The aesthetic treatment of garden hedges was discussed and debated throughout much of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Authors and gardeners variously praised and dismissed both trimmed and untrimmed hedges, depending upon the prevailing taste and the particular situation of the hedge. <span id="Stiles_cite"></span>[[Ezra Stiles]] admired the spruce hedges at [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, which were cut into beautiful figures in 1754 ([[#Stiles|view citation]]), and in 1762 <span id="Callender_cite"></span>[[Hannah Callender]] described a hedge [[labyrinth]] at [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], [[William Peters|Judge William Peters]]'s estate near Philadelphia ([[#Callender|view citation]]). <span id="Ware_cite"></span>In contrast, [[Isaac Ware]], writing in 1756, praised the "natural hedge . . . mimicking savage nature" ([[#Ware|view citation]]). In 1832, both [[H.A.S. Dearborn]] and [[Thomas Bridgeman]] commended trimmed and trained hedges while other writers, such as [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] and [[Jane Loudon]], allowed the merits of both formal and naturalistic styles. <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>In 1845 [[Jane Loudon|Loudon]] praised evergreen hedges "neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s," while in the [[flower garden]] she proposed a less "stiff and formal" appearance that would "harmonize . . . with the flowers" ([[#Loudon|view citation]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the 1849 edition of his treatise, [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] noted that trimmed hedges were "elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s," while irregular or [[picturesque]] hedges were handsome additions to a landscape of the "[[natural style]]" ([[#Downing_1849|view citation]]).
-- ''Elizabeth KryerKryder-Reid''
==Texts==
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington