downing 4 (New YorkOctober 1848): Wiley & Putnam, 1845)179–82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I 3IU3P9QS view on Zotero].]</ref> :“As far as practicable, make divisions whichare necessary about the house of the [[ha-ha]] or blind [[#Loudon_cite|back up to historyfence]], or of '''hedges''', for which purpose the Maclura or Osage Orange is believed to be one of the most desirable plants.”
:"'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
:"'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S."
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, “[[View]] of a [[Picturesque]] farm (''ferme ornée''),” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 120, fig. 27.]]
*<div id="Downing_1849"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . [Fig. 14]
:“We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . .
:“For '''hedges''' the Holly is altogether unrivalled; and it was also one of the favorite plants for ''verdant sculpture'', in the [[ancient style]] of gardening. . .
:“The Yew, like the Holly, makes an excellent evergreen '''hedge'''—close, dark green, and beautiful when clad in the rich scarlet berries. . .
:“''Verdant '''hedges''''' are elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s, and we are surprised that their use has not been hitherto more general. . . [[Picturesque]] '''hedges''' are easily formed by intermingling a variety of flowering [[shrub]]s, sweet briars, etc., and allowing the whole to grow together in rich masses. . . In all cases where '''hedges''' are employed in the [[natural style]] of landscape (and not in close connexion with highly artificial objects, buildings, etc.), a more agreeable effect will be produced by allowing the '''hedge''' to grow somewhat irregular in form, or varying it by planting near it other small trees and [[shrub]]s to break the outline, than by clipping it in even and formal lines.” [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to History]]
* [[George William Johnson|Johnson, George William]], 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (pp. 221, 286–88) <ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. by David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers*Elder, either human or quadrupedalWalter, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s1849, and are then known as ''The Cottage Garden of America'''hedges''''', or dead(1849: 178)<ref>Walter Elder, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditchesThe Cottage Garden of America''(Philadelphia: Moss, ''palings''1849), or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT/ view on Zotero]. </ref>:"'''HEDGE'''“THE cheapest, properly includes every kind of [[fence]]most beautiful, but the present details apply for the most part to growing and durable [[fence]]s. . . . :"All full trained are '''hedges''', in order to preserve them in proper form, close and neat, must be clipped, both on the sides and top, once or twice a year, but never less than once; . . . regular '''hedges''' should be cut as even as a all dividing [[wallfence]] on the sides, and the top as straight as a line; observing, after the '''hedge''' is formed to its proper height and width, always to cut each year’s clipping nearly to the old s of the former year, particularly on the side; for by no means suffer them to grow above a foot or two wide, nor suffer them to advance upon you too much at top, where it is designed or necessary to keep them to a moderate height. But to keep '''hedges''' in perfectly good ordercottage gardens, they should be clipped twice every summer. . . . Very high made of '''hedges''' are both troublesome and expensive to cut. The clipping is sometimes performed by the assistance of a high machine, scaffolding or stage. . . .:"A '''hedge''' is not only an imperfect screen, but in other respects is worse than useless, since nothing can be trained to it, and its roots exhaust the soil in their neighborhood very considerably; as the south [[fence]] of a garden it may be employed, and hawthorn is perhaps the worst shrub that could be made use of. It is the [[nursery]] of the same aphides, beetles, and caterpillars, that feed upon the foliage of the apple and pear . . . evergreen there are better than deciduous '''hedges''', and more especially the holly, which is not so slow a grower as is generally imagined.:"In a cloudy day in April or May, the wind seems to be actually refrigerated in passing through a thick hawthorn '''hedge'''. . . . When the garden is several kinds of considerable extent, three or four acres and upwards, it admits of cross-[[wall]]s or [[fence]]s plants well adapted for an increase of training surface and additional shelterthe purpose."
*[[File:0998.jpgNoah Webster|thumb|Fig. 13, AnonymousWebster, "Mr. Lee's Hedge," Salem, Mass., in [[A. J. DowningNoah]], ed.1850, ''HorticulturistAn American Dictionary of the English Language'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847)1850: 355, fig. 84.]]* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1847, "A Chapter on Hedges" (''Horticulturist'' 1: 345–46409) <ref> Andrew Jackson Downing, "A Chapter on HedgesNoah Webster," ''The Horticulturist and Journal An American Dictionary of Rural Art and Rural Tastethe English Language'' 1(Springfield, no. 8 (February 1847MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1850): 345-55, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX 9Z9HAK7E view on Zotero].]</ref> :“ES-PAL’IER, (es-pal’yer,) n. [Fr. ''[[espalier]]''; Sp. ''espalera''; H. ''spalliera''; from L. ''palus'', a stake or ''pole''.] :“1. A row of trees planted about a garden or in '''hedges''', so as to inclose [[quarter]]s or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close '''hedge''' or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather. ''Ency''.”
:"The advantages of a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]], besides its beauty, are its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and the additional value it confers upon the land which it encloses. A [[fence]] of [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and tottering affair; soon needing repairs, which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedge''', made of the two plants we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]],' at least in any acceptation of the word known to our restless and changing countrymen. . . .
:"As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures, however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it." [Fig. 13]
*Breck, Joseph, 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental.”
* Anonymous, October 1848, "Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life''," (''Horticulturist'' 3: 181) <ref>Anonymous, "Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life''," ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 179-82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IU3P9QS view on Zotero.]</ref>
*Coppock, W. R., March 1851, “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening” (''Horticulturist'' 6:"As far as practicable151)<ref>W. R. Coppock, make divisions whichare necessary about the house “Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of the Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 147–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7DFAAII5 view on Zotero].</ref>:“A thoroughly protective '''hedge''', or an uncouth looking strong [[ha-hafence]] , is absolutely necessary to the orchardist, if he may derive either pleasure or blind profit from his trees. Climbing a [[fence]], or of '''hedges'''pushing aside a picket, and pelting the choice apples, pears, for which purpose &c. from the Maclura or Osage Orange trees, is believed , I am sorry to be one of say, not considered generally a misdemeanor, or theft, at the most desirable plantspresent day."
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, "View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée'')," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 120, fig. 27.]]*<div id="Downing_1849"hr></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45), <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to history]] :"In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]:"We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .:"For '''hedges''' the Holly is altogether unrivalled; and it was also one of the favorite plants for ''verdant sculpture'', in the [[ancient style]] of gardening. . . .:"The Yew, like the Holly, makes an excellent evergreen '''hedge'''—close, dark green, and beautiful when clad in the rich scarlet berries. . . .:"''Verdant '''hedges''''' are elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s, and we are surprised that their use has not been hitherto more general. . . . [[Picturesque]] '''hedges''' are easily formed by intermingling a variety of flowering [[shrub]]s, sweet briars, etc., and allowing the whole to grow together in rich masses. . . . In all cases where '''hedges''' are employed in the [[natural style]] of landscape (and not in close connexion with highly artificial objects, buildings, etc.), a more agreeable effect will be produced by allowing the '''hedge''' to grow somewhat irregular in form, or varying it by planting near it other small trees and [[shrub]]s to break the outline, than by clipping it in even and formal lines."  * [[Elder, Walter]], 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (p. 178) <ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT/ view on Zotero.]</ref> :"THE cheapest, most beautiful, and durable [[fence]]s are '''hedges''', and all dividing [[fence]]s of cottage gardens, should be made of '''hedges'''; there are several kinds of plants well adapted for the purpose."   * [[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (p. 409) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (Springfield, Mass.: George and Charles Merriam, 1850), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9Z9HAK7E view on Zotero.]</ref> :"ES-PAL’IER, (es-pal’yer,) n. [Fr. ''[[espalier]]''; Sp. ''espalera''; H. ''spalliera''; from L. ''palus'', a stake or ''pole''.] :"1. A row of trees planted about a garden or in '''hedges''', so as to inclose [[quarter]]s or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close '''hedge''' or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather. ''Ency''."   * [[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (p. 20) <ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero.]</ref> :"Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental."  * Coppock, W. R., March 1851, "Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening" (''Horticulturist'' 6: 151) <ref>W. R. Coppock, "Domestic Notices: Random Notes of a Winter’s Evening," ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 147-51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7DFAAII5 view on Zotero.]</ref> :"A thoroughly protective '''hedge''', or an uncouth looking strong [[fence]], is absolutely necessary to the orchardist, if he may derive either pleasure or profit from his trees. Climbing a [[fence]], or pushing aside a picket, and pelting the choice apples, pears, &c. from the trees, is, I am sorry to say, not considered generally a misdemeanor, or theft, at the present day."
==Images==
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1053.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], "Design “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner," in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III. "The “The '''Hedges ''' that are planted between the...Trees which form the Sides of the Walks.[[Walk]]s..."
Image:1383.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], One of two "Designs “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House . . . ," in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X. " “[[Terrace/Slope|Slope ]] H is planted with '''Hedges ''' of ''different Ever-Greens''".”
Image:0078.jpg|Anonymous, Plan for a garden, mid-18th century. "'''Hedges '''" marked in along the middle perimeters of the planrectangular areas.
Image:0016.jpg|Anonymous, ''Home of Richard Blow'', c. late 18th century. "Privet “Privet '''hedge" '''” marked at the top of the plan.
Image:0167.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello ]] Mountain, before May 1768. "“'''Hedge" '''” is written just below the drawing to the right.
Image:0090a.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a "Garden “Garden Olitory," c. 1804. "“'''Hedge ''' of hedgethorn" hedgethorn” is inscribed on the second line on the left.
Image:0932.jpg|R. W. Dickson, "Hedge “Hedge Fences," in ''Practical Agriculture'' (1805), vol. 1, pl. 31, opp. p. 110.
Image:0969.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806. "“'''Hedge" '''” is inscribed all along the curving [[border]].
Image:1372.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a [[Ferme_ornée/Ornamental_farm|ferme ornée ]] with wild and irregular '''hedges''', in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 1023, fig. 722.
Image:0878.jpg|Anonymous, "Ground “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing'Downing’s [[Botanic Garden]]s Botanic Gardens and [[Nursery|Nurseries]]," in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404. "19“19. '''Hedge ''' or screen of [[arbor ]] vitae..."
Image:0960.jpg|John J. Thomas, "Plan “Plan of a Garden," in ''The Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (Jan. 1842): p. 22, fig. 8. "From “From ''o'' to ''m'', the [[walk ]] may be flanked with '''hedges ''' of evergreen..."
Image:0823.jpg|Joshua Barney, ''Map of Hampton'', 1843. Courtesy: Hampton National Historic Site, National [[Park]] Service. The symbol for "“'''Hedges" '''” is noted in the References box.
Image:1048.jpg|Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Sketch of the Grounds of the Longfellow Estate, 1844.
Image:15010998.jpg|Anonymous, "Manner of Planting Hedges“Mr. Lee’s '''Hedge'''," Salem, Mass.MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (February Feb. 1847): 353355, fig. 8384.
Image:09980379.jpg|Anonymous, "Mr. Lee's Hedge," Salem, Mass., in [[A. J. DowningView]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (Feb. 1847): 355, fig. 84. Image:0379.jpg|Anonymous, "View of a [[Picturesque ]] farm (''[[Ferme_ornée/Ornamental_farm|ferme ornée]]'')," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 120, fig. 27. "The “The various trees...are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges" Image:0777.jpg|Frances Palmer, "Ground Plot of 4-1/4 Acres," in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 6. "I" represents "hedge of cedars."
Image:0777.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot]] of 4-1/4 Acres,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 6. “I” represents “'''hedge''' of cedars.”
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0712.jpg|Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte, ''Battle of New Orleans'', 1815. The '''hedge''' is located at left middle of the painting.
Image:0662.jpg|Anonymous, Rose-Lawn, residence of Edgar M. Vanderburgh, c. 1830–40, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, p296. 296
Image:1047.jpg|Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844(recto).
Image:1047b.jpg|Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844 (verso).
</gallery>
Image:0179.jpg|Anonymous, ''The Mill'', c. 1830.
Image:0797.jpg|Thomas Hodell (artist), Pierre Charles Canot (engraver), "A “A South East [[View ]] of the City of New York, in North America," c. 1768.
Image:00962250_detail1.jpg|AnonymousUnknown, Kitchen Garden [detail], Plan for the garden of the Elias Hasket Derby House, c. 1795–991795-99.
image:0716.jpg|Alvan Fisher, ''The Vale'', 1820–25.
Image:0133.jpg|Rufus Porter, Landscape mural from Howe House, 1838.
Image:1139.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''[[View ]] of Hartford, CT. From the Deaf and Dumb Asylum'', 1849.
Image:1009.jpg|Anonymous, ''Homestead of Humphrey H. Nye, New Bedford'', 1860–65.
Image:1501.jpg|Anonymous, “Manner of Planting '''Hedges''',” Salem, MA, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 1, no. 8 (February 1847): 353, fig. 83.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
<references></references>
<hr>
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Boundaries]]
[[Category: Planting Arrangements]]

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