==History==
[[William Penn]], the English Quaker Proprietor of Pennsylvania, first visited the colony in 1682. In addition to establishing [[Pennsbury]], a manor house and garden some distance from Philadelphia, Penn carved out Springettsbury as a suburban estate immediately adjacent to the city.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 34,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Roach, April 1968, 178&ndash;179; William Henry Egle, ''An Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Civil, Political and Military: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time'' (Philadelphia: E. M. Gardner, 1880), 1020, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ERTVADNU view on Zotero].</ref> With the intention of producing wine as a source of revenue, [[William Penn|Penn]] imported grape vines from Bordeaux and, in 1683, employed the French Huguenot refugee and vigneron André Doz to lay out a vineyard on a 200-acre section of Springettsbury that became known as Vineyard Hill. [[William Penn|Penn]] soon returned to England but continued to send European vines to Doz, who also experimented with the cultivation of indigenous American grapes.<ref>McLean and Reinberger 1999, 41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Thomas Pinney, ''A History of Wine in America: From the Beginnings to Prohibition'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 32&ndash;33, 101&ndash;102, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HHVCQQVU view on Zotero]; Frederick B. Tolles, "William Penn on Public and Private Affairs, 1686: An Important New Letter," ''The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 80 (April 1956): 244, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3UWWR8BE view on Zotero]; Albert Cook Myers, ed., ''Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey, and Delaware, 1630&ndash;1707, Original Narratives of Early American History'' (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912), 13: 227&ndash;28n228n, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UD4DZNCM view on Zotero]; J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, ''History of Philadelphia, 1609&ndash;1884'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884), 3: 2281&ndash;2282, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8RJIVE6G view on Zotero]. </ref> Wine production proved unsuccessful and, just prior to his death in 1718, [[William Penn|Penn]] gave a large tract of Springettsbury land that included Vineyard Hill to Jonathan Dickinson.<ref> Scharf and Westcott 1884, 3: 2282, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8RJIVE6G view on Zotero]. </ref> [[William Penn|Penn]]’s family later gave another portion of the estate to their legal counselor, Andrew Hamilton (c.1676–1741), which he enlarged through subsequent purchases to form the country seat Bush Hill.<ref> John Fanning Watson and Willis P. Hazard, ''Annals of Philadelphia, and Pennsylvania, in the Olden Time'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Edwin S. Stuart, 1884), 3: 493, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNIVQS8S view on Zotero]. </ref>
[[File:2005_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 1, John Hill, ''This Plan of the City of Philadelphia and Its Environs (shewing the improved parts)'' [detail], 1796.]]
One of the more fashionable elements of the Springettsbury landscape was the [[deer park]] (again, the first known example in the colony), which Penn filled with deer imported from England, as well as with wild turkey and pheasants.<ref> White 2008, 16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]; Lorett Treese, ''Storm Gathering: The Penn Family and the American Revolution'' (University Park, Pa.: Penn State Press, 1992), 23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RV94U384 view on Zotero]; Penn 1916, 238, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero]; Fisher 1893, 268, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero]. </ref> Following his return to England in 1741, Penn expressed a desire to introduce changes at Springettsbury in keeping with the rising English taste for a naturalistic "[[modern style]]" in garden design. These included creating a number of framed [[vista]]s, replacing the “palisadoe” at the end of a [[walk]] with a [[ha-ha]], and removing the quickset [[hedge]] to open up the fields.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 39, 44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero].</ref> Nothing seems to have come of [[John Bartram|Bartram's]] proposal in 1743 that Penn provide him with an "annual salary worth while to furnish his [[walk]]s with all ye natural production of trees shrubs & plants which grow in our four governments."<ref> Bartram 1992, 217.</ref> Concerned by the theft of fruit from Springettsbury in 1746, Penn made plans to erect a [[wall]] separating his property from [[Bush Hill]], noting: “When the rest of the Ground is well paled round I shal [''sic''] hope to be secure.”<ref> Penn 1916, 224, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero].</ref>
James Alexander (d. 1778) served as Penn’s head gardener at Springettsbury. The first professional gardener in Pennsylvania who can be identified, he is best known for discovering the so-called “Alexander grape” (a naturally produced American-European hybrid) around 1740 in the [[wood]]s near Vineyard Hill.<ref> Pinney 1989, 84&ndash;85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HHVCQQVU view on Zotero]. </ref> Long after Thomas Penn’s return to England in 1741, Alexander continued to maintain the property, often sending American fruits, nuts, seeds, and plants (including magnolia, azalea, laurel, and rhododendron) for Penn to share with friends or keep for his English estate, Stoke Park.<ref> Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., ''Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1997), 1: 476&ndash;77477, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9E85G8QX, view on Zotero]. </ref> Alexander also operated a commercial business exporting seeds and plants to clients in England, rivaling even his principal competitor, [[John Bartram]], in his ability to meet the demand for increasingly rare and unusual specimens.<ref>Bartram 1992, 407, 410, 430, 513, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NZGMIACI view on Zotero]; see also Mark Laird, ''The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 1720&ndash;1800'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 396&ndash;397, 78n, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHZIWTH3 view on Zotero]; Bell 1997, 1: 478, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9E85G8QX, view on Zotero]; Joseph Ewan, "Philadelphia Heritage: Plants and People," in ''America’s Garden Legacy: A Taste for Pleasure'', ed. George H. M. Lawrence (Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1978), 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8PS285CI view on Zotero].</ref> At the American Philosophical Society (which elected him a member in 1768 and a curator in 1772 and 1773), Alexander demonstrated some of his botanical experiments and served on committees dealing with subjects ranging from astronomy, to natural history, to husbandry.<ref> Bell 1997, 1: 476&ndash;477, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9E85G8QX, view on Zotero]. </ref> Visitors to Springettsbury noted the many scientific instruments he employed there, including an orrery, a solar microscope, a telescope, and “a curious thermometer of spirits and mercury.”<ref> White 2008, 22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]; "Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia," 1892, 375, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero]; R. Morris Smith, ''The Burlington Smiths: A Family History'' (Philadelphia: Printed for the Author, 1877), 160, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6HCUQQK view on Zotero]. </ref>
<span id="logan_aloe_cite"></span>Both [[Deborah Norris Logan]] and Elizabeth Drinker recalled the “curious aloe” (originally planted by James Alexander and subsequently cultivated by his successor, the enslaved African American gardener [[Virgil Warder]]) that attracted curious crowds to Springettsbury when it finally bloomed in August 1778 ([[#logan_aloe|view text]]).<ref> Elizabeth Drinker, ''Extracts from the Journal of Elizabeth Drinker, from 1759 to 1807 A.D.'', ed. Henry D. Biddle (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company , 1889), 109&ndash;09, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5S3QMIAX view on Zotero]; White 2008, 18&ndash;19, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero].</ref> Although Springettsbury by that time had become a favorite destination for Philadelphia pleasure-seekers, the Penn family took minimal interest in the estate. Thomas Penn’s nephew, John Penn (1729&ndash;1795), settled in Philadelphia in 1765 but preferred to live at his new Palladian manor house, Landsdowne, on the opposite side of the river. Thomas’s son, also named [[John Penn]] (1760&ndash;1834), followed suit, building his house, [[The Solitude]], across the river in 1785. As the Penn family sold off portions of the Springettsbury estate, many lots were purchased by the financier and land speculator [[Robert Morris]] who was consolidating his landholdings in the Northern Liberties of Philadelphia. In 1770 he acquired Vineyard Hill, which he redeveloped as [[The Hills]]. In 1780 he leased the old brick house at Springettsbury as a summer retreat.<ref> William Graham Sumner, ''Robert Morris: The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution'', 2 vols. (New York: Cosimo, Inc., 1891), 1: 303 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XT3TB8WB view on Zotero]; Robert Morris, ''The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781&ndash;1784'', ed. by Elmer James Ferguson, 9 vols. (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973), 1: 113&ndash;14114,192 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BMGT5Q7N view on Zotero]; Watson and Hazard 1884, 2: 479, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W893QT6D view on Zotero]. </ref> According to John Jay's sister-in-law, Catherine Livingston, a frequent guest of the family, [[Robert Morris|Morris]] "repaired and enlarged the buildings and converted the greenhouse into a dining room which far exceeds their expectations in beauty and convenience."<ref> Kitty Livingston to Mrs. John Jay, July 10, 1780, quoted in John Jay, ''The Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay'', ed. Henry P. Johnston, 4 vols. (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1890&ndash;931893), 1: 376, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B374Q4HB view on Zotero]. </ref> Although a fire in 1784 apparently rendered the house uninhabitable,<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 45 n. 46, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Drinker 1889, 152, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5S3QMIAX view on Zotero]; Jacob Hiltzheimer, ''Extracts from the Diary of Jacob Hiltzheimer of Philadelphia, 1765&ndash;1798'', ed. Jacob Cox Parsons (Philadelphia: William F. Fell & Co., 1893), 62 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7NU9RN8C view on Zotero]; White 2008, 19, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]. </ref> [[Robert Morris|Morris]] purchased the property in 1787 and five years later had a [[canal]] dug along the southern and western border of the original Springettsbury estate. A fire in 1807 entirely consumed the old brick house, and in 1815 [[Deborah Norris Logan|Deborah Logan]] described the [[greenhouse]] as a “ruin” and the garden as overgrown.<ref> Drinker 1889, 410, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5S3QMIAX view on Zotero]; White 2008, 18&ndash;19, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]. </ref>
--''Robyn Asleson''
* Penn, Thomas, September 18, 1746, letter to Richard Hockley (1916: 224&ndash;25225)<ref> Penn 1916 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero]. </ref>
: "I received a Box of Fruit from Springetsberry, but they were not so good as the others sent in the Fall; as they were ripened chiefly by the Summers Sun. I am sorry the people are so Licentious as to break into the Garden at Springetsberry, and believe when I come over I shal build a [[Wall]] between that and Mr Hamiltons Land from Mr Jones's, which will make it very inconvenient for them to visit us, and when the rest of the Ground is well paled round I shal hope to be secure. I ordered Mr Lardner to Let only my own twelve Acres of [[Meadow]], which was let before my departure to a Dutchman, the piece of [[Meadow]] belonging to us in Mr Turners Road is sufficient for Springetsberry and I think I gave no orders to let that. I am quite weary of the Vineyard for which only Jacob is kept at £35 a year but your last Letter gives mee some hopes that it may produce some thing, if that does not succeed when I come over. I shal much lessen it. I shal consent to their cutting down the [[Wood]] between the Vineyard and the Field, but not that on the west side of it yet, that may be thinned, and would have any that is fit split into rough pales and laid by. [T]he privit [[hedge]] that grows between the two Gardens may be taken upp if it grows into the [[Walk]]s."
* Fisher, Daniel, May 25, 1755 (1893: 267&ndash;68268)<ref> Fisher 1893, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero]. </ref>
: "I walked about Two miles out of Town in the "Proprietors' Garden,"…. The proprietors' tho' much smaller [than Bush Hill], was laid out with more judgment, tho' it seemed to have been pretty much neglected. A pretty [[pleasure garden]], the trees of which now hardly visible, a small [[wilderness]], and other shades, shows that the contriver was not without judgment; but what to me surpassed everything of the kind I had seen in America was a pretty bricked [[Greenhouse|Green House]], out of which was disposed (now) very properly in the [[pleasure garden|Pleasure Garden]] a good many Orange, Lemon, and Citron Trees in great (268) perfection loaded with abundance of Fruit and some of each sort seemingly then ripe.
: The House here is but small, built of Brick, with a small Kitchen, etc, justly contrived rather for a small than a numerous Family. It is pleasantly situated on an [[eminence]] with a gradual descent — over a small Valley — to a handsome level Road cut through a [[wood]], affording an agreeable [[vista]] of near Two miles. On the left hand the [[slope]], descending from the house, is a neat little [[Park]], tho' I am told there are no Deer in it."
* Drinker, Elizabeth, September 7, 1778, diary entry (1994: 80)<ref>Elizabeth Drinker, ''The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker: The Life Cycle of an Eighteenth-Century Woman'', ed. Elaine Forman Crane, abridged with a new preface (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5U8TTT2F view on Zotero].</ref>
: "[We] took a walk this Afternoon to Springsbury [sic] to see the Aloes Tree&mdash; stop’d in our return at Bush-Hill and walk’d in the Garden,&mdash; came home after Sun Set, very much tired."
* Livingston, Kitty, July 10, 1780, letter to Mrs. John Jay (Jay 1890&ndash;931893, 1: 376)<ref> Jay 1890&ndash;931893,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B374Q4HB view on Zotero]. </ref>: "In our last distresses from the invasion of the British troops [during the winter of 1779&ndash;801780], Mr. and Mrs. [[Robert Morris|Morris]] sent for me to come and reside with them.... They have at present a delightful situation at Springsberry [''sic'']. Mr. [[Robert Morris|Morris]] has repaired and enlarged the buildings and converted the [[greenhouse]] into a dining room which far exceeds their expectations in beauty and convenience."
* <div id="logan_aloe"></div>[[Deborah Norris Logan|Logan, Deborah Norris]], October 10, 1826, diary entry (quoted in White 2008: 19)<ref name="White_2008"></ref> [[#logan_aloe_cite|back up to history]]
: "The Gardens of Springetsbury [sic] were in full beauty in my youth, and were really very agreeable after the old fashion, with [[Parterre]]s, Gravelled [[Walk]]s, a [[Labyrinth]] of Horn-beam and a little [[wilderness]] &mdash; And the [[Greenhouse|Green house]], under the Superintendence of Old Virgil the Gardener, produced a flowering Aloe which almost half the town went to see, produced a comfortable Revenue to the old man &mdash; Soon after the house was burned down by accident; and now quantities of the yellow Blossoms of Broom in spring time mark the place...'where once the garden smiled'.”
* [[Deborah Norris Logan|Logan, Deborah Norris]], February 13, 1832, diary entry (quoted in Weber 1996: 45)<ref> Weber 1996, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/92DA3QAZ view on Zotero]. </ref>: "There is a Report of the Committee of the Horticultural Society in the 'Register' for last week in which is displayed a great ignorance of the former taste for Gardening amongst us when it states, that Mr. Pepper’s [[Greenhouse|Green house]], originally built by Dr. Barbon, was the first [[Greenhouse|Green house]] built in Pennsylvania; this is not so. &mdash; The [[Greenhouse]] at Springetsbury, built by Margaret Freame daughter of [[William Penn]], was the first."
==Images==

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