* [[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1:n.p.) <ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th edn, 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al, 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"[[espalier|ESPALIER]]. . . .
:"As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . . .
:"'''HEDGE'''*, in agriculture, &c. a [[fence]], inclosing a field, garden, or the like; made of branches of trees interwoven. See [[fence|FENCE]].
:"* The word is formed of the German ''hag'', or ''haeg'', or the Anglo Saxon ''hegge'', or ''hege''; which signifies simply ''inclosure'', ''circumference''.
:"''Quick-set'' '''HEDGE''', is that made of quick or live trees, which have taken root; in contradistinction to that made of faggots, hurdles, or dry boughs."
* [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (pp. 106, 355, 1023) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, A''n Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live fences [[fence]]s are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:"1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .
:"7280. ''The ferme ornée'' differs from a common farm in having a better dwelling-house, neater approach, and one partly or entirely distinct from that which leads to the offices. It also differs as to the '''hedges''', which are allowed to grow wild and irregular (''fig''. 722.), and are bordered on each side by a broad green [[drive]], and sometimes by a gravel-[[walk]] and [[shrub]]s." [Fig. 12]
:"'''HEDGE''', ''n. hej.'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', '''hedge''', protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . . .]
:"Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence ]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden."
:"'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
:"'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S."

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]

Hedge

29 bytes added, 20:36, 24 July 2017
/* Citations */
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42