<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at Monticello, 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]
Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, [[William Prince]] praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view citation]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the [[Elias Hasket Derby House]] in Salem, Mass., as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view citation]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. Downing noted that "there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe." <ref>A. J. Downing, "A Chapter on Hedges," ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346.</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at [[Oatlands]], D. P. Manice's residence in Hempstead, N.Y. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3]. <ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, "Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: 'Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,'" ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero.]</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of Monticello Mountain, before May 1768.]]
Climate was also a factor in plant choice for hedges. In warmer regions ornamental hedges were composed of orange, yucca, Cherokee rose, and gardenia, while cedar, spruce, and juniper were used in colder areas such as New England. Prince recommended maclura or osage orange for Philadelphia and areas to the south. <span id="Hooper_cite"></span>[[Edward James Hooper]], in The ''Practical Farmer'' (1842), maintained that buckthorn was suited to New England’s climate while European hawthorn did better in the west, although other descriptions suggest that the use of thorn varieties was not regionally specific ([[#Hooper|view citation]]).
[[File:0932.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, R. W. Dickson, "Hedge Fences," in ''Practical Agriculture'' (1805), vol. 1, pl. 31, opp. p. 110.]]
Early evidence of hedges in the American landscape may be found in books of instruction on the delineation or division of arable fields, a practice taken directly from European agricultural tradition. Hedges created by close planting and interweaving of shrubs [[shrub]]s to create a dense barrier were categorized in many horticultural and agricultural treatises as a type of [[fence]], rather than identified with other planting arrangements such as [[thicket]], [[grove]], and group. The discourse about the advantages of hedges over [[fence]]s was particularly rich in the American agricultural literature of the early nineteenth century. Proponents of the new "scientific agriculture," such as John Adams and [[Ezekiel Hersey Derby]], reported their experiments with different plant varieties and techniques for forming hedges [Fig. 4]. <ref>For example, see Ezekiel Hersey Derby, "Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn . . . for Live Hedges," ''Horticultural Register'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27–29. For a discussion of scientific farming in the Boston area, see Charles Arthur Hammond, "'Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite': Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864" (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982), chapters 2 and 3. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero.]</ref>
The aesthetic treatment of garden hedges was discussed and debated throughout much of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Authors and gardeners variously praised and dismissed both trimmed and untrimmed hedges, depending upon the prevailing taste and the particular situation of the hedge. <span id="Stiles_cite"></span>[[Ezra Stiles]] admired the spruce hedges at [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, which were cut into beautiful figures in 1754 ([[#Stiles|view citation]]), and in 1762 <span id="Callender_cite"></span>[[Hannah Callender]] described a hedge [[labyrinth]] at [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], [[William Peters|Judge William Peters]]'s estate near Philadelphia ([[#Callender|view citation]]). <span id="Ware_cite"></span>In contrast, [[Isaac Ware]], writing in 1756, praised the "natural hedge . . . mimicking savage nature" ([[#Ware|view citation]]). In 1832, both [[H.A.S. Dearborn]] and [[Thomas Bridgeman]] commended trimmed and trained hedges while other writers, such as [[A. J. Downing|Downing ]] and [[Jane Loudon]], allowed the merits of both formal and naturalistic styles. <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>In 1845 [[Jane Loudon|Loudon ]] praised evergreen hedges "neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s," while in the [[flower garden]] she proposed a less "stiff and formal" appearance that would "harmonize . . . with the flowers" ([[#Loudon|view citation]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the 1849 edition of his treatise, [[A. J. Downing|Downing ]] noted that trimmed hedges were "elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s," while irregular or [[picturesque]] hedges were handsome additions to a landscape of the "[[natural style]]" ([[#Downing|view citation]]).
-- ''Elizabeth Kryer-Reid''

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