==History==
[[File:1057.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Hannah Cohoon, "A “A Bower of Mulberry Trees," September 13, 1854.]]
[[File:1270.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, Solomon Drowne, ''[[Botanic Garden]], 1818'', 1818.]]In eighteenth18th- and nineteenth19th-century landscape-design vocabulary, the term bower was closely related to [[arbor]]. The two features held several common characteristics: the use of intertwined trees and other vegetation, the creation of shaded areas, and their siting at the end of [[walk]]s. Further refinement of this definition is complicated by the lack of explicit descriptive language in related accounts. William Faux’s 1819 description of Nathaniel Russell’s garden in Charleston, in which he simply notes bowers of flowering and fruit trees, or C. M. Hovey’s brief reference, in 1840, to a shady bower at James Arnold’s estate in New Bedford, Mass.Massachusetts, each represents this problem. In addition, a bower had similar functions to an [[arbor]], such as serving as an outdoor living or dining space.
Nonetheless, some writers made distinctions between bowers and [[arbor]]s. [[Noah Webster]], for example, in 1828 specified that a bower had a centralized plan—round or [[square]]—whereas an [[arbor]] was long in plan and arched in cross-section. Rev. [[Manasseh Cutler’s Cutler|Manasseh Cutler's]] mention in 1787 of encircled bowers preceded this distinction. It should be noted, however, that this rule was not always followed. For example, [[A. J. Downing]] labeled many structures as [[arbor]]s that were either round or [[square]] in form, and Fortescue Cuming, in 1810, described a “long frame bowery.” James E. Teschemacher’s 1835 definition of an [[arbor]] as an “artificial bower” indicated that for him the distinction was to be made between the man-made [[arbor]] and the natural bower.
In general, three different types of bowers can be identified. The first was composed of planted vegetation manipulated into a covered shelter, as described in 1755 by Samuel Johnson. An example of this type is a Shaker illustration of 1854 of a bower constructed of intertwined trees and used as a dining setting [Fig. 1]. <ref>This image may allude to feast grounds built by Shaker communities at mid-century. For more about Shaker imagery, see Sally M. Promey, ''Spiritual Spectacles: Vision and Image in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Shakerism'' (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JMPTCMS8 view on Zotero].]</ref> A bower described in the ''Virginia Argus'' (1799) as suitable “for the accommodation of company” may have been similar in form and size to this Shaker bower.
[[File:0579.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Lewis Miller, "A “A narrow [[View/Vista|vista ]] carpeted with rich green grass . . . on each side shrinks the bowery shade . . . " [detail], in ''Orbis Pictus'' (c. 1849), p. 100]][[File: 0323.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, [[William Russell Birch]], "View from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylvna the residence of Mr W. Birch," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 81, pl. 20. ]]The second type was a built structure over which vegetation was trained. William Byrd II’s 1728 description of a habitation of a“Marooner” a “Marooner” is an early instance of a bower being defined as a constructed shelter. Teschemacher gives a detailed account (1835) of the construction of a nineteenth19th-century bower, one in which iron [[arch]]es were covered with climbing vines. In 1806, [[Bernard M’Mahon ]] specified that bowers were “light ornamental buildings” suitable for terminating garden [[walk]]s [Fig. 2] or complementing open grassy areas in the garden. William Dickinson Martin, in 1809, referred to a “neatly built” bower and William Bailey Lang in 1845 noted a rustic bower that had a shingle roof, with a corner post of rough cedar, “to which that hardy-plant, the Virginia creeper, has been trained.” [[A. J. Downing]] also advised in 1848 that such bowers could be “easily and economically constructed,” an idea for rustic buildings that was shared by [[Bernard M’Mahon|M’Mahon ]] (1806).
An important difference, however, marks [[Bernard M'Mahon|M’Mahon’s ]] and [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing’s ]] references to constructed bowers. [[Bernard M'Mahon|M’Mahon ]] argued that such features were appropriate for “spacious pleasure grounds,” while Downing limited their use to more “humble and simple cottage grounds, the rural [[walk]]s of the [[ferme ornée]], and the modest garden of the suburban amateur.” [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing’s ]] sentiments reflect the increasing attention paid to style and decorum by nineteenth19th-century treatise writers and suggest that bowers were associated with the [[rustic-style]] gardens that doubled as both aesthetic and utilitarian spaces. Such distinctions were not without precedent: In 1804 [[Thomas Jefferson ]] commented that bowers were more suitable for a [[kitchen garden]] than for [[pleasure ground]]s.
[[File: 0323.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 4, William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylvna the residence of Mr W. Birch,” 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 81, pl. 20. ]]The third type of bower, a naturally occurring and seemingly unmanipulated collection of trees and [[shrub]]s creating a shady enclave or space, is well documented in both descriptions and images of American gardens. For example, Lewis Miller’s mid-nineteenth 19th century poem about “bowery shade” is illustrated with an image of two girls nestled underneath the curving branches of a small tree, which constitutes such a bower [Fig. 3]. The “Elysian Bower” at Springland, near Bristol, Pa.Pennsylvania, illustrated in an 1808 view, exemplifies the application of this term to a secluded gathering of shade trees [Fig. 4].
As a final note, one of [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]]’s definitions for bower was for “a country [[seat]]; a cottage.” To date, no example of this use of bower has been found. This absence confirms the observation that although treatise writers and lexicographers set forth specific definitions of bower, observers of the American landscape tended to use the term to mean simply a specific natural or artificially constructed shady space occurring either in a garden or landscape.
-- ''Anne L. Helmreich'' <hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
* Byrd, William, II, 1728, describing the border of Virginia and North Carolina (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 41) <ref name="Lounsbury">Carl R. Lounsbury, ed., ''An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UK5TCUQQ view on Zotero].</ref>
: “not “. . . not far from the Inlet, dwelt a Marooner, that Modestly call’d himself a Hermit, tho’ he forfeited that Name by Suffering a wanton Female to cohabit with Him. His Habitation was a '''Bower''', cover’d with Bark after the Indian Fashion, which in that mild Situation protected him pretty well from the Weather.”
* [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], April 9 April , 1786, describing the gardens at Blenheim Palace, estate of the Duke of Marlborough, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (1944: 114) <ref>Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', ed. by Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “Rosamund’s '''bower''' was near where is now a little [[grove]], about two hundred yards from the palace. The well is near where the '''bower''' was.”
* [[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Rev. Manasseh]], July 14 July , 1787, describing [[Gray's Garden|Gray’s Tavern]], Philadelphia, Pa. PA (1987: 1:275) <ref>William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.'' (Athens, OhioOH: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “We then rambled over the Gardens, which are large—seemed to be in a number of detached areas, all different in size and form. The [[alley]]s were none of them straight, nor were there any two alike. At every end, side, and corner, there were [[Summerhouse|''summer-houses'']], [[arbor]]s covered with vines or flowers, or shady '''bowers''' encircled with trees and flowering [[shrub]]s, each of which was formed in a different taste.”
* Anonymous, June 7 June , 1799, describing a property for sale near Richmond, Va. VA (''Virginia Argus'')
: “Valuable Property FOR Sale at the [[Bowling Green]], near Richmond, that much frequented Tavern and [[public Garden]]. . . . The garden is very extensive . . . with [[Summer House]]s, and '''bowers''' for the accommodation of company.”
* [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation ]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, Va. VA (quoted in Nichols and Griswold 1978: 110–11) <ref>Frederick Doveton Nichols and Ralph E. Griswold, ''Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect'' (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1978), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RUZC4Q3D view on Zotero]. </ref>
: “At the Rocks . . . a turning Tuscan temple . . . proportions of Pantheon, . . . at the Point, . . . build Demosthenes’s lantern. . . . The [[kitchen garden]] is not the place for ornaments of this kind. '''bowers''' and treillages suit that better, & these [[temple]]s will be better disposed in the [[pleasure ground]]s.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, c. 1809, describing the garden of a tavern keeper in Salisbury, N.C. NC (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 41) <ref name="Lounsbury"></ref>
: “In the centre of the Garden . . . was a handsome '''bower''', neatly built, & adorned with English Honey Suckle, Woodbine & a few Jessamine.”
* Cuming, Fortescue, 1810, describing Canonsburgh, Pa. PA (p. quoted in Cummings 1949: 217, 227) <ref name="Cumming">Richard O. Cummings, ''The American Ice Harvests: A Historical Study in Technology, 1800-19181800–1918'' (Berkeley, Calif.CA: University of California Press, 1949), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3WX5T2BF view on Zotero].</ref>
: “The most striking thing I saw here was my Landlord’s garden, which is both good and handsome, being laid out with taste, abounding in a variety of the best culinary vegetables, and having some very pleasant shady '''bowers''', where the student, or man of leisure, sheltered from the noonday sun, and inhaling the fragrance of the surrounding aromatick [''sic''] plants might luxuriantly roam into the realms of fancy.”
:“What adds to the beauty of Mr. Tannehill’s seat is, a handsome [[grove]] of about two acres of young black oaks, northwest of his dwelling, through the middle of which runs a long frame '''bowery''', on whose end fronting the road, is seen this motto, ‘''1808, Dedicated to Virtue, Liberty, and Independence’'' Here a portion of the citizens meet on each 4th of July, to hail with joyful hearts the day that gave birth to the liberties and happiness of their country.”
* Cuming, Fortescue, 1810, describing a seat in Pittsburgh, Pa. (p. 227) <ref name="Cumming"></ref>
: “What adds to the beauty of Mr. Tannehill’s seat is*Smith, Margaret Bayard, a handsome [[grove]] of about two acres of young black oaks1811, northwest of his dwellingdescribing Sidney, through the middle summer retreat of which runs a long frame '''bowery'''Margaret Bayard Smith, on whose end fronting the roadnear Washington, is seen this mottoDC (1906: 88)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''1808The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', Dedicated to Virtueed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, Liberty1906), and Independence’'' Here a portion of the citizens meet [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on each 4th of July, to hail with joyful hearts the day that gave birth to the liberties and happiness of their countryZotero].</ref>
:“When Mr. Tracy, (who was an important personage on the occasion) brought the cart to the door Lytleton and all the boys jump’d in it and went to the [[wood]]s for boughs. L. drove furiously along to the no small delight of the boys and soon return’d like the moving wood in Macbeth. The [[Piazza]] was soon transform’d into a '''bower''', —every hand was busy, —Mrs. Clay, Mr. Smith and all.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1811, describing Sidney, summer retreat of Margaret Bayard Smith, near Washington, D.C. (1906: 88) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
: “When Mr. Tracy*Wilson, Alexander, before 1813, (who was an important personage on the occasion) brought the cart to the door Lytleton and all the boys jump’d in it and went to the describing [[woodGray’s Garden]]s for boughs. L. drove furiously along to the no small delight of the boys and soon return’d like the moving wood , Philadelphia, PA (quoted in MacbethAdams 1976: 339)<ref>William Howard Adams, ed. The [[Piazza]] was soon transform’d into a , '''bower'The Eye of Thomas Jefferson''(Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, —every hand was busy1976), —Mrs[https://www. Clay, Mrzotero. Smith and allorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IWQT8BPV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“There market-maids in lovely row,
::With wallets white, were riding
:::home,
:“And thund’ring gigs, with powdered
:::beaux,
::Through Gray’s green festive
:::shade to roam.
:“Sweet flows the Schuylkill’s winding
:::tide
::By Bartram’s emblossomed
:::'''bowers'''.
:“Where nature sports in all her pride
::Of choicest plants and fruits and
:::flowers.”
* Wilson, Alexander, before 1813, describing Gray’s Garden, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Adams 1976: 339) <ref>William Howard Adams, ed., ''The Eye of Thomas Jefferson'' (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IWQT8BPV view on Zotero].</ref>
: “There market-maids in lovely row*Faux, ::With wallets whiteWilliam, were riding :::home1819, :“And thund’ring gigsdescribing the garden of Nathaniel Russell, with powdered :::beauxCharleston, ::Through Gray’s green festive :::shade to roam. :“Sweet flows the Schuylkill’s winding :::tide ::By Bartram’s emblossomed :::'''bowers'''. :“Where nature sports SC (quoted in all her pride ::Of choicest plants and fruits and ::Lounsbury 1994:flowers.” 41)<ref name="Lounsbury"></ref>
:“[An English visitor in Charleston] called on the venerable Nathaniel Russell, Esq., residing in a splendid mansion, surrounded by a [[wilderness]] of flowers and '''bowers''' of myrtles, oranges and lemons, smothered with fruit and flowers.”
* Faux, William, 1819, describing the garden of Nathaniel Russell, Charleston, S.C. (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 41) <ref name="Lounsbury"></ref>
: “[An English visitor in Charleston] called on the venerable Nathaniel Russell*du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, Esq.1828, residing in a splendid mansiondescribing Eleutherian Mills, surrounded by a [[wilderness]] estate of flowers Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, near Wilmington, DE (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 38)<ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie du Pont, A Young Lady in America: Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823–1833'bowers''' of myrtles(New York: Harry N. Abrams, oranges and lemons1987), smothered with fruit and flowers[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I thought of other Maydays; long past, when you and I were little children—of our [[walk]]s, and our plays—our '''bowers''', mudhouses, and forts, and the little fleet of boats we used to sail upon the [[pond]]—I could not help feeling sad when I thought of how we were changed—we, that once played together, walked together, studied our little lessons in partnership.”
* du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, 1828, describing Eleutherian Mills, estate of Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, near Wilmington, Del. (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 38) <ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie Du Pont, A Young Lady in America: Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823-1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
: “I thought of other Maydays; long past*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, when you and I were little children—of our describing [[walkLemon Hill]]s, and our plays—our '''bowers''', mudhouses, and forts, and the little fleet estate of boats we used to sail upon the [[pondHenry Pratt]]—I could not help feeling sad when I thought of how we were changed—we, that once played togetherPhiladelphia, walked togetherPA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, studied our little lessons “A View of Philadelphia in partnership1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C.Wailes of Natchez,''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July 1954), 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure [[grove]] & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous rout [''sic''], passing in view of the fish [[pond]]s, '''bowers''', rustic retreats, [[summer house]]s, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “But *Committee of the most enchanting Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing [[prospectLemon Hill]] is towards the grand pleasure , estate of [[groveHenry Pratt]] & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortunePhiladelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 432)<ref>James Boyd, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous rout [''sic''], passing in view A History of the fish [[pond]]sPennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827–1927'''bowers'''(Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, rustic retreats1929), [[summer househttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero]]s, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c.</ref>
:“There are some pretty '''bowers''', [[summer house]]s, [[grotto]]s and fish [[pond]]s in this garden—the latter well stored with gold and silver fish.”
* Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Boyd 1929: 432) <ref>James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827-1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero].</ref>
*Dearborn, H. A. S., 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Harris 1832: “There are some pretty 68)<ref>Thaddeus William Harris, '''bowers'A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832''(Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, [[summer house]]s1832), [[grottohttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero]]s and fish [[pond]]s in this garden—the latter well stored with gold and silver fish.</ref>
:“To those who mourn, what a consolation to visit the '''bower'''-sequestered monument of a much loved friend, under circumstances and with associations so favorably calculated to revive agreeable recollections of the past; and when those revolting ideas are excluded, which obtrude upon the mind, while standing in the usually dreary, desolate, and ruinous repositories of the dead.”
* Dearborn, H.A.S., 1832, describing Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Harris 1832: 68) <ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, Mass.: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “To those who mourn*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass., what a consolation to visit ” describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'bower'6: 364)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''-sequestered monument Magazine of a much loved friendHorticulture, Botany, under circumstances and with associations so favorably calculated to revive agreeable recollections of the past; All Useful Discoveries and when those revolting ideas are excluded, which obtrude upon the mind, while standing Improvements in the usually drearyRural Affairs'' 6, desolateno. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, and ruinous repositories of the dead[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady '''bowers''', and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic [[seat]]s were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
* Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, ‘Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.’, ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'', 6 (1840), 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero]. </ref>
[[File: “Continuing through 1783.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 5, William Bailey Lang, “Rustic Bower,” ''Views With Ground Plans, of the winding [[walkHighland Cottages at Roxbury'', 1845.]]s*Lang, William Bailey, 1845, describing a rustic bower in Butte, shady MA, in ''Views with Ground Plans'bowers'(1845: 18)<ref>William Bailey Lang, ''Views with Ground Plans, of the Highlands Cottages at Roxbury'' (Boston: L. H. Bridgham and umbrageous retreatsH. E. Felch, through which rustic [[seat]]s were placed1845), we arrived at the shell [[grotto]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7KBFF9TR view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Rustic '''Bower'''.—Shingle roof, painted black. The corner post of the rough cedder, to which that hardy-plant, the Virginia creeper, has been trained.” [Fig. 5]
* Lang, William Bailey, 1845, describing a rustic bower in Butte, Mass. (p. 18) <ref>William Bailey Lang, ''Views with Ground Plans, of the Highlands Cottages at Roxbury'' (Boston: L. H. Bridgham and H. E. Felch, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7KBFF9TR view on Zotero].</ref>
: “The Rustic '''Bower'''.—Shingle roof*Earle, painted black. The corner post of the rough cedderPliny, to which that hardy-plantJanuary 1848, describing Bloomingdale Asylum for the Virginia creeperInsane, New York, has been trained.” [Fig. 5] NY (''Journal of Medicine'' 10: 63)
:“''Airing Courts, or [[Yard|Yards]]''.—There are three of these courts for the men, and four for the women. They are, with one exception, well shaded with trees, and three of them have large '''bowers''' covered with roofs, and furnished with seats for all the patients admitted into the courts.”
* Earle, Pliny, January 1848, describing Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, N.Y. (''Journal of Medicine'' 10: 63)
: “''Airing Courts*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, or Yards''.—There are three describing the residence of these courts for the menJames Arnold, New Bedford, and four for the womenMA (1849; repr. They are, with one exception, well shaded with trees1991: 57)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and three Practice of them have large Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'''bowers''' covered with roofs, 4th ed. (1849; repr. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and furnished with seats for all the patients admitted into the courtsCollection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In the environs of New Bedford are many beautiful residences. Among these, we desire particularly to notice the residence of James Arnold, Esq. There is scarcely a small place in New England, where the [[Pleasure ground|''pleasure-grounds'']] are so full of variety, and in such perfect order and keeping, as at this charming spot; and its winding [[walk]]s, open bits of [[lawn]], [[shrub]]s and plants grouped on turf, shady '''bowers''', and rustic [[seat]]s, all most agreeably combined, render this a very interesting and instructive suburban [[seat]].”
* [[Downing, A. J.]], 1849, describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (p. 57) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th edn (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “In the environs of New Bedford are many beautiful residences. Among these, we desire particularly to notice the residence of James Arnold, Esq. There is scarcely a small place in New England, where the ''pleasure-grounds'' are so full of variety, and in such perfect order and keeping, as at this charming spot; and its winding [[walk]]s, open bits of [[lawn]], [[shrub]]s and plants grouped on turf, shady '''bowers''', and rustic [[seat]]s, all most agreeably combined, render this a very interesting and instructive suburban [[seat]].”
{{break}}
===Citations===
* Johnson, Samuel, 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1755: 1:n.p.) <ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols . (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “'''BOWER'''. ''n''. s. [from ''bough'' or ''branch'', or from the verb to ''bow'' or ''bend''.] : “1. An [[arbour]]; a sheltered place covered with green trees, twined and bent.”
* [[M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (p. 1806: 64) <ref>Bernard M'Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done... for Every Month of the Year....'' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/ view on Zotero].</ref>
: “In some spacious [[pleasure-ground]]s various light ornamental buildings and erections are introduced, as ornaments to particular departments; such as [[temple]]s, '''bowers''', banquetting houses, [[alcove]]s, [[grotto]]s, rural [[seat]]s, cottages, [[fountain]]s, [[obelisk]]s, [[statue]]s, and other edifices; these and the like are usually erected in the different parts, in openings between the divisions of the ground, and contiguous to the terminations of grand [[walk]]s, &c. : “Some of these kinds of ornaments, however, being very expensive, are rather sparingly introduced; sometimes a [[temple]] is presented at the termination of a grand [[walk]] or opening, or sometimes a [[temple]], banqueting-house, or '''bower''' is erected in the centre of some spacious opening or grass-ground in the internal divisions; other parts present [[alcove]]s, '''bowers''', [[grotto]]s, rural-[[seat|seats]], &c. at the termination of different [[walk]]s.”
* [[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C.(John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (p. 1826: 809) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]. </ref>
: “6157. . . . Light '''bowers''' formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered seats suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
* Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 1828: 87, 88, 145–47, 149) <ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “''Clematis virginica, or Virginian Virgin’s '''Bower'''''.—This is of most rapid growth, and produces, in July and August, a great abundance of white flowers, which are very fragrant; it is well calculated to cover [[arbour]]s and '''bowers'''.... : “''Clematis viticella, or European Virgin’s '''Bower'''''.—This is a native of the south of Europe, and is greatly admired as a vine for covering '''bowers''', or training against the sides of houses, or in other situations where vines are wanted. . . . : “''Sweetbriar, or Eglantine''.—This delightful species of the rose family is well calculated to train against the sides of houses, or up the [[pillar]]s of the [[piazza]], or to intermingle with the vines which entwine '''bowers''', &c.... : “The Champney, Noisette, [rose] and most of the varieties, may be trained against the sides of houses, over '''bowers''', &c. to a very considerable length, although not quite so rampant in their growth as the different varieties of the Multiflora. . . . : “The climbing, or running roses, suitable to train against buildings, or on [[arbour]]s, '''bowers''', &c. are the following:—Common Multiflora, Roxburgh’s White Multiflora, Lady Banks’ Double White, Greville’s Superb, Champneys, Noisette, Boursaultian, Hybrid, Macartney’s, &c. ...”
* [[Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 1:n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols . (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>
: “'''BOW’ERBOW'ER''', ''n''. [Sax. ''bur'', a chamber or private apartment, a hut, a cottage; W. ''bwr'', an inclosure.] : “1. A shelter or covered place in a garden, made with boughs of trees bent and twined together. It differs from ''[[arbor]]'' in that it may be round or [[square]], whereas an arbor is long and arched. ''Milton. Encyc.'' : “2. A bed-chamber; any room in a house except the hall. ''Spencer. Mason.'' : “3. A country [[seat]]; a cottage. ''Shenston., B. Johnson.'' : “4. A shady recess; a [[plantation]] for shade. ''W. Brown....'' : “'''BOW’ERY''', ''a''. Covering; shading as a '''bower'''; also, containing '''bowers'''. ''Thomson''.”
* Teschemacher, James E., August 1 August , 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9) <ref>James E. Teschemacher, ‘Extracts “Extracts from Foreign Publications’Publications, ''The Horticultural Register , and Gardener’s Magazine'', 1 (August 1, 1835), 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“From an article ''On the various form and character of Arbours as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register],'' we extract the following passages. :“‘A singularly beautiful structure which may be classed with this kind of garden decoration has been made in Ireland. :“‘A circular space of about sixty feet diameter, in the centre of dressed ground with scattered [[clump]]s of evergreen [[shrub]]s, surrounded by lofty trees, is wholly enclosed by a continued arcade of iron [[arch]]es. . . All the [[arch]]es are thickly covered with climbing plants of strong rapid growth, which proceed along the wires to the top of the pole. . .:“‘The interior is an [[arbor]] of great magnitude, not so closely covered as everywhere absolutely to exclude the sun, but yet so as to render it always shady and agreeable. . .:“‘The entire effect is good, and this may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial '''bower''' of the present day.’”
: “From an article ''On the various form and character of Arbours as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register],'' we extract the following passages.
: “‘A singularly beautiful structure which may be classed with this kind of garden decoration has been made in Ireland.
: “‘A circular space of about sixty feet diameter, in the centre of dressed ground with scattered [[clump]]s of evergreen [[shrub]]s, surrounded by lofty trees, is wholly enclosed by a continued arcade of iron [[arch]]es. . . . All the [[arch]]es are thickly covered with climbing plants of strong rapid growth, which proceed along the wires to the top of the pole. . . .
: “‘The interior is an [[arbor]] of great magnitude, not so closely covered as everywhere absolutely to exclude the sun, but yet so as to render it always shady and agreeable. . . .
: “‘The entire effect is good, and this may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial '''bower''' of the present day.’”
*Johnson, George William, 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1857: 98)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN view on Zotero].</ref>
* Johnson, George William, 1847, :“''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'BOWER' (p. 98) <ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening. See '', ed. by David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN view on Zotero[Arbor]]''.</ref>
: “'''BOWER'''. See ''[[Arbor]]''.”
*[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], February 1848, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (''Horticulturist'' 2: 363–64)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 2, no. 8 (February 1848): 363–65, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CPFBIUCV/q/hints%20and%20designs view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“But the more humble and simple cottage grounds, the rural [[walk]]s of the ''[[Downing, A. J.ferme ornée]]'', and the modest garden of the suburban amateur, February 1848have also their ornamental objects and rural buildings—in their place, “Hints as charming and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (spirited as the more artistical embellishments which surround the palladian villa.:“These are the seats, '''bowers'Horticulturist'' 2, [[grotto]]es and [[arbor]]s, of [[rustic_style|rustic work]]—than which nothing can be more easily and economically constructed, nor can add more to the rural or [[picturesque]] expression of the scene.: 363–64) “Those simple buildings, often constructed only of a few logs and twisted limbs of trees, are in good keeping with the simplest or the grandest forms of nature.”
: “But the more humble and simple cottage grounds, the rural [[walk]]s of the ''[[ferme ornée]]'', and the modest garden of the suburban amateur, have also their ornamental objects and rural buildings—in their place, as charming and spirited as the more artistical embellishments which surround the palladian villa.
: “These are the seats, '''bowers''', [[grotto]]es and [[arbor]]s, of [[rustic_style|rustic work]]—than which nothing can be more easily and economically constructed, nor can add more to the rural or [[picturesque]] expression of the scene.
: “Those simple buildings, often constructed only of a few logs and twisted limbs of trees, are in good keeping with the simplest or the grandest forms of nature.”
*Elder, Walter, 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (1849: 219)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT view on Zotero].</ref>
* Elder, Walter, 1849, ::“A. What place is that covered with roses and Honeysuckles?::“B. That’s a shady '''bower'The Cottage Garden of America'' (pwith seats in it.::“A. 219) <ref>Walter Elder, Is that another shady '''bower'The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia, covered with sweet scented clematis and roses?: Moss, 1849), [https://www“B.zoteroThat’s a building for the use of the family.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT view on Zotero].</ref>
::“A. What place is that covered with roses and Honeysuckles?
::“B. That’s a shady '''bower''' with seats in it.
::“A. Is that another shady '''bower''', covered with sweet scented clematis and roses?
::“B. That’s a building for the use of the family.”
*Miller, Lewis, c. 1850, description on a drawing of an idealized scene in the ''Orbis Pictus'' (Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
* Miller::“While the fish, LewisA narrow [[vista]], ccarpeted with rich— green grass. 1850invites my tread: here Showers light in golden dots. So blended, description on a drawing of an idealized scene in that the very air::Seems network as i enter there. On each Side Shrinks the ''Orbis Pictus'bowery' (n.p.) <ref>Lewis Miller, ''Orbis PictusShade: A Picturesque Album to the Ladies of York, Pennsylvania'' (Williamsburg, VaBefore me Spreads an Emerald glade.: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1850), [https://www.zoteroSee Fig.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XNQR79ST view on Zotero3].</ref>
::“While the fish, A narrow [[vista]], carpeted with rich— green grass. invites my tread: here Showers light in golden dots. So blended, that the very air ::Seems network as i enter there. On each Side Shrinks the '''bowery''' Shade: Before me Spreads an Emerald glade.” [See Fig. 3]<hr>
==Images==
 
===Inscribed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File: 1269.jpg|Solomon Drowne, Detailed plan of a [[botanic garden ]] at Brown University, n.d.
File: 0323.jpg|[[William Russell Birch, “[[View]], "View from the Elysian '''Bower''', Springland, Pennsylv,a Pennsylvna the residence of Mr W. Birch," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 81, pl. 20.
File: 1270.jpg|Solomon Drowne, ''[[Botanic Garden]], 1818'', 1818. The "bower" inscription can be found between the "shrubbery" and "college inclosure" inscriptions, to the right.
File: 1356.jpg|'''Bower ''' formed of lattice-work, in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 809, fig. 563.
File: 1783.jpg|William Bailey Lang, "“[[Rustic_style|Rustic ]] '''Bower'''," ''Views [[View]]s With Ground Plans, of the Highland Cottages at Roxbury'', 1845.
File: 0367.jpg|Anonymous, "“[[View ]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esq." in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 57.
File: 0579.jpg|Lewis Miller, "A “A narrow [[View/Vista|vista ]] carpeted with rich green grass . . . on each side shrinks the '''bowery ''' shade . . . " [detail], in ''Orbis Pictus'' (, c. 1849), p1850. 100
File: 1057.jpg|Hannah Cohoon, "A “A '''Bower ''' of Mulberry Trees," September 13, 1854.
</gallery>
===Attributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File: 0005.jpg|[[Amy Cox]], ''Box Grove'', c.1800.
File: 0713.jpg|Jacob Marling, ''The May Queen (The Crowning of Flora)'', 1816.
File: 0489.jpg|John William Hill (artist), William James Bennett (engraver), ''New York, from Brooklyn Heights'', 1837. Bower is seen in lower far right corner.
File: 0891.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Joseph H. Jennings’ House, 1841-441841–44. </gallery>
</galleryhr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Plant Support]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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