* [[William Hugh Grove|Grove, William Hugh]], 1732, describing Virginia (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 35) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., "Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove," ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"They also make strong '''hedges''' of Peach plants in their gardens."
* [[Pehr Kalm|Kalm, Pehr]], September 21, 1748, describing the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa. (1937: 1:47) <ref>Pehr Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770'', 2 vols. (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The [[fence]]s and pales are generally made here of wooden planks and posts. But a few good economists, having already thought of sparing the [[wood]]s for future times, have begun to plant quick '''hedges''' round their fields; and for this purpose they take the above-mentioned privet, which they plant in a little bank that is thrown up for it."
* Anonymous, May 22, 1749, describing the property of [[Alexander Garden]], Charleston, S.C. (''South Carolina Gazette'')
:"With in a few weeks will be raffled for, A LOT . . . belonging to ''[[Alexander Garden|Alexander Gordon]], Esq''. . . . Together with a garden, genteelly laid out in [[walk]]s and [[alley]]s, with flower-knots, &c. laid round with bricks, having also several kinds of fruit trees now bearing, and many orange trees now growing like-wise, cassini and other '''hedges'''."
* <div id="Stiles"></div>[[Ezra Stiles|Stiles, Ezra]], September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (1892: 375), <ref>"Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754," ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Stiles_cite|back up to history]]
:"besides the beautiful [[walk]], ornamented with evergreens, we saw . . . Spruce '''hedges''' cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder."
* <div id="Callender"></div>[[Hannah Callender|Callender, Hannah]], June 30, 1762, diary entry describing [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], estate of [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Callender 2010: 183) <ref name="Callender 2010">Hannah Callender Sansom, ''The Diary of Hannah Callender Sansom: Sense and Sensibility in the Age of the American Revolution'', ed. by Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref>
: "...on the right you enter a [[labyrinth|Labarynth]] of '''hedge''' and low ceder with spruce..."
* [[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, Va. (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:102, 115) <ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. by Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKQVPUC3 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"[14 March] Planted the 9 young peach Trees which I brought from Mr. Cockburns in the No. Garden—viz . . . 2 in the [[border]] of the Walk leading from the [[Espalier]] '''hedge''' towards the other cross [[walk]]. . . .
* [[William Strickland|Strickland, William]], October 9, 1794, describing the country from Fishkill, N.Y., to Poughkeepsie, N.Y. (1971: 99–100) <ref>William Strickland, ''Journal of a Tour in the United States of America, 1794-1795'', ed. by J. E. Strickland (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DR8FH6KF view on Zotero.]</ref>
: "The country in general is divided into fields . . . it wants only the ornament of live [[fence]]s to be one of the most [[picturesque]] that can be seen, and those even have been attempted though they have unfortunately failed. Near Fishkyl the fields were formerly divided by Privet '''Hedges''' a shrub imported from Europe by the Dutch, which answerd the purpose, and throve well for many years, and some of them are still to be seen; but an insect attacked them some years since by which they were destroyed, and they never have been replaced, or any substitute adopted or tried; though no doubt shrubs better calculated for making durable strong [[fence]]s might be found among the natives of this country."
* [[Charles Drayton|Drayton, Charles]], November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (1806: 54, 57&ndash;58)<ref>Charles Drayton, "The Diary of Charles Drayton I, 1806," 1806, Drayton Hall: A National Historic Trust Site, http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:27554, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref>
: "The [[Fence|<u>Fences</u>]] separating the [[Park]]-[[lawn]] from the Garden on one hand, & the office [[yard]] on the other, are 4 ft. 6 high. The former are made with posts & lathes&mdash;the latter with posts, rails & boards. They are concealed with evergreeens '''hedge'''&mdash;of juniper I think. . . .
: ". . . . From the Cellar one enters under the bow window & into this Screen, which is about 6 or 7 feet square. Through these, we enter a narrow area, & ascend some few Steps [close to this side of the house,] into the garden&mdash;& thro the other opening we ascend a paved winding [[slope]], which spreads as it ascends, into the [[yard]]. This sloping passage being a segment of a circle, & its two outer [[wall]]s <u>concealed</u> by loose '''hedges''', & by the projection of the flat roofed Screen of masonry, keeps the [[yard]], & I believe the whole passage <u>out of sight</u> from the house&mdash;but certainly from the garden & [[park]] [[lawn]]. See the plan of the Grounds.
* [[Thomas Jefferons|Jefferson, Thomas]], March 1, 1808, in a letter to [[William Hamilton]], describing plans for [[Monticello]], [[plantation ]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, Va. (1944: 365) <ref>Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', ed. by Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"you should know this plant [haw], which is peculiar at least to America & is a real treasure. as a thorn for '''hedges''' nothing has ever been seen comparable to it certainly no thorn in England which I have ever seen makes a '''hedge''' any more to be compared to this than a log hut to a [[wall]] of freestone. if you will plant these 6. I. apart you will be a judge of their superiority soon." [<span id="Fig_2_cite"></span>[[#Fig_2|See Fig. 2]]]
* [[Sir Augustus John Foster|Foster, Sir Augustus John]], 1812, describing [[Custis-Lee Mansion]] (Arlington House), Arlington, Va. (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 177) <ref>Carl R. Lounsbury, ed., ''An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UK5TCUQQ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"the [[fence]]s were of hurdles to keep out pigs. The American thorn will not grow close enough and the cedar '''hedge''' though pretty is not strong enough for the purpose."
* Hulme, Thomas, June 28, 1818, describing the settlement of Morris Birkbeck, [[New Harmony]], Ind. (quoted in Cobbett 1819b: 475) <ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st edn (Claremont, N.H.: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"910. I very much admire Mr. Birkbeck’s mode of fencing. . . . The banks [of the ditches] were growing beautifully, and looked altogether very neat as well as formidable; though a live '''hedge''' (which he intends to have) instead of dead poles and rails, upon top, would make the [[fence]] far more effectual as well as handsomer."
[[File:0712.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte, ''Battle of New Orleans'', 1815.]]
* [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], February 20, 1819, describing the [[Montgomery House]], New Orleans, La. (1951: 43) <ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818-1820'', ed. by Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Close to the river, & separated only by the levee & road, is the old fashioned, but otherwise handsome, garden & house of Mr. Montgomery. The garden, which I think covers not less than 4 acres, is laid out in [[square]] [[walk]]s & flower [[bed]]s in the old [[French style]]. It is entirely enclosed by a thick '''hedge''' of orange trees, which have been suffered to run up to 15 or 16 feet high on the flanks & rear, but which are shorn down to the highth [''sic''] of 4 or 5 feet along the road." [Fig. 6]
[[File:0662.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, Rose-Lawn, residence of Edgar M. Vanderburgh, c. 1830-40, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, p. 296.]]
* [[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 21, 1823, describing [[Rose Hill]], home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, Md. (1976: 158) <ref name="Forman 1976">Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814-1845'' (Wilmington, Del.: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The hedger, Mr. Green, arrived here this evening, he laid a part of the Apple '''hedge''' and all the thorn '''hedge'''." [Fig. 7]
* [[Robert Waln, Jr.|Waln, Robert, Jr.]], 1825, describing the [[Friends Asylum for the Insane]], near Frankford, Pa. (pp. 231–32) <ref>Robert Jr. Waln, "An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia," ''Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences'', 1 (new series) (1825), 225–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D39BHTPH/ view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The [[flower garden]], extending from the vestibule to a dark green '''hedge''' of cedar, which separates it from the [[kitchen garden]], offers a rich repast to the eye. . . .
* [[Ezekiel Hersey Derby|Derby, Ezekiel Hersey]], 1828, in a letter to [[Thomas Green Fessenden]], describing his use of the buckthorn in constructing hedges (quoted in Fessenden 1828: 57) <ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener'', 1st edn (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/M8WDX2P7 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"After trying several kinds of trees, for the purpose of making a '''hedge''', without much success, I was induced to try this [buckthorn], which has afforded a most beautiful [[fence]], so much so as to attract the attention of every person who has seen it. It divides my garden, is about three hundred feet in length, the plants set nearly a foot apart, is five feet high, and two feet wide at top, which is cut nearly level. It shoots early in the spring, makes a handsome appearance, and continues its verdure till very late in the fall. It has not so much spine as either the English or American hawthorn, but I think sufficient to protect it from cattle. . . . You will observe that Miller speaks of it as not so proper for '''hedges''' as the hawthorn or crab, which may be the case in England, but I cannot agree with him as it respects America."
* [[Capt. Basil Hall|Hall, Capt. Basil]], 1828, describing a "bungalow" in Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389) <ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ed., ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange '''hedges''', all in flower."
* [[Capt. Basil Hall|Hall, Capt. Basil]], 1828, describing a [[plantation ]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, S.C., to Savannah, Ga. (quoted in Jones 1957: 98) <ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"From the top of the bank, on which the house stood, we could see over a '''hedge''' into the rice fields which lay beyond, and stretched over the plain for several miles, their boundary line being the black edge of the untouched forest."
* [[Caroline Bell|Bell, Caroline]], April 6, 1829, describing Iberville Plantation, La. (Historic New Orleans Collection, Butler Family Papers, folder 459, Mss 102)
:"I have set out a great deal of beautiful [[shrubbery]] & Flowers, tomorrow shall plant, all my orange seed for '''hedges''' & plant all my Myrtle and sweet orange Trees."
* Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing [[Sweet Briar]], seat of [[Samuel Breck]], vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Boyd 1929: 425) <ref name="Boyd 1929">James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827-1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"[[Samuel Breck|Mr. Breck ]] has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate."
* [[Ezekiel Hersey Derby|Derby, Ezekiel Hersey]], January 1, 1836, "Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges" (''Horticultural Register'' 2: 28) <ref>Ezekiel Hersey Derby, "Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus Catharticus) for Live Hedges," ''The Horticultural Register and Gardener's Magazine'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27-29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P93RF7HA view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"The rapid increase of our population, and the consequent vast consumption of timber for other and more valuable purposes, by increasing the relative cost of the old fashioned wooden [[fence]]s, must eventually render the introduction of '''hedges''' here, advantageous, if not absolutely essential, from motives of utility and economy; while the lover of rural scenery will hail with pleasure the [[picturesque]] charm of their verdant beauty.
* [[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 30, 1838, describing [[Rose Hill]], home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, Md. (1976: 396) <ref name="Forman 1976"></ref>
:"The General planting a '''hedge''' of Osage apple from the poplar tree [[gate]] to the [[wood]]s [[gate]] between the horse chestnuts row.}
* <div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], November 1839, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11), <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401-16 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to history]]
:"The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
* [[Fanny Kemble|Kemble, Fanny]], March 24-28, 1839, in a letter to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, describing an estate on St. Simon's Island, Ga. ([1961] 1984: 284–85) <ref>Frances Anne Kemble, ''Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839'', ed. by John A. Scott (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1984), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UWZQAT2D view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Hamilton struck me very much—I mean the whole appearance of the place; the situation of the house, the noble water [[prospect]] it commanded, the magnificent old oaks near it, a luxuriant vine [[trellis]], and a splendid '''hedge''' of Yucca gloriosa, were all objects of great delight to me."
* [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], November 1841, "Select Villa Residences," describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[A. J. Downing]], Newburgh, N.Y. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401-11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . . Under the [[arbor]] vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer. :"19. '''Hedge''' or screen of [[arbor]] vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The [[arbor]] vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years." [Fig. 8]
[[File:1047.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, [[Alexander W. Longfellow]], Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844.]]* [[Samuel Longfellow|Longfellow, Samuel]], September 3, 1845, in a letter to Annie Pierce, describing [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Evans 1993: 40) <ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"A buckthorn '''hedge''' has been made between us & Mr. Hastings, and Mr. Worcester not satisfied with the rustic open [[fence]] which separates between us demands a '''hedge''' there also which will cover up entirely the glimpse that I get from my western window and which I do not at all like to loose [''sic'']." [Fig. 9]
* [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey, C. M.]], August 1846, "Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York," describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth's Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845," ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281-85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the [[arbor]] vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The [[arbor]] vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens."
* [[Sir Charles Lyell|Lyell, Sir Charles]], 1849, describing Natchez, Miss. (2:153) <ref>Sir Charles Lyell, ''A Second Visit to the United States of North America'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero.]</ref>
:"Many of the country-houses in the neighborhood are elegant, and some of the gardens belonging to them laid out in the English, others in the [[French style]]. In the latter are seen [[terrace]]s, with [[statue]]s and cut evergreens, straight [[walk]]s with [[border]]s of flowers, terminated by [[view]]s into the wild forest, the charms of both being heightened by contrast. Some of the '''hedges''' are made of that beautiful North American plant, the Gardenia, miscalled in England the Cape jessamine, others of the Cherokee rose, with its bright and shining leaves."

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