The '''National Mall''' is a broad, tree-lined [[green]] in Washington, D.C. DC, that extends from the foot of Capitol Hill to the [[Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.DC)|Washington Monument]]. It is a public space used for recreational activities, cultural events, and democratic discourse. Museums and gardens flank the north and south sides. The [[United States Capitol]] building lies to the east and the monuments of West Potomac Park lie to the west. Both as a national icon and a civic space, the Mall is a key landmark of the nation’s capital.
==Overview==
'''Alternate Names:''' Public Grounds<br/>
'''Site Dates:''' 1791&ndash;to present<br/>
'''Site Owner(s):''' U.S. National Park Service<br/>
'''Associated People:''' [[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant]] (1754&ndash;1825, urban designer), ; [[Robert Mills]] (1781&ndash;1855, architect), ; [[Andrew Jackson Downing]] (1815&ndash;1852, landscape designer)<br/>'''Location:'''Washington, D.C.DC<br/>'''Condition:''' altered<br/>
[https://www.google.com/maps/place/National+Mall/@38.88962,-77.022977,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x89b7b79b5aff3d31:0x3a08ab4ca2062741 View on Google maps]
 
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==History==
[[File:04140071.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.]] [[File:0071.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Thomas Jefferson, Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.]]The origins of the National Mall can be traced to a preliminary plan for the city of Washington sketched by [[Thomas Jefferson]] in March 1791. [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] laid out the city in a gridiron formation, envisioning the [[U.S. Capitol|Capitol]] building and the [[President's President’s House]] as opposite ends of a prominent east-west axis connected by "public [[walk]]s" [Fig. 21].<ref>Richard W. Stephenson, ''"A “A Plan Whol[l]y New"New”: Pierre Charles L'Enfant's L’Enfant’s Plan of the City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.DC: Library of Congress, 1993), 17-&ndash;19, see also 38-&ndash;43, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q3WX7W32 view on Zotero]; Therese O'MalleyO’Malley, "Art “Art and Science in American Landscape Architecture: The National Mall, Washington, D.C. DC 1791-&ndash;1852," Ph.D” PhD diss. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1989, 15-&ndash;21, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> Over the next several months, the military engineer [[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant]] expanded upon [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson's]]'s ideas in his official plan for the city, which adapted abstract geometry to the natural topography of the site, which featured a [[park]]-like setting of rolling hills, a wooded terrain, and proximity to the Potomac River. <span id="LEnfant_Grand_cite"></span>Influenced by recent developments in French urban planning, [[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'Enfant'sL’Enfant’s]] ambitious design called for a "Grand “Grand [[Avenue]], 400 feet in breadth, and about a mile in length" length” leading from "the “the Congress Garden" Garden” on Jenkins Hill (now Capitol Hill) to the "President's “President’s [[park]]" and a "well“well-improved field" field” near the banks of the Potomac, which would be the site of a projected equestrian [[statue]] of [[George Washington]] ([[#LEnfant_Grand|view citationtext]]). The [[view/vista|view]] from that point back to the [[U.S. Capitol|Capitol]] would feature a [[cascade]] falling from a height of forty feet down to a [[canal]] running alongside the Mall to the Potomac. <span id="LEnfant_resort_cite"></span>[[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'EnfantL’Enfant]] conceived of the wide urban [[avenue]] as a social as well as a scenic space: a "place “place of general resort," bordered by gardens and the stately residences of the city's city’s elite, as well as playhouses, assembly rooms, academies, "and “and all such sort of places as may be attractive to the l[e]arned and afford diver[s]ion to the idle" idle” ([[#LEnfant_resort|view citationtext]]).<ref>Michael J. Lewis, "The “The Idea of the American Mall," in ''The National Mall: Rethinking Washington’s Monumental Core'', ed. Nathan Glazer and Cynthia R. Field (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 13-&ndash;15, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/96G2E377 view on Zotero]; Pamela Scott, "'This “‘This Vast Empire'Empire’: The Iconography of the Mall, 1791-&ndash;1848," in ''The Mall in Washington'', ed. Richard Longstreth, Studies in the History of Art, Center for Advanced Studies in the Visual Arts, Symposium Papers, XIV (Washington, D.C.DC: National Gallery of Art, 1991), 39-&ndash;40 and 55, n.20, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; O'Malley O’Malley 1989, 26-&ndash;48, 95-&ndash;97,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero]; H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), 151-&ndash;53, 157-&ndash;59, 163&ndash; 163-65 , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> [[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'EnfantL’Enfant]] would later remark that he "changed “changed the whole face of the city ground, from a savage wilderness into a compleat heden [''sic''] garden."”<ref>O’Malley 1989, 50, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> [[File:0414.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.]] Development of the Mall stalled over the next several decades while a variety of alternative plans were advanced. [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], then Supervising Architect of the United States Capitol, proposed a design in 1815 that called for a [[canal]] originating in a circular basin at the foot of the Capitol and running the full length of the Mall to a [[cascade]] and lagoon at the opposite end [Fig. 2]. Nothing came of this proposal, nor of others advanced by the architects Charles Bulfinch (in 1822) and [[Robert Mills]] (in 1831).<ref>Scott 1991, 46&ndash;50, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero].</ref> Sections of the Mall were cultivated on a piecemeal basis; for example, in 1821 the [[Columbian Institute]] began carrying out improvements on five acres at the Mall’s east end for a [[botanical garden]], which included cultivating a [[hedge]] enclosure, excavating an elliptical [[pond]] with an island, laying out gravel [[walk]]s, and planting [[border]]s with specimens of native and exotic trees and shrubs.<ref>OScott 1991, 46, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; Therese O’Malley, “‘Your Garden Must Be a Museum to You’: Early American Botanic Gardens,” ''Huntington Library Quarterly''Malley 59 (1996): 218&ndash;20, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB view on Zotero]; O’Malley, 1989, 50122&ndash;36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref>
Development <div id="Fig_3"></div>[[File:0033.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Robert Mills, ''Plan of the Mall stalled over the next several decades while a variety of alternative plans were advanced'', Washington, DC, 1841. [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe#Fig_3_cite|Back to texts]]]]In 1841, then Supervising Architect as part of his design for the building that would ultimately house the Smithsonian Institution, [[United States CapitolRobert Mills]], proposed submitted a design in 1815 that called comprehensive plan for a great public [[canalpark]] originating in a circular basin at extending from the foot of [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington Monument]] to the Capitol. As conceived by [[United States CapitolRobert Mills|CapitolMills]], the Mall would be laid out as a [[picturesque]] assemblage of gardens of contrasting styles: informal plantings and running serpentine paths in the full length of [[English style]] surrounding the Mall to a [[cascadeWashington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington Monument]] and lagoon at [[botanic garden]]s would be contrasted with more formal, [[Geometric style|geometric]] plantings near the opposite end Capitol [Fig. 13]. Nothing came [[Robert Mills|Mills’s]] design was novel for its holistic integration of this proposalarchitecture and landscape, as well as for its botanical emphasis, nor which reflected the influence of the contemporary English theory of others advanced by the architects [[Charles Bulfinchgardenesque]] (in 1822) and formulated by [[Robert MillsJ. C. Loudon]] (in 1831).<ref>Scott 1991O’Malley 1989, 150&ndash;51, 158&ndash;61, 46-50169&ndash;72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> Sections of At the Mall were cultivated on a piecemeal basis; for examplesame time, in 1821 the [[Columbian InstituteRobert Mills|Mills’s]] began carrying out improvements on five acres at design was consistent with the Mall's east end for long-held objective of locating a publicly accessible [[botanical botanic garden]], which included cultivating a [[hedge]] enclosure, excavating in the nation’s capital&mdash;an elliptical [[pond]] with an island, laying out gravel [[walk]]s, idea first broached in the 1790s by influential advocates including George Washington and planting [[borderThomas Jefferson]]s with specimens of native and exotic trees and shrubs.<ref>O’Malley 1996, 213&ndash;26, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB view on Zotero]; Scott 1991, 4648&ndash;49, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 view on Zotero]; Therese O'MalleyO’Malley 1989, 98&ndash;105, 112, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> [[Robert Mills|Mills’s]] plan had little immediate impact on the landscaping of the Mall, which remained in a undeveloped state in 1845, when a member of the Smithsonian Institution Building Committee “urged the expediency and policy of rescuing the Mall from its present state of degradation and of ornamenting it at least with the different trees of this country, "'Your Garden Must Be and protecting it with a Museum to You': Early American Botanic Gardensdecent enclosure.”<ref>Quoted in O’Malley 1989," ''Huntington Library Quarterly'' 59 (1996): 218-20181, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB TQVME883 view on Zotero]; O'Malley.</ref> That same year, 2,000 indigenous trees (representing 200 species and varieties) were planted on the Mall, and additional plantings and enclosures were added in the years that followed.<ref>O’Malley 1989, 122-36180&ndash;82,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref>[[Robert Mills]]'s conception of the Mall as a locus for scientific inquiry and display, and his adoption of the romantic aesthetic of [[natural style|naturalism]] set the tone for future landscaping of the area.[[File:1967.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan showing proposed method of laying out the public grounds at Washington'', 1851.]]
<div span id="Fig_3Downing_cite"></divspan>Botanical interests informed the landscape plan designed in 1851 by the architect and horticulturalist [[File:0033.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3Andrew Jackson Downing]], Robert Mills, ''Plan who conceived of the Mall'', Washington, D.C., 1841. as “a national [[#Fig_3_cite|Back to textspark]]]]In 1841, as part ” and a “public museum of his design for the building living trees and shrubs” that would ultimately house both influence taste by providing an example of the [[Smithsonian Institutionnatural style]], [[Robert Mills]] submitted a comprehensive plan for a great public [[park]] extending from the [[Washington Monument of landscape gardening (Washington, D.C.)|Washington Monument]] to the [[United States Capitol|Capitol]]. As conceived illustrated by [[Robert Mills|Mills]], the Mall would be laid out as a [[picturesque]] assemblage of gardens sequence of contrasting styles: informal plantings landscape “scenes”), and serpentine paths in educate visitors to the [[English style]] surrounding the [[Washington Monument (Washingtonpopular and scientific names, habits, D.C.)|Washington Monument]] and botanic gardens would be contrasted with more formal, growth of botanical specimens suited to Washington’s climate ([[Geometric style#Downing|geometric]] plantings near the [[United States Capitol|Capitolview text]] ) [Fig. 34].<ref>O'Malley 1989Thomas J. Schlereth, 150-51“Early North American Arboreta, 158-61” ''Garden History'' 35 (2007): 211&ndash;13, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 Z265TMPB view on Zotero].</ref> [[Robert Mills|Mills; Kirk Savage, ''s]] design was novel for its holistic integration of architecture and landscapeMonument Wars: Washington, DC, as well as for its botanical emphasisthe National Mall, which reflected and the influence Transformation of the contemporary English theory Memorial'' (Berkeley, Los Angelos: University of the California Press, 2005), 70&ndash;73, [[gardenesquehttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]] formulated by ; Therese O’Malley, “‘A Public Museum of Trees’: Mid-Nineteenth Century Plans for the Mall,” in Longstreth, 1991, 65&ndash;72, [[Jhttps://www. Czotero. Loudonorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IV2DGE4I view on Zotero]].<ref>O'Malley ; O’Malley 1989, 169-72196&ndash;98, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> At the same time, Rather than carry out [[Robert MillsAndrew Jackson Downing|MillsDowning's]] design was consistent with plan systematically, individual federal agencies developed portions of the long-held objective Mall on an ad hoc basis, creating a loosely connected network of locating a publicly accessible meandering [[botanic gardenwalk]] in the nation's capital &mdash; an idea first broached in the 1790s by influential advocates including [[George Washington]] , gardens, and [[Thomas Jeffersongrove]]s.<ref>O'Malley 1996Savage 2005, 213-2675, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GD2JQTRB WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; Scott David C. Streatfield, “The Olmsteds and the Landscape of the Mall,” in Longstreth, 1991, 48-49117&ndash;18, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4WS8QU7 DF93A3NA view on Zotero]; O'Malley 1989O’Malley 1991, 98-105, 11272, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 IV2DGE4I view on Zotero].</ref> [[Robert Mills|Mills's]] plan had little immediate impact on Under the landscaping McMillan Plan of 1902, the Mall, which remained existing landscape was cleared and leveled in order to create a undeveloped state more unified, open space with unobstructed [[vista]]s in 1845, when a member keeping with the spirit of the [[Smithsonian InstitutionPierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant's]] Building Committee "urged the expediency original plan. Landscape and policy of rescuing hardscape construction projects continue to reshape the Mall from and its present state of degradation and of ornamenting it at least with surroundings into the different trees of this country, and protecting it with a decent enclosure21st century."<ref>Quoted in OPeter R. Penczer, ''The Washington National Mall''Malley 1989(Arlington, VA: Oneonta Press, 1812007), 21&ndash;121, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 UCQQK7BW view on Zotero]; Sue Kohler and Pamela Scott, eds.</ref> That same year, 2000 indigenous trees ''Designing the Nation’s Capital: The 1901 Plan for Washington, DC'' (representing 200 species and varieties) were planted on the MallWashington, and additional plantings and enclosures were added in the years that followedDC: U.S.<ref>O'Malley 1989Commission of Fine Arts, 180-822006), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 4MKGI88M view on Zotero]; Savage 2005, 147&ndash;313, [https://www.<zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ref> [[Robert MillsWNN7I268 view on Zotero]]'s conception of the ; Therese O’Malley, “The Mall as a locus for scientific inquiry and display: 1992&ndash;2002,” in Longstreth, 2002, ix&ndash;xii, and his adoption of the romantic aesthetic of [[natural style|naturalism]] set the tone for future landscaping of the area.[[Filehttps:1967//www.jpg|thumb|Figzotero. 4, Aorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CFKB97I4/q/2002 view on Zotero]. J. Downing, ''Plan showing proposed method of laying out the public grounds at Washington'', 1851.]]</ref>
<span id="Downing_cite"></span>Botanical interests informed the landscape plan designed in 1851 by the architect and horticulturalist [[Andrew Jackson Downing]], who conceived of the Mall as "a national [[park]]" and a "public museum of living trees and shrubs" that would both influence taste by providing an example of the natural style of landscape gardening (illustrated by a sequence of contrasting landscape "scenes"), and educate visitors to the popular and scientific names, habits, and growth of botanical specimens suited to Washington's climate ([[#Downing|view citation]]) [Fig. 4].<ref>Thomas J. Schlereth, "Early North American Arboreta," 'Robyn Asleson'Garden History'' 35 (2007): 211-13, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z265TMPB view on Zotero]; Kirk Savage, ''Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial'' (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2005), 70-73, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; Therese O'Malley, "'A Public Museum of Trees': Mid-Nineteenth Century Plans for the Mall," in Longstreth, 1991, 65-72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IV2DGE4I view on Zotero]; O'Malley 1989, 196-98, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TQVME883 view on Zotero].</ref> Rather than carry out [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]]'s plan systematically, individual federal agencies developed portions of the Mall on an ad hoc basis, creating a loosely connected network of meandering [[walk]]s, gardens, and [[grove]]s.<ref>Savage 2005, 75, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; David C. Streatfield, "The Olmsteds and the Landscape of the Mall," in Longstreth, 1991, 117-18, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DF93A3NA view on Zotero]; O'Malley 1991, 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IV2DGE4I view on Zotero].</ref> Under the McMillan Plan of 1902, the existing landscape was cleared and leveled in order to create a more unified, open space with unobstructed [[vista]]s in keeping with the spirit of [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L'Enfant]]'s original plan. Landscape and hardscape construction projects continue to re-shape the Mall and its surroundings into the 21st century.<ref>Peter R. Penczer, ''The Washington National Mall'' (Arlington, Va.: Oneonta Press, 2007), 21-121, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UCQQK7BW view on Zotero]; Sue Kohler and Pamela Scott, eds., ''Designing the Nation’s Capital: The 1901 Plan for Washington, D.C.'' (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2006), passim, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4MKGI88M view on Zotero]; Savage 2005, 147-313, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WNN7I268 view on Zotero]; Therese O'Malley, "The Mall: 1992-2002," in Longstreth, 2002, ix-xii, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CFKB97I4/q/2002 view on Zotero].</ref>
--''Robyn Asleson''<hr>
==Texts==
[[File:2095.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant]]L’Enfant, ''Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t[he] United States'', 1791.]]* <div id="LEnfant_resort"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'EnfantL’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], June 22, 1791, describing in a report to [[George Washington]] his plans for Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 151-&ndash;53), <ref name="Caemmerer_1950">Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT/ view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to history]]
:"I “I placed the three grand Departments of State contigous to the principle Palace and on the way leading to the Congressional House the gardens of the one together with the [[park]] and other improvement on the dependency are connected with the publique [[walk]] and [[avenue]] to the Congress house in a manner as most [must] form a whole as grand as it will be agreeable and convenient to the whole city which form [from] the distribution of the local [locale] will have an early access to this place of general resort and all along side of which may be placed play houses, room of assembly, accademies and all such sort of places as may be attractive to the learned and afford diversion to the idle." [Fig. 5] [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to History]]
* [[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'EnfantL’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], August 19, 1791 , describing his plans for Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 157) <ref name=">Caemmerer 1950">, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:"The “The grand [[avenue]] connecting the palace and the Federal House will be magnificent, with the water of the [[cascade]] [falling] to the [[canal]] which will extend to the Potomac; as also the several [[square]]s which are intended for the Judiciary Courts, the National Bank, the grand Church, the play house, markets and exchange, offering a variety of situations unparallelled for beauty, suitable for every purpose, and in every point convenient, calculated to command the highest price at a sale."
[[File:1134.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Facsimile reproduction of Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's L’Enfant’s ''Plan of the City intended for the Permanent Seat of the Government of the United States'', made in 1887.]]* <div id="LEnfant_Grand"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant|L'EnfantL’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], January 4, 1792, from notes on "Plan “Plan of the City" City” describing Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 163–65), <ref name="Caemmerer_1950">Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to history]]
:“F. Grand [[Cascade]], formed of water from the sources of the Tiber.
:"F“G. Grand Public [[Cascadewalk]], formed being a square of water from 1200 feet, through which carriages may ascend to the sources upper [[Square]] of the TiberFederal House.
:"G“H. Public Grand [[walkAvenue]], being 400 feet in breadth, and about a square of 1200 feetmile in length, bordered with gardens, through which carriages may ascend to ending in a [[slope]] from the upper houses on each side. This [[SquareAvenue]] of leads to Monument A and connects the Congress Garden with the Federal House.
:"H“I. Grand President’s [[Avenuepark]], 400 feet in breadth, and about a mile in length, bordered with gardens, ending in a [[terrace/slope|slope]] from the houses on each side. This [[Avenue]] leads to Monument A and connects the Congress Garden with the
:"I“K. President's well-improved field. . . .” [Fig. 6] :[[park#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to History]] and the"
:"K. well-improved field. . . ." [Fig. 6]
*[[Robert Mills]], c. 1804, describing the National Mall (quoted in Gallagher 1935: 1927)<ref>H. M. Pierce Gallagher, ''Robert Mills, Architect of the Washington Monument, 1781&ndash;1855'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1935), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GC3NPRZJ view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“It is a most commanding and beautiful [[Robert Millsprospect]], c. 1804variegated with [[wood]]s, describing the National Mall (quoted in Gallagher 1935: 1927) <ref>H. M. Pierce Gallaghercleared land, ''Robert Millsgentle [[mount]]s and vales, Architect and the waters of the Washington Monument, 1781-1855'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1935), Potomac and Tiber Rivers in the distant [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GC3NPRZJ view on Zotero]]; while there is revealed a glimpse of the navy yard where eight frigates of the United States Navy lie in mooring.</ref>
: "It is a most commanding and beautiful [[prospect]], variegated with [[wood]]s, cleared land, gentle [[mount]]s and vales, and the waters of the Potomac and Tiber Rivers in the distant [[view]]; while there is revealed a glimpse of the [[navy yard]] where eight frigates of the United States Navy lie in mooring."
*Anonymous, January 2, 1808, describing in the ''Washington Expositor'' the National Mall, Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 99–100)<ref>O’Malley 1989, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJ3JTTJB view on Zotero].</ref>
* Anonymous:“At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, January 2, 1808more beneficial to the poor citizens, describing than their culture in the ''Washington Expositor'' ordinary courses. . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample [[walk]]s open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the National Mallpublic, Washingtonit will give to the city, D.C. (quoted in O'Malley 1989: 99–100) <ref name="OMalley_1989">O'Malley 1989much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJ3JTTJB view on Zotero[promenade]]s, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places.</ref>
:"At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, more beneficial to the poor citizens, than their culture in the ordinary courses. . . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample [[walk]]s open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the public, it will give to the city, much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable [[promenade]]s, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places."
*Hunt, Henry, William P. Elliot, and William Thornton, 1826, describing the National Mall, Washington, DC (U.S. Congress, 19th Congress, 1st Session, House of Representatives, doc. 123, book 138)
* Hunt:“That, Henrywith a view to promote the public good, Wm. P. Elliotand to ornament and improve the [[public ground|public grounds]], they would recommend that the water of Tiber Creek be brought to the Capitol [[Square]]; and William Thornton, 1826after forming a reservoir, describing be carried in pipes to the National Mall[[Botanic Garden]], Washingtonand thrown up in a [[jet|jet d'eau]] of 30 or 40 feet high, Dand then be used in watering the surrounding grounds.C. (U.S. CongressThat a [[wall]] five feet high, 19th Congresswith a stone coping, 1st Sessionbe put round the ground appropriated for a [[Botanic Garden]]; and that suitable buildings be erected, House of Representativesand the Garden be properly laid out, and cultivated as a National Garden; to effect which important national objects, a sum not exceeding 30, doc000 dollars will be required. 123, book 138)
:"That, with a view to promote the public good, and to ornament and improve the [[public ground|public grounds]], they would recommend that the water of Tiber Creek be brought to the Capitol [[Square]]; and, after forming a reservoir, be carried in pipes to the [[Botanic Garden]], and thrown up in a [[jet|jet d'eau]] of 30 or 40 feet high, and then be used in watering the surrounding grounds. That a [[wall]] five feet high, with a stone coping, be put round the ground appropriated for a [[Botanic Garden]]; and that suitable buildings be erected, and the Garden be properly laid out, and cultivated as a National Garden; to effect which important national objects, a sum not exceeding 30,000 dollars will be required."
*Commissioner of Public Buildings, June 9, 1827, describing the [[Columbian Institute]], Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 133)<ref>O’Malley 1989, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJ3JTTJB view on Zotero].</ref>
* Commissioner :“The new section of Public Buildings, June 9, 1827, describing the Washington [[Columbian InstituteCanal]]was laid out along a line drawn through the middle of the Capitol and of the Mall. The pathway, Washington[[canal]] and [[plantation]] in the garden do not coincide with this line, D.Cbut diverge from it at an acute angle. (quoted in O'Malley 1989: 133) <ref name="OMalley_1989"></ref>
:"The new section of the Washington [[Canal]] was laid out along a line drawn through the middle of the Capitol and of the Mall. The pathway, [[canal]] and [[plantation]] in the garden do not coincide with this line, but diverge from it at an acute angle."
*Bulfinch, Charles, January 21, 1829, proposal to the House Committee on Public Buildings regarding the National Mall, Washington, DC (quoted in Rathburn 1917: 49)<ref>Richard Rathburn, “The Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences,” ''United States National Museum’s Bulletin'' 101 (1917): 45–46. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VKURU987 view on Zotero]</ref>
* :“The Capitol being now finished with the exception of these particular objects, I beg leave to suggest that the [[Charles Bulfinchpublic ground|Bulfinch, Charlespublic grounds]], January 21, 1829, proposal immediately adjacent should conform in some degree to the House Committee on Public Buildings regarding the National Mall, Washington, D.C. (quoted in Rathburn 1917: 49) <ref>Richard Rathburn, "The Columbian Institute for importance and high finish of the Promotion of Arts and Sciences," ''United States National Museum’s Bulletin'' 101 (1917): 45–46building. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VKURU987 view on Zotero]</ref>
:"The [[United States Capitol|Capitol]] being now finished with the exception of these particular objects, I beg leave to suggest that the [[public ground|public grounds]] immediately adjacent should conform in some degree to the importance and high finish of the building."
*[[Robert Mills|Mills, Robert]], c. 1841, in a letter to Robert Dale Owen, describing the proposed Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (Scott, ed., 1990: n.p.)<ref>Pamela Scott, ''The Papers of Robert Mills'' (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1990), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CEBJWW8 view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“Three spacious [[Robert Mills|Mills, Robertavenue]], c. 1841, in a letter to Robert Dale Owen, describing the proposed [[Smithsonian Institution]], Washington, D.C. s (Scott, ed., 1990: n.p.) <ref name="Scott_1990">Pamela Scott, ''The Papers of Robert Mills'' (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1990the city)center within these grounds, which at some future day when improved will form three interesting [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CEBJWW8 view on Zoterovista]]s.</ref>
:"Three spacious [[avenue]]s (of the city) center within these grounds, which at some future day when improved will form three interesting [[vista]]s."
*[[Robert Mills|Mills, Robert]], February 23?, 1841, in a letter to Joel R. Poinsett, describing his design for the National Mall, Washington, DC (Scott, ed., 1990: n.p.)<ref> Scott 1990, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CEBJWW8 view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“Agreeably to your requisition to prepare a plan of improvement to that part of the [[Robert Mills|Mills, RobertMall]], February 23?, 1841, in lying between 7th and 12th Street West for a letter to Joel R[[botanic garden]] . Poinsett, describing his design for the National Mall, Washington, D.C. (Scott, edI have the honor to submit the following Report., 1990: n.p.) <ref name="Scott_1990"></ref>
:"Agreeably to your requisition to prepare “Drawing No. 1 presents a general plan of improvement to that part of the entire [[Mall]] lying between 7th and 12th Street West , including that annexed to the President’s house, with the particular improvement proposed of that part intended for a [[botanic garden]] . . . I have the honor to submit the following ReportInstitution and its objects. . . [<span id="Fig_3_cite"></span>[[#Fig_3|See Fig.3]]]
:"Drawing No. 1 presents a general plan “The relative position of the Capitol, President’s House, and other public buildings are laid down, as also the position of the entire proposed buildings for the Institution; the adjacent streets and [[Mallavenue]]s are also shown, including that annexed to with the line of the [[White House|President's houseCanal]]which courses through the City, with at the foot of the Capitol hill to the Eastern Branch near the particular improvement proposed Navy Yard, thus making of that part intended for the Institution and its objects.south western section, a complete island...[<span id="Fig_3_cite"></span>[[#Fig_3|See Fig. 3]]]
:"The relative position of the [[United States Capitol|Capitol]]“The principle upon which this plan is founded is two fold, one is to provide suitable space for a [[White House|President's HouseBotanic garden]], and the other public buildings are laid downto provide locations for subjects allied to agriculture, as also the position propagation of the proposed buildings for the Institution; the adjacent streets useful and ornamental trees native and [[avenue]]s are also shownforeign, with the line provision of sites for the [[Canal]] which courses through the City, at the foot erection of suitable buildings to accommodate the Capitol hill various subjects to be lectured on and taught in the Eastern Branch near the [[Navy Yard]], thus making of the south western section, a complete island.Institution...
:"The principle upon which this plan is founded is two fold, one is to provide suitable space for a “The [[Botanic garden]], is laid out in the other to provide locations for subjects allied centre fronting and opening to agriculture, the propagation south. On each side of useful this the grounds are laid out in serpentine [[walk]]s and ornamental trees native and foreign, the provision of sites in [[picturesque]] divisions forming [[plat]]s for the erection of suitable buildings to accommodate grouping the various subjects trees to be lectured on introduced and taught in creating shady [[walk]]s for those visiting the Institution. establishments. . .
:"The [[Botanic garden]] “A range of trees is laid out in the centre fronting and opening proposed to the south. On each side surround three sides of this the grounds are laid out in serpentine [[walksquare]]s and in [[picturesque]] divisions forming [[plat]]s for grouping which is intended to be laid open by an iron or other railing, the various trees north side to be introduced enclosed with a high brick wall to serve as a shelter and creating shady to secure the various [[walkhothouse|hot houses]]s for those visiting the establishments. . . and other buildings of inferior character.
:"A range of trees “The main building for the Institution is proposed to surround three sides located about 300 feet south of the [[squarewall]] fronting the [[Botanic garden]] , from which it is intended to be laid open separated by an iron or other railinga circular road, in the north side to centre of which is a [[fountain]] of water from the [[basin]] of which pipes are led underground thro’ the [[walk]]s of the garden, for irrigating the same at pleasure, the [[fountain]]s may be enclosed with a high brick wall to serve as a shelter and to secure supplied from the [[canal]] flowing near the various north [[hothouse|hot houseswall]] and other buildings of inferior characterinclosure. . .
:"The main building for the Institution is located about 300 feet south “By means of the Groups and [[wallvista]] fronting the s of trees, [[Botanic gardenpicturesque]], from which it is separated by a circular road, in the centre of which is a [[fountainview]] s may be obtained of water from the [[basin]] various buildings and other such objects as may be of a monumental character and thus there would be an attraction produced which pipes are led underground thro’ the [[walk]]s would draw many of our citizens and strangers to partake of the garden, for irrigating the same at pleasure, the [[fountain]]s may be supplied from the [[canal]] flowing near the north [[wall]] of inclosure...promenading here.
:"By means of Groups and [[vista]]s of trees, [[picturesque]] [[view]]s may be obtained of the various buildings and other such objects as may be of a monumental character and thus there would be an attraction produced which would draw many of our citizens and strangers to partake of the pleasure of promenading here."
*Mudd, Ignatius, 1849, describing the grounds of the United States Capitol and the reconstruction of the National Mall, Washington, DC (U.S. Congress, 31st Congress, 1st Session, doc. 30)
* Mudd, Ignatius, 1849, describing :“A disposition on the grounds part of Congress to make the [[United States Capitolpublic ground|public grounds]] what they were originally designed to be. . . An ornament and attraction to the reconstruction capital of the National Mall, Washington, D.C. (U.S. Congress, 31st Congress, 1st Session, docnation. 30)
:"A disposition on the part of Congress to make the [[public ground|public grounds]] what they were originally designed to be. . . . An ornament and attraction to the capital of the nation."
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], December, 1851, “The State and Prospects of Horticulture” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 540&ndash;41)<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “The State and Prospects of Horticulture,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 12 (December 1851): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XR68IJEG view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“The plan [for a [[public ground]] in Washington] embraces four or five miles of carriage-[[A. J. Downing|Downingdrive]]&mdash;[[walk]]s for pedestrians&mdash;[[pond]]s of water, A. J.[[fountain]], December, 1851, "The State s and Prospects [[statue]]s&mdash;[[picturesque]] groupings of Horticulture" (''Horticulturist'' 6: 540–41) <ref>Andrew Jackson Downingtrees and shrubs, "The State and Prospects a complete collection of Horticultureall the trees that belong to North America. It will," ''The Horticulturist if carried out as it has been undertaken, undoubtedly give a great impetus to the popular taste in [[landscape gardening|landscape-gardening]] and Journal the culture of Rural Art ornamental trees; and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 12 (December 1851): 537–41, as the climate of Washington is one peculiarly adapted to this purpose—this national [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XR68IJEG view on Zoteropark]]may be made a sylvan museum such as it would be difficult to equal in beauty and variety in any part of the world.</ref>
:"The plan [for a [[public ground]] in Washington] embraces four or five miles of carriage-[[drive]]&mdash;[[walk]]s for pedestrians&mdash;[[pond]]s of water, [[fountain]]s and [[statue]]s&mdash;[[picturesque]] groupings of trees and shrubs, and a complete collection of all the trees that belong to North America. It will, if carried out as it has been undertaken, undoubtedly give a great impetus to the popular taste in [[landscape gardening|landscape-gardening]] and the culture of ornamental trees; and as the climate of Washington is one peculiarly adapted to this purpose—this national [[park]] may be made a sylvan museum such as it would be difficult to equal in beauty and variety in any part of the world."
[[File:0023.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.]]
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1851, describing plans for improving the [[public ground|public grounds]] in Washington, DC (quoted in Washburn 1967: 54&ndash;55)<ref>Wilcomb E. Washburn, “Vision of Life for the Mall,” ''AIA Journal'' 47, no. 3 (March 1967): 52&ndash;59. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TA59MHC7 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:0023.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, A. J. Downing, ''“My object in this Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.]]* <div id="Downing"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1851, describing plans for improving the [[public ground|public grounds]] in Washington, D.C. (quoted in Washburn 1967: 54has been three-55), <ref>Wilcomb E. Washburn, "Vision of Life for the Mall," ''AIA Journal'' 47, no. 3 (March 1967): 52–59. [httpsfold://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TA59MHC7 view on Zotero]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to history]]
:"My object “1st: To form a national [[Park]], which should be an ornament to the Capital of the United States; 2nd: To give an example of the [[natural style]] of [[landscape gardening|Landscape Gardening]] which may have an influence on the general taste of the Country; 3rd: To form a collection of all the trees that will grown in this Plan has been three-fold:the climate of Washington, and, by having these trees plainly labelled with their popular and scientific names, to form a public museum of living trees and shrubs where every person visiting Washington could become familiar with the habits and growth of all the hardy trees. [Fig. 7]
:"1st: To form a national “The [[Parkpublic ground|Public Grounds]], which should now to be an ornament to the Capital of the United States; 2nd: To give an example of the [[natural style]] of [[landscape gardening|Landscape Gardening]] which may improved I have an influence on the general taste of the Country; 3rd: To form a collection of all the trees that will grown in the climate of Washington, and, by having these trees plainly labelled with their popular and scientific names, arranged so as to form a public museum of living trees six different and shrubs where every person visiting Washington could become familiar with the habits and growth of all the hardy trees. [Figdistinct scenes: viz. 7]
:"“1st: The President’s [[public ground|Public GroundsPark]] now to be improved I have arranged so as to form six different and distinct scenes: vizor Parade.
:"1st: The President'“This comprises the open Ground directly south of the President’s House. Adopting suggestions made me at Washington I propose to keep the large area of this ground open, as a place for parade or military reviews, as well as public festivities or celebrations. A circular carriage [[drive]] 40 feet wide and nearly a mile long shaded by an [[avenue]] of Elms, surrounds the Parade, while a series of foot-paths, 10 feet wide, winding through [[thicket]]s of trees and shrubs, forms the boundary to this [[park]], and would make an agreeable shaded [Park[promenade]] or Paradefor pedestrians.
:"This comprises “I propose to take down the present small stone [[gate]]s to the President’s Grounds, and place at the open Ground directly south end of the Pennsylvania Avenue a large and handsome [[White Housearch|President’s HouseArchway]]. Adopting suggestions made me at Washington I propose of marble, which shall not only form the main entrance from the City to keep the large area whole of the proposed new Grounds, but shall also be one of the principal Architectural ornaments of the city; inside of this ground open, as a place for parade or military reviews, as well as public festivities or celebrations. A circular carriage [[drivearch]] 40 feet wide and nearly -way is a mile long shaded by an semicircle with three [[avenuegate]] s commanding three carriage roads. Two of Elms, surrounds these lead into the Paradeor President’s [[Park]], while the third is a series of footprivate carriage-paths, 10 feet wide, winding through [[thicketdrive]]s of trees and shrubs, forms into the boundary to President’s grounds; this [[parkgate]]should be protected by a Porter’s lodge, and would make an agreeable shaded [[promenade]] for pedestriansshould only be open on reception days, thus making the President’s grounds on this side of the house quite private at all other times. . .
:"I propose to take down the present small stone [[gate]]s to the President's Grounds, and place at the end of Pennsylvania Avenue a large and handsome [[arch|Archway]] of marble, which shall not only form the main entrance from the City to the whole of the proposed new Grounds, but shall also be one of the principal Architectural ornaments of the city; inside of this [[arch]]-way is a semicircle with three [[gate]]s commanding three carriage roads. Two of these lead into the Parade or President's “2nd: Monument [[Park]], the third is a private carriage-[[drive]] into the President's grounds; this [[gate]] should be protected by a Porter’s lodge, and should only be open on reception days, thus making the President’s grounds on this side of the house quite private at all other times. . . .
:"2nd: “This comprises the fine [[plot]] of ground surrounding the [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington monument]] and bordered by the Potomac. To reach it from the President’s [[Park]] I propose to cross the [[canal]] by a wire suspension [[bridge]], sufficiently strong for carriages, which would permit vessels of moderate size to pass under it, and would be an ornamental feature in the grounds. I propose to plant Monument [[Park]]wholly with ''American'' trees, of large growth, disposed in open groups, so as to al[l]ow of fine [[vista]]s of the Potomac river. . .
:"This comprises the fine [[plot]] of ground surrounding the [[Washington monument]] and bordered by the Potomac. To reach it from the President’s “4th: Smithsonian [[Park]] I propose to cross the or [[canal]] by a wire suspension [[bridge]], sufficiently strong for carriages, which would permit vessels of moderate size to pass under it, and would be an ornamental feature in the grounds. I propose to plant Monument [[Park]] wholly with ''American'' trees, of large growth, disposed in open groups, so as to al[l]ow of fine [[vistapleasure ground|Pleasure Grounds]]s of the Potomac river. . . .
:"4th: “An arrangement of choice trees in the [[Smithsonian Institution|Smithsonian]] [[Park]] or [[pleasure ground|Pleasure Groundsnatural style]], the plots near the Institution would be thickly planted with the rarest trees and shrubs, to give greater seclusion and beauty to its immediate precincts.
:"An arrangement of choice trees in the “5th: [[natural styleFountain]], the plots near the [[Smithsonian Institution|InstitutionPark]] would be thickly planted with the rarest trees and shrubs, to give greater seclusion and beauty to its immediate precincts.
:"5th: “This [[Park]] would be chiefly remarkable for its water features. The [[Fountain]] would be supplied from a [[basin]] in the Capitol. The [[pond]] or [[lake]] might either be formed from the overflow of this [[Parkfountain]], or from a filtering drain from the [[canal]]. The earth that would be excavated to form this [[pond]]is needed to fill up low places now existing in this portion of the grounds.
:"This [[Park]] would be chiefly remarkable for its water features. The [[Fountain]] would be supplied from a [[basin]] in the Capitol. The [[pond]] or [[lake]] might either be formed from the overflow of this [[fountain]], or from a filtering drain from the [[canal]]. “6th: The earth that would be excavated to form this [[pondBotanic Garden]] is needed to fill up low places now existing in this portion of the grounds.
:"6th: The “This is the spot already selected for this purpose and containing three [[Botanic Gardengreenhouse|green-houses]]. It will probably at some future time, be filled with a collection of hardy plants. I have only shown how the carriage-[[drive]] should pass through it (Crossing the [[canal]] again here) and making the exit by a large [[gateway]] opposite the middle [[gate]] of the Capitol Grounds. . .
:"This is the spot already selected for this purpose and containing three [[greenhouse|green-houses]]. It will probably at some future time“The pleasing natural undulations of surface, where they occur, I propose to retain, be filled with instead of expending money in reducing them to a collection level. The surface of hardy plants. I have only shown how the carriage-[[drivePark]] s, generally, should pass through it (Crossing the be kept in grass or [[canallawn]] again here) , and making mown by the exit ''mowing machine'' used in England, by which, with a large [[gateway]] opposite man and horse, the middle [[gate]] labor of the Capitol Grounds. six men can be done in one day. . .
:"The pleasing natural undulations of surface“A national [[Park]] like this, laid out and planted in a thorough manner, would exercise as much influence on the public taste as [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] near Boston, has done. Though only twenty years have elapsed since that spot was laid out, the lesson there taught has been so largely influential that at the present moment the United States, where while they occurhave no public [[park]]s, are acknowledged to possess the finest rural [[cemetery|cemeteries]] in the world. The [[public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington treated in the manner I propose to retainhave here suggested, instead would undoubtedly become a Public School of expending money Instruction in reducing them every thing that relates to a level. The surface the tasteful arrangement of the [[Parkpark]]sand grounds, generallyand the growth and culture of trees, should while they would serve, more than anything else that could be kept in grass or devised, to embellish and give interest to the Capital. The straight lines and broad [[lawnAvenue]], s of the streets of Washington would be pleasantly relieved and mown contrasted by the ''mowing machine'' used beauty of curved lines and natural groups of trees in Englandthe various [[park]]s. By its numerous public buildings and broad [[Avenue]]s, by whichWashington will one day command the attention of every stranger, with a man and horseif its un-improved [[public ground|public grounds]] are tastefully improved they will form the most perfect background or setting to the City, the labor concealing many of six men can be done in one day. . . its defects and heightening all its beauties.” [[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
:"A national [[Park]] like this, laid out and planted in a thorough manner, would exercise as much influence on the public taste as [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] near Boston, has done. Though only twenty years have elapsed since that spot was laid out, the lesson there taught has been so largely influential that at the present moment the United States, while they have no public [[park]]s, are acknowledged to possess the finest rural [[cemetery|cemeteries]] in the world. The [[public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington treated in the manner I have here suggested, would undoubtedly become a Public School of Instruction in every thing that relates to the tasteful arrangement of [[park]]s and grounds, and the growth and culture of trees, while they would serve, more than anything else that could be devised, to embellish and give interest to the Capital. The straight lines and broad [[Avenue]]s of the streets of Washington would be pleasantly relieved and contrasted by the beauty of curved lines and natural groups of trees in the various [[park]]s. By its numerous public buildings and broad [[Avenue]]s, Washington will one day command the attention of every stranger, and if its un-improved [[public ground|public grounds]] are tastefully improved they will form the most perfect background or setting to the City, concealing many of its defects and heightening all its beauties.”<hr>
==Images==
Image:0071.jpg|Thomas Jefferson, Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.
Image:2095.jpg|Pierre-Charles L'EnfantL’Enfant, ''Plan of the city intended for the permanent [[seat ]] of the government of t[he] United States'', 1791.
Image:1134.jpg|Facsimile reproduction of Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's L’Enfant’s ''Plan of the City intended for the Permanent [[Seat ]] of the Government of the United States'', made in 1887.
Image:0414.jpg|Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''Plan of the west end of the public appropriation in the city of Washington, called the Mall, as proposed to be arranged for the site of the university'', 1816.
Image:0033.jpg|Robert Mills, ''Plan of the Mall'', Washington, D.C.DC, 1841.
Image:1835.jpg|Robert Mills, ''Sketch of the [[Washington_Monument_(Washington Nat'l,_DC)|Washington Nat’l. Monumt.]]'', 1845.
Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:0428.jpg|Edward Weber, ''[[View ]] of Washington City and Georgetown'' [detail], 1849.
Image:0025.jpg|Robert P. Smith, ''[[View ]] of Washington'', c. 1850.
Image:0111.jpg|Seth Eastman, ''[[Washington_Monument_(Washington's ,_DC)|Washington’s Monument]], Under Construction'', November 16, 1851.
Image:1967.jpg|A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington'', 1851.
Image:0023.jpg|A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_garden/Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.
Image:0042.jpg|Benjamin Franklin Smith, Jr., ''Washington, D.C. DC with projected improvements'', c. 1852.</gallery>
</galleryhr>
==Other Resources==
[http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan/History.html National Mall Plan (National Park Service)]
 
<hr>
==Notes==
<references/>
<hr> [[Category: SitesPlaces]]

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