==History==
[[File:0056.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, John or William Bartram, ''A Draught of John Bartram's House and Garden as it appears from the River'', 1758.]]
The son of the Pennsylvania Quaker naturalist [[John Bartram]] (1699&ndash;1777) and his second wife, Ann Mendenhall (1703&ndash;1789), William Bartram showed an early interest in botanical pursuits. As a teenager, William accompanied his father on collecting expeditions and made drawings of North American plants that his father sent to colleagues in England and Europe. William’s drawings were greatly admired by contemporaries and, according to Amy R. W. Meyers, were thought by many to rival illustrations produced by well-established British artists [[Georg Dionysius Ehret]] (1708&ndash;1770) and George Edwards (1694&ndash;1773).<ref>Amy R. W. Meyers, “From Nature and Memory: William Bartram’s Drawings of North American Flora and Fauna,” in ''Knowing Nature: Art and Science in Philadelphia, 1740&ndash;1840'', ed. by Amy R. W. Meyers (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011), 130, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DDFDA34C view on Zotero]; Margaret Pritchard, “A Protracted View: The Relationship between Mapmakers and Naturalists in Recording the Land,” in ''Knowing Nature'', 24, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KBA7IFG8 view on Zotero]; Charlotte M. Porter, “Philadelphia Story: Florida Gives William Bartram a Second Chance,” ''The Florida Historical Quarterly'' 71, no. 3 (January 1993): 310&ndash;313, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RC4D4TQA view on Zotero]. From January 1752 until July 1755, William Bartram attended the Philadelphia Academy, where he studied French and Latin and may have also received instruction in drawing. Joel T. Fry, “America’s ‘Ancient Garden’: The Bartram Botanic Garden, 1728&ndash;1850,” in ''Knowing Nature'', 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero].</ref> Despite the praise William received for his drawing abilities, John Bartram worried about the lack of patronage for North American naturalists, writing, “Botany & drawing are his darling delight. I wish he could get A handsom [sic] livelihood by it.”<ref>Letter from John Bartram to Peter Collinson, September 28, 1755; quoted in Fry 2011, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero].</ref> Taking a pragmatic approach to his son’s future, [[John Bartram]] apprenticed young William to Captain James Childs, a Philadelphia merchant, from approximately 1756 until 1760, although William continued to assist his father throughout this period and is even believed to have created in 1758 the only known eighteenth-century illustration of the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] at Kingsessing near Philadelphia [Fig. 1].
[[Image:2078.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, James Trenchard after William Bartram, ''Franklinia Alatamaha'', c. 1786.]]
In the fall of 1765 William Bartram accompanied his father to the English colony of Florida. As they approached the Altamaha River near Fort Barrington, Georgia, the Bartrams discovered a plant that would later be named ''Franklinia alatamaha'' [Fig. 2], after Benjamin Franklin (1706&ndash;1790). William Bartram returned to the spot during the summer of 1776 and gathered seeds from the shrub, which he brought back to the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery|Bartram family’s garden]]. The shrub was extremely rare, and Bartram later recalled, “We never saw it grow in any other place, nor have I ever seen it growing wild, in all my travels, from Philadelphia to Point Coupe, on the banks of the Mississippi, which must be allowed a very singular and unaccountable circumstance; at this place there are two or three acres of ground where it grows plentifully.” <span id="Linnaeus_cite"></span>The plant flowered in [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery|Bartram’s garden]] in August 1781 and, two years later, Bartram prepared a detailed description and botanical drawing of the specimen for the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, Jr. (1741&ndash;1783) ([[#Linnaeus|view text]]).<ref>Quoted in Fry 2011, 74, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero]. According to Fry, all existing Franklinia may be descended from William Bartram’s plants. See also Judith Magee, ''The Art and Science of William Bartram'' (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press in association with the Natural History Museum, London, 2007), 64&ndash;68, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RXVNQ2VK view on Zotero].</ref>
With money provided by his father, Bartram purchased five hundred acres of land on the St. Johns River in Florida as well as six enslaved people to work the plantation, but the venture failed within a year.<ref>Fry 2011, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero]; Porter 1993, 315&ndash;317, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RC4D4TQA view on Zotero]. According to Michael Gaudio, after the American Revolution, “Bartram expressed his opposition to the practice of slavery in an unpublished essay.” Michael Gaudio, “Swallowing the Evidence: William Bartram and the Limits of the Enlightenment,” ''Winterthur Portfolio'' 36, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RI8J9RGW view on Zotero].</ref> Several years later, under the patronage of the English Quaker physician Dr. John Fothergill (1712&ndash;1780), Bartram set out on a nearly four-year collecting expedition to the American Southeast, which took him from Philadelphia back to Florida and as far west as the Mississippi.<ref>Pritchard 2011, 24&ndash;25, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KBA7IFG8 view on Zotero]; Fry 2011, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero].</ref> In 1791 Bartram published an account of his expedition entitled ''Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws'', which one scholar has described as “a travel journal, a naturalist’s notebooks, a moral and religious effusion, an ethnographic essay, and a polemic on behalf of the cultural institutions and rights of American Indians."<ref>William Bartram, ''Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws: Containing an Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of those Regions; together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians'' (Philadelphia: James and Johnson, 1791), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JH5MDTGJ view on Zotero]; Douglas Anderson, “Bartram’s Travels and the Politics of Nature,” ''Early American Literature'' 25, no. 1 (1990): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JW9SSI2E view on Zotero].</ref> The book reveals Bartram’s interest in the aesthetics of the sublime. Whereas [[John Bartram]] had approached the study of nature through “scientific investigations...based on empirical observations,” according to Margaret Pritchard, William Bartram relied on his imagination in order to experience the vastness and even terror of the natural world, “view[ing] nature as a series of unified relationships” rather than isolated specimens.<ref>Pritchard 2011, 26&ndash;27, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KBA7IFG8 view on Zotero]. For more on Bartram’s notions of “environmental unity,” see Amy R. W. Meyers, “Imposing Order on the Wilderness: Natural History Illustration and Landscape Portrayal,” in ''Views and Visions: American Landscape before 1830'', ed. by Edward J. Nygren and Bruce Robertson (Washington, D.C.: The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1986), 121, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/525SSTJI view on Zotero]; and Amy R. Weinstein Meyers, “Sketches from the Wilderness: Changing Conceptions of Nature in American Natural History Illustration, 1680-&ndash;1880 (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1985), especially p. 152&ndash;258, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6K7B2B4T view on Zotero].</ref> Bartram’s ''Travels'' received mixed response from critics. Published nearly fifteen years after his expedition, the book seemed out of date by the time it was published; many of Bartram’s discoveries had already been published by other scientists. Meyers has argued that although the book would “become one of the classic early texts in the genre of Romantic travel writing” and was praised by Romantic authors and poets in America and Europe, it received less support from the popular press because of “the unfamiliar tone of its impassioned descriptions of the natural world.”<ref>Meyers 2011, 132, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DDFDA34C view on Zotero]. Subsequent editions were published in London in 1792 and 1794, Berlin and Vienna in 1793, Haarlem between 1794 and 1797, Amsterdam in 1797, and Paris in 1799 and 1801. Fry 2004, 45, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/R9R5T6QS view on Zotero]. For more on the influence Bartram’s ''Travels'' had on Romantic writing, see Ashton Nichols, “Roaring Alligators and Burning Tygers: Poetry and Science from William Bartram to Charles Darwin," ''Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society'' 149, no. 3 (September 2005): 305&ndash;308, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/77G6P7FM view on Zotero].</ref>
[[John Bartram]] retired in the spring of 1771, and his son John Bartram Jr. (1743&ndash;1812) took over the family garden and nursery business. When [[John Bartram]] died in 1777, he left the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] to his son John.<ref>Fry 2011, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero].</ref> William Bartram assisted his younger brother, although the exact nature of their business relationship remains unknown. According to Joel T. Fry, it appears that John made annual collecting trips and William “tended to the written and academic side of the partnership.” Both brothers apparently boxed seeds and plants for shipment to England and Europe, and William continued to make botanical drawings of new specimens. In 1783 William Bartram prepared a broadside list of the plant collection at the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] for publication in Philadelphia and, with the help of Benjamin Franklin, in Paris. The catalogue includes 218 plant species, most of which had been collected and planted by the elder [[John Bartram]] before his death. However, the list also includes “Three Undescript [sic] Shrubs, lately from Florida”: Philadelphus (''Philadelphus inodorus''), Alatamaha (''Franklinia alatamaha''), and Gardenia (''Fothergilla gardenii''), all species that William Bartram introduced to the garden after his travels to the Southeast.<ref>Ibid., 72&ndash;73, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero]. According to Fry, the 1783 ''Catalogue'' is “the first botanic list of North American plants to be printed in America, and is also one of the earliest known nursery catalogues from the United States.” Fry 2004, 47, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/R9R5T6QS view on Zotero].</ref>

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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