* [[John Parkinson|Parkinson, John]], 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' ([1629] 1975: 5) <ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (Norwood, N.J.: W.J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"To forme it [the garden] therfore with [[walk]]s, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with '''hedges''', with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square ]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge."
* [[John Smith|Smith, John]], 1629, ''Advertisement for the Unexperienced Planters'' (quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963: 2:399) <ref>Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson, eds., ''The Puritans'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9XGR26VH view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"you may shape your [[Orchard]]s, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, [[Walk]]es, [[Park]]es, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such [[plot]]s . . . seeing you may have so many great and small growing trees for your maine posts, to fix '''hedges''', palisados, houses, rales, or what you will.”
:"XIX. . . .
:"And to add to the Pleasure of these delightful Meanders, I advise that the '''Hedge'''-Rows of the [[Walk]]s be intermix'd with Cherries, Plumbs [sic], Apples, Pears, Bruxel Apricots, Figs, Gooseberries, Currants, Rasberrries [''sic''], ''&c''. and the [[Border]]s planted with Strawberries, Violets, ''&c''.
:"The most beautiful Forest-Trees for '''Hedges''', are the English Elm, the ''Dutch'' Elm, the Lime-Tree, and Hornbeam: And altho' I have advis’d the Mixing of these '''Hedges''' of Forest-Trees with the aforesaid Fruits, yet you must not forget a Place for those pleasant and delightful Flowering-Shrubs[[Shrub]]s, the White Jessemine, Honey-Suckle, and Sweet-Brier. . . . :"XXI. Such [[Walk]]s as must terminate within the Garden, are best finish'd with [[Mount]]s, [[aviary|Aviaries]], [[Grotto]]’s, [[Cascade]]s, Rocks, Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, variously mix'd, with circular '''Hedges''' ascending behind one another, which renders a very graceful Appearance."
* [[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1:n.p.) <ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th edn, 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al, 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"[[ESPALIER]]. . . . :"As for ''[[espalier ]]'''hedges''''', or '''hedge''' rows for defence of tender greens, and plants, from destructive winds in the summer season; if there be occasion to use them the first or second year after they are planted, a substantial frame of wood must be made, seven or eight foot high, with posts and rails. And to this ''[[espalier]]'' frame, must the side boughs of the young trees be tied, to cause the ''[[espalier]]'' to thicken the sooner. . . .
:"'''HEDGE'''*, in agriculture, &c. a [[fence]], inclosing a field, garden, or the like; made of branches of trees interwoven. See [[FENCE]].
:"* The word is formed of the German ''hag'', or ''haeg'', or the Anglo Saxon ''hegge'', or ''hege''; which signifies simply ''inclosure'', ''circumference''.
* <div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 641, 645), <ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to history]]
:"When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . .
* [[Thomas Hale|Hale, Thomas]], 1758, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry'' (1:209–10, 230) <ref>Thomas Hale, ''A Compleat Body of Husbandry Containing Rules for Performing, in the Most Profitable Manner, the Whole Business of the Farmer and Country Gentleman'', 2nd edn, 4 vols. (London: T. Osborne, 1758), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KRKU9TFT view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Where the soil is too barren for the growth of an '''hedge''', there is often stone ready for a [[wall]]. . . .
* [[Robert Squibb|Squibb, Robert]], 1787, ''The Gardener's Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' ([1787] 1980: 51) <ref>Robert Squibb, ''The Gardener’s Calendar for South-Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina'' (Charleston, S.C.: Samuel Wright and Co., 1787), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JHHVPH9K view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"If you plant the orange trees for a '''hedge''', about ten feet will be a good distance; but if intended for an [[orchard]] or a [[grove]], twenty feet will not be too much."
* <div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (pp. 91–92) <ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to history]]
:"[[FENCE]]. . . .
* [[Thomas Main|Main, Thomas]], September 28, 1807, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants'' (pp. 15, 37) <ref>Thomas Main, ''Directions for the Transplantation and Management of Young Thorn or Other Hedge Plants, Preparative to Their Being Set in Hedges, with Some Practical Observations on the Method of Plain Hedging'' (Washington, D.C.: A. G. and Way, 1807), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UEDDDN6J view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"A row of suitable shrubs or trees, planted at a proper distance from each other, on the plain cultivated surface of the ground, in order to form a [[fence]] is what here is meant by plain hedging, to distinguish it from the common method used in Britain, called '''hedge''' and ditch. . . . Those who are curious to understand the manner of conducting this old way of hedging, will find in Mr. [[Bernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]]'s 'American Gardener's Callender [''sic''],' a clear and excellent description thereof, with much other useful information in this art, as well as in the various departments of horticulture, &c. . . .
:"A promiscuous assemblage of several different kinds of plants in a '''hedge''' cannot be recommended; such a heterogeneous composition will neither make a good [[fence]] nor look handsome."
* [[John Gardiner|Gardiner, John]] and [[David Hepburn]], 1818, ''The American Gardener'' (pp. 117–19, 136–37) <ref name="Gardiner and Hepburn 1818"></ref>
:"In those parts of the union where the ripening of fruit requires no aid from artificial warmth and where therefore brick or stone [[wall]]s can be preferable, only on account of their superior strength as [[fence]]s, live '''hedges''', or banks with live '''hedges''' upon them, if well made, not only present an excellent resistance to incroachments, but are an exquisitely beautiful ornament to the mansion and its adjacent grounds. And as the propagation of live '''hedges''' is everyday becoming a subject of more serious importance, and will soon be one of indisputable necessity, in the long inhabited parts of the union where timber is becoming very scarce and dear, it may not be amiss, in this place, to turn for a moment from our particular object of enquiry, for the purpose of awakening all our agriculturalists to a consideration of the expediency of cultivating them, and of offering them a few instructions on [''sic''] this point of rural economy. . . .
* [[William Cobbett|Cobbett, William]], 1819, ''The American Gardener'' (1819a: 22, 28–29) <ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st edn (Claremont, N.H.: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"38. Yet, with all these circumstances in my favour, I proceed with faultering accent to propose, even for a garden, a live [[fence]], especially when I have to notice, that I know not how to get the plants, unless I, in the outset, bring them, or their seeds, ''from England!'' However, I must suppose this difficulty surmounted; then proceed to describe this [[fence]] that I would have, if I could.
:"486. ''Forest trees''. . . . From the Transactions of the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn '''hedges''' and other live fences are generally adopted in the cultivated districts; but the time is not yet arrived for forming timber-[[plantation]]s. . . .
:"1804. ''[[Wall]]s'' are unquestionably the grandest [[fence]]s for parks; and arched portals, the noblest entrances; between these and the '''hedge''' or pale, and [[rustic style|rustic]] [[gate]], designs in every degree of gradation, both for lodges, [[gate]]s, and [[fence]]s, will be found in the works of Wright, Gandy, Robertson, Aikin, Pocock, and other architects who have published on the rural department of their art. The pattern books of manufacturers of iron [[gate]]s and hurdles, and of wire workers, may also be advantageously consulted. . . .:"7280. ''The ferme ornée'' differs from a common farm in having a better dwelling-house, neater approach, and one partly or entirely distinct from that which leads to the offices. It also differs as to the '''hedges''', which are allowed to grow wild and irregular (''fig''. 722.), and are bordered on each side by a broad green [[drive]], and sometimes by a gravel-[[walk]] and shrubs[[shrub]]s." [Fig. 12]
* <div id="Prince"></div>[[William Peince|Prince, William]], 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112), <ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to history]]
:"''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''....
:"''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. ...
:"''Ilex aquifolium, or Common European.''—. . . It is found very suitable for '''hedges''', for which purpose it is extensively used in England. In addition to the Common Holly, there are a great number of varieties, viz. . . .
:"''Privet, or Prim.—Ligustrum vulgare.''—This [[shrub ]] is generally known, and was formerly greatly cultivated for '''hedges''' in this country, and is still so in many parts of Europe. The '''hedges''' formed of it are beautiful in the extreme, arising from its fine myrtle-like foliage, and its abundant clusters of berries in autumn and winter; and, when the sub-evergreen variety is used for this purpose, it possesses the advantage of retaining much of its foliage during the winter season. . . . :"''Mespilus pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn.''— This has very dense foliage; the leaves are small, and of a fine dark green; it produces abundance of white flowers, which are delicate, and much admired; but, like the foregoing, it is its fruit which gives it the greatest claim to beauty. These are of the same size as those of the preceding species, they are of a fiery red, and are produced in the greatest abundance, and retain their beauty during the autumnal and part of the winter months, and serve to decorate this [[shrub ]] at a season when nature most needs their aid. Being a sub-evergreen, and retaining a large portion of its foliage during winter, gives it another claim as an appendage to the [[shrubbery]]. It is now considerably planted for '''hedges''', for which purpose, uniting beauty with usefulness, it does not appear to be surpassed by any other. ... :"''Rhamnus catharticus, or Sea Buckthorn.''—The leaves of this tree are oval, and pointed at the ends, and about two inches long, with serrated edges; the flowers are green, and produced in clusters from the sides of the branches, and are no way conspicuous; it rises to the height of 14 or 15 feet, throwing out numerous shoots on all sides, and produces, during the autumn, abundant clusters of black berries, which form its principal ornament. It has long been used in Europe for '''hedges''', and had latterly been planted in this country for the same purpose; and I have seldom seen a more beautiful '''hedge''' of any other [[shrub]], and consider it extremely eligible for that purpose."
* [[Michael Floy|Floy, Michael]], September 24 and October 1, 1830, "Description of Trees and Shrubs" (''New England Farmer'' 9: 74, 84) <ref>Michael Floy, "A Description of Trees and Shrubs, Producing a Succession of Flowers from Spring to Autumn," ''The New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal'' 9, no. 10-12 (September 24, October 1, October 8, 1830): 74, 84, 92, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/C3XFHEGJ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:[Sept. 24] "''Gleditschia triacanthos'',—Honey locust, or three thorn Acacia. It makes a handsome stately tree, the foliage is handsome, but the dreadful long triple thorns with which the tree is armed, give it a forbidding aspect. Trees of this kind are often used for '''hedges''', and if planted thick, they soon make an impenetrable [[fence]] against man and beast, but must be kept cut down to 4 or 5 feet every season, or the '''hedge''' would soon be spoiled. . . .
:[Oct. 1] "''Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn''. . . . Hawthorn '''hedges''' are much used in England, where they look very handsome when kept clipped, but they do not answer so well in this country, the heat of our summers causing the leaves to fall off early, often in July; on that account they are not much used—we have several things which are better calculated for that purpose. . . .
:"''Ligustrum vulgare virens.'' Large European Privet, a very handsome evergreen [[shrub]], flowering in great profusion, and succeeded by bunches of black round berries. It bears clipping well, and is therefore well calculated for '''hedges''', or to enclose ornamental [[plantation]]s. It grows quick, and is well adapted to our climate, and when planted in a '''hedge''' row, and kept clipped, it makes a beautiful '''hedge''', and ought to be in more general use."
* [[Thomas Bridgeman|Bridgeman, Thomas]], 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (pp. 110, 133–34) <ref>Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[fence]]s, or [[plantation]]s of shrubs[[shrub]]s, forming a close and compact '''hedge''', which should be neatly trimmed every year. . . . :"Shrubs [[Shrub]]s are not only necessary to the embellishment of a [[flower garden]], but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedges''' to it, and may be planted at a trifling expense. These '''hedges''' should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and also to increase the vigour of their growth."
* [[Thomas Green Fessenden|Fessenden, Thomas Green]], 1833, ''The New American Gardener'' (p. 158) <ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 7th edn. (Boston: Russell, Odiorne, 1833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VPB9HKX3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"'''Hedges''' may be of various kinds, such as the single '''hedge''' and ditch the '''hedge''' and bank; the level '''hedge''', &c.; of which, descriptions may be found in Loudon’s ''Encyclopedia of Agriculture'', and other books of husbandry."
* <div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1838, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States" (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43), <ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, "On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41-4 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:"In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. ...
* <div id="Hooper"></div>[[Edward James Hooper|Hooper, Edward James]], 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (p. 155), <ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, Ohio: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to history]]
:"'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west."
* <div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 206, 244), <ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to history]]
:"'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering shrubs[[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . . :"'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-gardens garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[FENCE]]S."
:"[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s, and are then known as '''''hedges''''', or dead, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditches'', ''palings'', or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. . . .
:"'''HEDGE''', properly includes every kind of [[fence]], but the present details apply for the most part to growing [[fence]]s. . . .
:"All full trained '''hedges''', in order to preserve them in proper form, close and neat, must be clipped, both on the sides and top, once or twice a year, but never less than once; . . . regular '''hedges''' should be cut as even as a [[wall]] on the sides, and the top as straight as a line; observing, after the '''hedge''' is formed to its proper height and width,always to cut each year’s clipping nearly to the old of the former year, particularly on the side; for by no means suffer them to grow above a foot or two wide, nor suffer them to advance upon you too much at top, where it is designed or necessary to keep them to a moderate height. But to keep '''hedges''' in perfectly good order, they should be clipped twice every summer. . . . Very high '''hedges''' are both troublesome and expensive to cut. The clipping is sometimes performed by the assistance of a high machine, scaffolding or stage. . . .:"A '''hedge''' is not only an imperfect screen, but in other respects is worse than useless, since nothing can be trained to it, and its roots exhaust the soil in their neighborhood very considerably; as the south [[fence]] of a garden it may be employed,and hawthorn is perhaps the worst shrub that could be made use of. It is the [[nursery]] of the same aphides, beetles, and caterpillars, that feed upon the foliage of the apple and pear . . . evergreen are better than deciduous '''hedges''', and more especially the holly, which is not so slow a grower as is generally imagined.
:"In a cloudy day in April or May, the wind seems to be actually refrigerated in passing through a thick hawthorn '''hedge'''. . . . When the garden is of considerable extent, three or four acres and upwards, it admits of cross-[[wall]]s or [[fence]]s for an increase of training surface and additional shelter."
:"The advantages of a '''hedge''' over a common [[fence]], besides its beauty, are its durability, its perfect protection against man and beast, and the additional value it confers upon the land which it encloses. A [[fence]] of [[wood]], or stone, as commonly made, is, at the best, but a miserable and tottering affair; soon needing repairs, which are a constant drain upon the purse; often liable to be broken down by trespassing Philistines; and, before many years, decaying, or so far falling down, as to demand a complete renewal. Now a good '''hedge''', made of the two plants we shall presently recommend,will last ''forever''; it is an 'everlasting [[fence]],' at least in any acceptation of the word known to our restless and changing countrymen. . . .
:"As a protection to the choicer products of the soil, which tempt the spoiler of the [[orchard]] and the garden, nothing is so efficient as a good '''hedge'''. It is like an impregnable fortress, neither to be scaled, broken through, nor climbed over. Fowls will not fly over it, because they fear to alight upon its top; and men and beasts are not likely to make more than one attempt to force its green [[wall]]s. It shows a fair and leafy shield to its antagonist, but it has thousands of concealed arrows ready at the moment of assault, and there are few creatures,however bold, who care to 'come to the scratch' twice with such a foe. Indeed a well made and perfect thorn '''hedge''' is so thick that a bird cannot fly through it." [Fig. 13]
* Anonymous, October 1848, "Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life''," (''Horticulturist'' 3: 181) <ref>Anonymous, "Reviews: ''Cottages and Cottage Life''," ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 179-82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IU3P9QS view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"As far as practicable, make divisions whichare necessary about the house of the [[ha-ha]] or blind [[blind fence]], or of '''hedges''', for which purpose the Maclura or Osage Orange is believed to be one of the most desirable plants."
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, "View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée'')," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 120, fig. 27.]]
* <div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45), <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:"In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]
:"We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it,forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .:"For '''hedges''' the Holly is altogether unrivalled;and it was also one of the favorite plants for ''verdant sculpture'', in the [[ancient style]] of gardening. . . .
:"The Yew, like the Holly, makes an excellent evergreen '''hedge'''—close, dark green, and beautiful when clad in the rich scarlet berries. . . .
:"''Verdant '''hedges''''' are elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s, and we are surprised that their use has not been hitherto more general. . . .[[Picturesque]] '''hedges''' are easily formed by intermingling a variety of flowering shrubs[[shrub]]s, sweet briars,etc., and allowing the whole to grow together in rich masses. . . . In all cases where '''hedges''' are employed in the [[natural style]] of landscape (and not in close connexion with highly artificial objects, buildings, etc.), a more agreeable effect will be produced by allowing the '''hedge''' to grow somewhat irregular in form, or varying it by planting near it other small trees and shrubs [[shrub]]s to break the outline, than by clipping it in even and formal lines."
* [[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (p. 20) <ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden ]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental."

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A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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