[[File:1165.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. #, William Williams, ''Deborah Hall'', 1766.]]
[[File:1695.jpg|thumb|Fig. #, Twelve designs in the Dutch style, in [[J. C. Loudon]], ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1834), p. 62, figs. 41 and 42.]]
The term Dutch style was used in early America to deﬁne an [[ancient style|ancient]] or [[geometric style]] of garden design that predated the [[modern style|modern]] or [[natural style]] of design. It referred, for the most part, to the late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century classical [[canal]] garden, which became popular in England under the reign of William and Mary and in America in the early colonial period in both Dutch and English settlements. These gardens were laid out with parallel axes, complex [[parterre]]s, Italo-French [[fountain]]s and sculpture, and geometrical topiary [Fig. 1]. <ref>Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe et al., eds., ''The Oxford Companion to Gardens'' (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 392–93, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S392BPJ8 view on Zotero]. For a history of Dutch Gardens, see also John Dixon Hunt and Erik de Jong, eds., “The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 8, nos. 2–3 (April–September 1988): 1–341, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MW8S5MIF view on Zotero].</ref> In ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), [[J. C. Loudon]] provided a dozen plans for [[parterre]]s in the Dutch style that exempliﬁed its compartmentalized character [Fig. 2]. The Castello plan of New Amsterdam (1660) depicts, in a highly stylized manner, the type of garden called the Dutch style [Fig. 3].
[[File:0250.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. #, Anonymous, The Castello Plan of New York ("Afbeeldinge Van de Stadt Amsterdam in Nieuw Neederlandt"), 1660.]]
[[File:1696.jpg|thumb|Fig. #, Rustic Dutch fountain, in [[J. C. Loudon]], ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1834), p. 63, fig. 43.]]
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design