*<div id="Stiles"></div>Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (1892: 375), <ref>"Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754," ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Stiles_cite|back up to history]]
:"besides the beautiful [[walk]], ornamented with evergreens, we saw . . . Spruce '''hedges''' cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder."
*<div id="Hovey"></div>C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], November 1839, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11), <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401-16 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to history]]
:"The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
*<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 641, 645), <ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to history]]
:"When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . .
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (pp. 91–92) <ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to history]]
:"[[FENCE]]. . . .
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112), <ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]]
:"''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''....
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1838, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States" (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43), <ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41-4 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:"In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. ...
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (p. 155), <ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, Ohio: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]]
:"'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west."
*<div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 206, 244), <ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to history]]
:"'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, "View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée'')," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 120, fig. 27.]]
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45), <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:"In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]

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