The bath and bathhouse in America had many forms, including private versions attached to houses or separately constructed in a garden, and public baths at resorts, in [[public garden]]s, and at the seaside. The term “bath” referred both to the structure covering the water and to the watering receptacle or pool itself. The structures were sometimes called bathhouses or bathing houses. Baths at natural sources of mineral waters were also referred to as spas and springs.
Although garden treatise literature contains few references to garden baths, other evidence indicates that the bathhouse held a prominent position in American ornamental landscapes. Baths were situated in public gardens, such as a public bath and garden in Norfolk, Va., or Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower in Philadelphia, and in many private gardens, such as John Donnell’s Willow Brook in Baltimore and [[Charles Willson Peale]]’s [[Belfield]] in PhiladelphiaFile:0461. Baths at private estates might be simple, as suggested by the note in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' in 1733, of “frames, Planks, &cjpg|thumb|right|Fig. to be fix’d in and about a Spring . . . intended for a Cold Bath.” They also could be quite substantial, as was Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s stone-lined bath, which he ordered in 1778 to measure ten by eight feet with a depth of four-and-a-half feet. Few detailed descriptions of the architecture of these bathhouses survive, however. At Monte Video in Connecticut2, the bathhouse was described merely as Gothic. More is known about the architecture of public baths, where the structures were larger and often quite elaborate. Many textual descriptions and images of baths survive because they were considered civic amenities, such as the bath at Castle Garden in New York [Fig. 1]. [[Samuel Vaughan]]’s 1787 plan for the town , Plan of Bath included “baths [at a] for company 5 by 18 feet that fills in 5 minutes & emties [''sic''] in four,” dressing rooms Berkeley Springs|[''b''], two [[piazzaBerkeley Springs]]s with [[seat]]s , VA [''bb''detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787. “f. a large bath Bath for swimming [''f''], swimming” and “g. a separate “Bath Bath for Poor People [''g''].[Fig. 2]. Sophie Madeleine du Pont in 1837 described and sketched a bathhouse at Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Va. (later W.Va.), with a thirty-foot octagonal masonry [[basin]] and four separate bathing rooms [Fig. 3].
Although garden treatise literature contains few references to garden baths, other evidence indicates that the bathhouse held a prominent position in American ornamental landscapes. Baths were situated in public gardens, such as a public bath and garden in Norfolk, Virginia, or Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower in Philadelphia, and in many private gardens, such as John Donnell’s Willow Brook in Baltimore and [[File:0461.jpgCharles Willson Peale|thumb|right|Fig. 2, Charles Willson Peale's]] [[Samuel VaughanBelfield]]in Philadelphia. Baths at private estates might be simple, as suggested by the note in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' in 1733, Plan of “frames, Planks, &c. to be fix’d in and about a Spring. . . intended for a Cold Bath (Berkeley Springs).” They also could be quite substantial, as was Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s stone-lined bath, which he ordered in 1778 to measure ten by eight feet with a depth of four-and-a-half feet. Few detailed descriptions of the architecture of these bathhouses survive, Vahowever. [detail]At Monte Video in Connecticut, 1787the bathhouse was described merely as Gothic. More is known about the architecture of public baths, from where the diary structures were larger and often quite elaborate. Many textual descriptions and images of baths survive because they were considered civic amenities, such as the bath at Castle Garden in New York [Fig. 1]. [[Samuel Vaughan|Samuel Vaughan's]] plan of 1787 for the town of Bath included “baths [at a] for company 5 by 18 feet that fills in 5 minutes & emties [''sic''] in four,” dressing rooms [''b''], two [[piazza]]s with [[seat]]s [''bb''], June - September 1787. "f. a large Bath bath for swimming" [''f''], and "g. a Bath separate “Bath for Poor People"[''g'']” [Fig. 2]. Sophie Madeleine du Pont in 1837 described and sketched a bathhouse at Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Virginia (later West Virginia), with a thirty-foot octagonal masonry [[basin]]and four separate bathing rooms [Fig. 3].
Mineral springs were visited as early as 1669 when Massachusetts colonists took the waters at Lynn Red Spring, but it was not until the end of the French and Indian War that springs began to be developed widely as commercial establishments. <ref>Carl Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places of Colonial America,” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 3, no. 2 (April 1946): 152. [https[File://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero.]</ref> A bath at Stafford Springs in Connecticut opened in 1765 and became, in the words of Samuel Peters, “where the sick and rich resort to prolong life, and acquire the polite accomplishments.” <ref>Samuel Peters, ''A General History of Connecticut'' (London: Printed for the author, 1781), 174. A detailed description of a visit to Stafford Springs is recorded in John Adams’s diary in 1771, although he does not use the term “bathjpg|thumb|right|Fig.” [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BCM4IVP7 view on Zotero.]</ref> In addition to bathing3, spasSophie Madeleine du Pont, such as Yellow Sulphur Octagonal Bath at Warm Springs, near Philadelphia, often included a variety of entertainments such as dining, dancing, and overnight lodging. <ref>Barbara G. Carson, “Early American Tourists and the Commercialization of Leisure,” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century'', ed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994), 390, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero[Berkeley Springs]]; Carol Shiels Roark), “Historic Yellow Springs: The Restoration of an American Spa,” ''Pennsylvania Folklife'' 24 (autumn 1974): 28–38. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6S7GIT3/ view on Zotero1837.] </ref> Bathing, as a general practice, was argued to have healthful effects. J. B. Bordley wrote in 1798 that “[e]very family in this fine climate ought to have its bath. . . . Bathing moistens, soaks, washes, supples and refreshes the whole body.” At the age of 95, Charles Carroll of Carrollton credited his longevity to daily cold baths. When bathed in and imbibed, mineral waters rich in sulfur and iron were particularly renowned for their curative properties for ailments such as rheumatism, cholera, malaria, hysteria, gout, and digestive disorders. Du Pont, seeking relief from a back and knee ailment, took the waters of Warm Springs, and she described vividly the sulfur-rich water’s “odour of half spoiled eggs.”
As their popularity grew, accommodations and other facilities Mineral springs were built visited as early as 1669 when Massachusetts colonists took the waters at many Lynn Red Spring, but it was not until the end of the French and Indian War that springs began to cater to the travelers seeking rest be developed widely as commercial establishments.<ref>Carl Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places of Colonial America,” ''William and refreshmentMary Quarterly'' 3, no. 2 (April 1946): 152, [https://www. These resorts often included elaborate gardenszotero. In 1775, the Virginia Assembly laid out the town of Bath around a spring that had been owned by Lord Fairfaxorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero]. Lots sold </ref> A bath at 25 guineas each, Stafford Springs in Connecticut opened in 1765 and Bath included a theaterbecame, innsin the words of Samuel Peters, “where the sick and places rich resort to ride prolong life, and play billiardsacquire the polite accomplishments. Charles Varlé’s landscape design ”<ref>Samuel Peters, ''A General History of Connecticut'' (London: Printed for the town in 1809 [Figauthor, 1781), 174. 4] included A detailed description of a reservoir or [[fountain]] “covered with a vine treliage visit to Stafford Springs is recorded in John Adams’s diary in a form of a dome or copula1771, although he does not use the term “bath,” a [[jet|jet d’eau]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BCM4IVP7 view on Zotero].</ref> In addition to bathing, a [[bowling green]]spas, and two [[labyrinth]]s “contrived so such as to be different in their issues and windings.” The town became Yellow Sulphur Springs, near Philadelphia, often included a fashionable resort; visitors included Baron variety of entertainments such as dining, dancing, and Baroness de Riedesel and Mrs. Charles Carroll of Carrolltonovernight lodging. <ref>Percival ReniersBarbara G. Carson, “Early American Tourists and the Commercialization of Leisure, ” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Springs Style of Virginia: Lifein the Eighteenth Century'', Loveed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Death at the Waters, 1775–1900'' Peter J. Albert (Chapel HillCharlottesville: University Press of North Carolina PressVirginia, 19411994), 34390, [https://www. zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero]; Carol Shiels Roark, “Historic Yellow Springs: The Restoration of an American Spa,” ''Pennsylvania Folklife'' 24 (autumn 1974): 28–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDDI6S7GIT3/ view on Zotero].]</ref>Bathing, as a general practice, was argued to have healthful effects. J. B. Bordley wrote in 1798 that “[e]very family in this fine climate ought to have its bath. . . Bathing moistens, soaks, washes, supples and refreshes the whole body.” At the age of 95, Charles Carroll of Carrollton credited his longevity to daily cold baths. When bathed in and imbibed, mineral waters rich in sulfur and iron were particularly renowned for their curative properties for ailments such as rheumatism, cholera, malaria, hysteria, gout, and digestive disorders. Du Pont, seeking relief from a back and knee ailment, took the waters of Warm Springs, and she described vividly the sulfur-rich water’s “odour of half spoiled eggs.”
The Bath resort community declined in popularity with the rise of the other Virginia springs in the Allegheny highlands described by Thomas Jefferson as “medicinal springs.” These springs became part of a social tour that lasted from July through mid-September. The tour generally started at Warm Springs, and continued on to Hot Springs, White Sulphur Springs, Sweet Springs, Salt Sulphur Springs, and Red Sulphur Springs. <ref>Reniers, The Springs of Virginia, 26, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDD/ view on Zotero.]; B. Carson, “Early American Tourists,” 393–97, [httpsFile://www0460.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero]jpg|thumb|left|Fig. Cary Carson includes, along with his discussion of consumer behavior in America4, a measured drawing of the oldest extant bathhouse in AmericaCharles Varlé, the Gentlemen’s bathhouse in Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Va. (later W.Va.). See Cary Carson, “The Consumer Revolution in Colonial America: Why Demand?” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Style Project for the Improvement of Life in the Eighteenth Century'', ed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994), 444–697. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q476GSSS view on Zotero.]</ref> Lewis Miller’s sketch of Yellow Sulphur Springs illustrates accommodations, [[walkSquare]]s, benches, lighting, and other features for the recreation Town of the bathers Bath'' [Fig. 5detail]. Historian Carl Bridenbaugh credits these resorts, at least in colonial times, with “promoting colonial union and 1809. “F. . nourishing nascent Americanism.” He argues that, in addition to the springs’ appeal as salubrious escapes from humidity, heat, and noise, they offered the “most significant intercolonial meeting places. . . . [and] provided a powerful solvent of provincialismBath.”<ref> Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places,” 180–81. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero.]</ref> As some of the most elaborate landscape designs of the period suggest, resorts may also have done much to disseminate the fashion for baths and bathhouses in residential gardens as well. ]
[[File:0703.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 5, Lewis Miller, “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County,” n.d.]] As their popularity grew, accommodations and other facilities were built at many of the springs to cater to the travelers seeking rest and refreshment. These resorts often included elaborate gardens. In 1776, the Virginia Assembly laid out the town of Bath around a spring that had been owned by Lord Fairfax. Lots sold at 25 guineas each, and Bath included a theater, inns, and places to ride and play billiards. Charles Varlé’s landscape design for the town in 1809 [Fig. 4] included a reservoir or [[fountain]] “covered with a vine treliage in a form of a dome or copula,” a [[jet|jet d’eau]], a [[bowling green]], and two [[labyrinth]]s “contrived so as to be different in their issues and windings.” The town became a fashionable resort; visitors included Baron and Baroness de Riedesel and Mrs. Charles Carroll of Carrollton.<ref>Percival Reniers, ''The Springs of Virginia: Life, Love, and Death at the Waters, 1775–1900'' (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941), 34, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDD/ view on Zotero].</ref> The Bath resort community declined in popularity with the rise of the other Virginia springs in the Allegheny highlands described by Thomas Jefferson as “medicinal springs.” These springs became part of a social tour that lasted from July through mid-- September. The tour generally started at Warm Springs, and continued on to Hot Springs, White Sulphur Springs, Sweet Springs, Salt Sulphur Springs, and Red Sulphur Springs.<ref>Reniers, ''The Springs of Virginia'', 26, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XXDTEMDD/ view on Zotero]; B. Carson, “Early American Tourists,” 393–97, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AFZV62H8 view on Zotero]. Cary Carson includes, along with his discussion of consumer behavior in America, a measured drawing of the oldest extant bathhouse in America, the Gentlemen’s bathhouse in Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Virginia (later West Virginia). See Cary Carson, “The Consumer Revolution in Colonial America: Why Demand?” in ''Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century'', ed. Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994), 444–697, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q476GSSS view on Zotero].</ref> Lewis Miller’s sketch of Yellow Sulphur Springs illustrates accommodations, [[walk]]s, benches, lighting, and other features for the recreation of the bathers [Fig. 5]. Historian Carl Bridenbaugh credits these resorts, at least in colonial times, with “promoting colonial union and. . . nourishing nascent Americanism.” He argues that, in addition to the springs’ appeal as salubrious escapes from humidity, heat, and noise, they offered the “most significant intercolonial meeting places. . . [and] provided a powerful solvent of provincialism.”<ref>Bridenbaugh, “Baths and Watering Places,” 180–81, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero].</ref> As some of the most elaborate landscape designs of the period suggest, resorts may also have done much to disseminate the fashion for baths and bathhouses in residential gardens as well.  ''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid'' <hr>
==Texts==
===Usage===
* Anonymous, July 28, 1733, describing a plantation for sale in Charleston, S.C. (''South Carolina Gazette'')
*Anonymous, July 28, 1733, describing a plantation for sale in Charleston, SC (''South Carolina Gazette'')  :"A “A [[Plantation]] about two Miles above Goose-Creek [[Bridge]] . . . [had] a Spring within 3 Stones throw of the House, intended for a Cold '''Bath'''."  *Anonymous, February 6, 1746, describing in the ''Boston Weekly News-Letter'' the property of John Welch, Boston, MA (quoted in Benes 1996: 53)<ref>Peter Benes, “Horticultural Importers and Nurserymen in Boston, 1719–1770,” in ''Plants and People: Annual Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, 1995'', ed. Peter Benes (Boston: Boston University, 1996), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q9SU336I/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“TO BE LETT, (exclusive of the '''''Bath-House''''') The '''Bath'''-Garden, at the Westerly Part of the Town, which has for many Years been improv’d as a [[public Garden]], and contains a Variety of the best Fruit-Trees, a great Quantity of Currant and Gooseberry Bushes, some of the best Grape Vines, a handsome [[Summer-House]], Glasses for Hot-[[Bed]]s, &c Enquire of ''John Welch'', and know further. N.B. The Cold '''Bath''' is in good Order for Use and has been found beneficial to several that have used it, even this Winter-Season: Price 40 Shillings a Year or 5 Shillings each single Time, old Tenor.”
* Anonymous, February 6, 1746, describing in the ''Boston Weekly News-Letter'' the property of John Welch, Boston, Mass. (quoted in Benes 1996: 53) <ref>Peter Benes, "Horticultural Importers and Nurserymen in Boston, 1719-1770," in ''Plants and People: Annual Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, 1995'', ed. by Peter Benes (Boston: Boston University, 1996), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q9SU336I/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:"TO BE LETT, (exclusive of the '''''Bath-House''''') The '''Bath'''-Garden, at the Westerly Part of the Town, which has for many Years been improv'd as a *[[public GardenThomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], and contains a Variety of the best Fruit-Trees, a great Quantity of Currant and Gooseberry Bushes, some of the best Grape Vines1771, a handsome describing [[Summer-HouseMonticello]], Glasses for Hot-[[Bedplantation]]sof Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA (1944: 26)<ref>Thomas Jefferson, &c Enquire of ''John WelchThe Garden Book'', and know furthered. NEdwin M.B. The Cold '''Bath''' is in good Order for Use and has been found beneficial to several that have used itBetts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), even this Winter-Season[https: Price 40 Shillings a Year or 5 Shillings each single Time, old Tenor//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“. . . a few feet below the spring level the ground 40 or 50 f. sq. let the water fall from the spring in the upper level over a [[terrace]] in the form of a [[cascade]]. then conduct it along the foot of the [[terrace]] to the Western side of the level, where it may fall into a cistern under a [[temple]], from which it may go off by the western [[border]] till it falls over another [[terrace]] at the Northern or lower side. let the [[temple]] be raised 2. f. for the first floor of stone. under this is the cistern, which may be a '''bath''' or anything else. the 1st story [[arch]]es on three sides; the back or western side being close because the hill there comes down, and also to carry up stairs on the outside. the 2d story to have a door on one side, a spacious window in each of the other sides, the rooms each 8. f. cube; with a small table and a couple of chairs. the roof may be [[Chinese manner|Chinese]], Grecian, or in the taste of the Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens.”
* [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1771, describing [[Monticello]], plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1944: 26) <ref>Thomas Jefferson, ''The Garden Book'', ed. by Edwin M. Betts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:"a few feet below the spring level the ground 40 or 50 f. sq. let the water fall from the spring in the upper level over a [[terrace]] in the form of a [[cascade]]. then conduct it along the foot of the [[terrace]] to the Western side of the level*Quincy, where it may fall into a cistern under a [[temple]]Josiah, from which it may go off by the western [[border]] till it falls over another [[terrace]] at the Northern or lower side. let the [[temple]] be raised 2. f. for the first floor of stone. under this is the cistern, which may be a '''bath''' or anything else. the 1st story [[arch]]es on three sides; the back or western side being close because the hill there comes down, and also to carry up stairs on the outside. the 2d story to have a door on one sideMay 3, a spacious window in each of the other sides1773, describing the rooms each 8. f. cube; with a small table and a couple country seat of chairs. the roof may be [[Chinese style|Chinese]]John Dickensen, Greciannear Philadelphia, or in the taste of the Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens."PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“This worthy and [[arch]]-politician. . . here enjoys ''otium cum dignitate'' as much as any man. Take into consideration the antique look of his house, his gardens, [[green-house]], '''bathing-house''', [[grotto]], study, fish-[[pond]], fields, [[meadow]]s, [[vista]], through which is distant [[prospect]] of Delaware River.”
* Quincy, Josiah, May 3, 1773, describing the country seat of John Dickensen, near Philadelphia, Pa. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
:"This worthy and [[arch]]-politician ...here enjoys ''otium cum dignitate'' as much as any man. Take into consideration the antique look *Carroll (of his houseCarrollton), Charles, his gardensMay 24, [[green-house]]1778, '''bathing-house'''in a letter to his father, [[grotto]]Charles Carroll (of Annapolis), studydescribing the Carroll Garden, fish-[[pond]]Annapolis, fieldsMD (Maryland Historical Society, [[meadow]]sA. E. Carroll Papers, [[vista]]MS 206, through which is distant [[prospect]] of Delaware Riverno."479)
:“If Joe has finished all the Jobbs at Annapolis, I wish you would set him about preparing stones to line a cold '''bath'''; the stones already raised at the soap stone quarry would be sufficient for this purpose, as the '''bath''' need not be in the clear more than 10 feet long & 8 broad & 4 feet 6 inches deep. When I return I will direct where it shall be dug.”
* Carroll (of Carrollton), Charles, May 24, 1778, in a letter to his father, Charles Carroll (of Annapolis), describing the Carroll Garden, Annapolis, Md. (Maryland Historical Society, A. E. Carroll Papers, ms. 206, no.479)
*Peters, Samuel, 1782, describing Stafford Springs, CT (quoted in Bridenbaugh 1946:"If Joe has finished all the Jobbs at Annapolis153)<ref>Bridenbaugh, I wish you would set him about preparing stones to line a cold '''bath'''; the stones already raised at the soap stone quarry would be sufficient for this purpose“Baths and Watering Places, as the '''bath''' need not be in the clear more than 10 feet long & 8 broad & 4 feet 6 inches deep” 151–81, [https://www.zotero. When I return I will direct where it shall be dugorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“. . . the New England '''''Bath''''', where the sick and rich resort to prolong life and acquire the polite accomplishments.”
* Peters, Samuel, 1782, describing Stafford Springs, Conn. (quoted in Bridenbaugh 1946: 153) <ref>Carl Bridenbaugh, ‘Baths and Watering Places of Colonial America’, ''William and Mary Quarterly'', 3 (April) (1946), 151–81, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FDI9CBAU view on Zotero].</ref>
:"*Anonymous, April 28, 1786, describing a new bathing house in Charleston, SC, in the New England ''Charleston Morning Post, and Daily Advertiser'''Bath''''', where the sick and rich resort to prolong life and acquire the polite accomplishments."(Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“A '''Bathing House''' BEING about to be erected at the Retreat, those Gentlemen who wish to become subscribers, are requested to leave their name and the Needful at the said place, as speedily as possible. . . Many attempts have been made to establish a '''BATHING HOUSE''', but none of them have succeeded, and when it is recollected that in this climate, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial, it seems truly astonishing. . . in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''.”
* Anonymous, April 28, 1786, describing in the ''Charleston Morning Post, and Daily Advertiser'' a new bathing house in Charleston, S.C. (CWF)
:"A '''Bathing House''' BEING about to be erected at the Retreat*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], those Gentlemen who wish to become subscribersJune 1788, are requested to leave their name and the Needful at the said placedescribing Annapolis, as speedily as possibleMD (Miller et al. , eds. , 1983: 1:498)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al. Many attempts have been made to establish a , eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'BATHING HOUSE', vol. 1, ''Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, but none of them have succeeded1753–1791'' (New Haven, and when it is recollected that in this climateCT: Yale University Press, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial1983), it seems truly astonishing [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]. in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''."</ref>
:“. . . being invited to dine with the fish Club, I took my Gun for further Amusement; the club had a marqui fixed opposite the Cool Spring ('''bath House''') on the other side of the creek. They have skittle Ground and qu[o]ites to amuse themselves.”
* [[Peale, Charles Willson]], June 1788, describing Annapolis, Md. (Miller, Hart, and Appel, eds., 1983: 1:498) <ref name="Miller et al">Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., T''he Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, 1735-1791. Vol. 1; Charles Willson Peale, Artist as Museum Keeper, 1791-1810. Vol 2, Pts. 1-2; The Belfield Farm Years, 1810-1820. Vol. 3; The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:"being invited to dine with the fish Club*Chapman, Thomas, 1795–96, I took my Gun for further Amusement; the club had describing a marqui fixed opposite the Cool Spring [[plantation]] near Harrodsburg, KY (quoted in Schwaab 1973: 28)<ref>Eugene L. Schwaab and Jacqueline Bull, '''bath House'Travels in the Old South''(Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VBE4QNV7 view on the other side of the creek. They have skittle Ground and qu[oZotero]ites to amuse themselves." </ref>
:“Colonel Nicholas’s [[Plantation]] is in a higher State of Improvement than any other in the State of Kentucky. Exclusive of a good Framed Commodious House, a famous Spring Dairey [''sic''], where Milk can be kept cool in the hotest [''sic''] Day of Summer, there is a large Barn, Stable, and out Offices, and a large Grist Mill, supplied with Water from the same Spring wch [''sic''] passes through the Spring House. There is also a '''bathing House''' connected with the Dairey [''sic''], and an Apple Orchard of 400 Young thriving Trees.”
* Chapman, Thomas, 1795–96, describing a plantation near Harrodsburg, Ky. (quoted in Schwaab 1973: 28) <ref>Eugene L. Schwaab and Jacqueline Bull, ''Travels in the Old South'' (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VBE4QNV7 view on Zotero].</ref>
*Bentley, William, July 12, 1797, describing Salem, MA (1962: 2:228)<ref name="Bentley"Colonel Nicholas>William Bentley, 's [[Plantation]] is in a higher State 'The Diary of Improvement than any other in the State of KentuckyWilliam Bentley, D.D. Exclusive , Pastor of a good Framed Commodious Housethe East Church, a famous Spring Dairey [''sic'']Salem, where Milk can be kept cool in the hotest [''sicMassachusetts''] Day of Summer(Gloucester, there is a large Barn, Stable, and out OfficesMA: Peter Smith, and a large Grist Mill1962), supplied with Water from the same Spring wch [''sic''] passes through the Spring Househttps://www.zotero. There is also a '''bathing House''' connected with the Dairey [''sic''org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF view on Zotero], and an Apple Orchard of 400 Young thriving Trees."</ref>
:“12. Plenty of Mackerel in the market at 6 cents pr. lb. A '''Bath house''' is begun on the back of our land which is to extend 64 feet upon B., & to have eight apartments. The success is doubtful for it is said such a thing much talked of was not much used when gotten.”
* Bentley, William, July 12, 1797, describing Salem, Mass. (1962: 2:228) <ref name="Bentley">William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF view on Zotero].</ref>
*[[Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing a lunatic asylum in New York, NY (1822: 3:"12. Plenty of Mackerel in the market at 6 cents pr. lb. A 454)<ref>Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'Bath house''' is begun on the back of our land which is to extend 64 feet upon B, 4 vols. (New Haven: T.Dwight, & to have eight apartments1821), [https://www.zotero. The success is doubtful for it is said such a thing much talked of was not much used when gottenorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7D8MGMDN view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“Among its conveniences are an excellent garden, fruit trees, [[walk]]s, a large [[ice-house]], '''bathing-house''', and stables.”
* [[Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing a lunatic asylum in New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:454) <ref>Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols (New Haven: Timothy Dwight, 1821), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7D8MGMDN view on Zotero].</ref>
:"Among its conveniences are an excellent garden*Anonymous, fruit treesApril 18, [[walk]]s, a large [[ice-house]]1800, describing in the ''Federal Gazette''bathingWillow Brook, seat of John Donnell, Baltimore, MD (quoted in Sarudy 1989: 137)<ref>Barbara Wells Sarudy, “Eighteenth-houseCentury Gardens of the Chesapeake,” ''Journal of Garden History'' 9, and stablesno. 3 (July–September 1989): 104–59, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PGSNXHMJ view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“In the garden is a neat wooden house, with a twelve foot passage, and five rooms: a gardener’s house, a fish [[pond]] well stocked with fish, and an elegant '''bath''' with two dressing springs of fine soft water.”
* Anonymous, April 18, 1800, describing in the ''Federal Gazette'' Willow Brook, seat of John Donnell, Baltimore, Md. (quoted in Sarudy 1989: 137) <ref>Barbara Wells Sarudy, "Eighteenth-Century Gardens of the Chesapeake," ''Journal of Garden History'' 9, no. 3 (July-September 1989): 104–59, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PGSNXHMJ view on Zotero].</ref>
:"In the garden is a neat wooden house*Bentley, with a twelve foot passageWilliam, 1800 and five rooms1802, describing Salem, MA (1962: 2: a gardener’s house339, a fish [[pond]] well stocked with fish, and an elegant '''bath''' with two dressing springs of fine soft water.437)<ref name="Bentley"></ref>
:“31. [May 1800] The weather begins to feel like Summer. I bathed in the river this evening, & the '''Bath House''' was opened for the first time. . .
* Bentley:“July 1 [1802] walked down Seargeant’s new wharf, which is now the best in the Town. Near it, Williameastward, 1800 and 1802is a '''bathing house''' for salt water, describing Salemlately erected for females, Massbut little used. (1962: 2:339, 437) <ref name="Bentley"></ref>
:"31. [May 1800] The weather begins to feel like Summer. I bathed in the river this evening, & the '''Bath House''' was opened for the first time. . . .
:"July 1 *[1802[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]] walked down Seargeant's new wharf, which is now the best in the Town. Near itMarch 26, eastward1805, is describing a design for a '''bathing house''' for salt water, lately erected for femalesin Philadelphia, but little used."PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“From the kitchen a door leads to the Back stairs, which communicate immediately with the Dining room, and the Lady’s apartment above stairs. At the foot of these stairs is a small room, which can be well adapted to the purpose of a '''bath''', or a store room.”
* [[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], March 26, 1805, describing a design for a house in Philadelphia, Pa. (CWF)
*Caldwell, John Edwards, 1808, describing Hot Springs, VA (1951:"From the kitchen a door leads to the Back stairs31)<ref>John Edwards Caldwell, which communicate immediately with the Dining room''A Tour through Part of Virginia, and in the Lady's apartment above stairs. At the foot Summer of these stairs is a small room1808; Also, which can be well adapted to Some Account of the purpose Islands of a '''bath'the Azores'', or a store roomed. William M. E. Rachal (Richmond, VA: Dietz, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8F26GMXG view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“The Hot Springs are in '''Bath''' county, 36 miles from the Sweet Springs. Here are three baths, one of vital heat, or 96 degrees of Farenheit’s thermometer: one of 104°, and it is said that the hottest is 112°, and sufficiently hot to boil an egg. The patient, on coming out of the two latter, is wrapped up in blankets, and lies stewing in the sweating room adjoining the '''bath''', until the perspiration has freely spent itself from every pore of the body.”
* Caldwell, John Edwards, 1808, describing Hot Springs, Va. (1951: 31) <ref>John Edwards Caldwell, ''A Tour through Part of Virginia, in the Summer of 1808; Also, Some Account of the Islands of the Azores'', ed. by William M. E. Rachal Rachal (Richmond, Va.: Dietz, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8F26GMXG view on Zotero].</ref>
:"The Hot Springs are *[[Peale, Charles Willson]], July 29, 1810, in '''Bath''' countya letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, 36 miles from the Sweet Springs. Here are three bathsdescribing [[Belfield]], one estate of vital heatCharles Willson Peale, or 96 degrees of Farenheit's thermometer: one of 104oGermantown, and it is said that the hottest is 112oPA (Miller et al., and sufficiently hot to boil an eggeds. The patient, on coming out of the two latter1991: 3:55)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., is wrapped up in blanketseds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and lies stewing in the sweating room adjoining the His Family'', vol. 3, 'bath'The Belfield Farm Years, 1810–1820''(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991), until the perspiration has freely spent itself from every pore of the body[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“The Barn and one of the Barracks on the West, the Coach-House near the Center, Spring-house on the East side and the '''Bath House''' below it. There is 4 large Popplers (Tulip Tree) which crosses the Road, and the Lumbardy Poppler a row of them on your right hand. Just above the '''bath-House''' is a small fish [[pond]] with about 200 Catfish which I brought from the falls of Schulkill.”
* [[Peale, Charles Willson]], July 29, 1810, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 1991: 3:55) <ref name="Miller et al"></ref>
:"The Barn and one of the Barracks on the West*Anonymous, April 24, 1813, the Coach-House near the Centerdescribing Norfolk, Spring-house on the East side and the VA ('''Bath House'Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger'' below it. There is 4 large Popplers (Tulip Tree) which crosses the Road, and the Lumbardy Poppler a row of them on your right hand. Just above the '''bath-House''' is a small fish [[pond]] with about 200 Catfish which I brought from the falls of [[Schyylkill River|Schulkill]]."
:“PUBLIC '''BATHS''' AND [[public garden|GARDEN]], OPPOSITE THE THEATRE.
* Anonymous:“The subscriber, April 24ever grateful to his friends and the public in general for their past favors, 1813, describing Norfolktakes this method of informing them that his '''Baths''' will be opened every day (when fair) from 6 A.M. to 9 P.M. He flatters himself that by the neatness and promptitude which he will exert himself in serving those who will favor him with their custom, Vato merit the public patronage. (The price for '''Baths'Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger'') , as heretofore, three for one dollar; 37 1-2 cents for a single one.”
:"PUBLIC '''BATHS''' AND [[public garden|GARDEN]], OPPOSITE THE THEATRE.
:"The subscriber*Anonymous, ever grateful to his friends and the public in general for their past favorsSeptember 18, 1813, takes this method of informing them that his '''Baths''' will be opened every day (when fair) from 6 A.M. to 9 P.M. He flatters himself that by the neatness and promptitude which he will exert himself describing in serving those who will favor him with their custom, to merit the public patronage. The price for '''Baths'City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser''a proposed bathhouse in Charleston, as heretofore, three for one dollar; 37 1-2 cents for a single one."SC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“A splendid Establishment. The subscriber has it in contemplation to erect at the East Bay in this city a CIRCULAR FLOATING '''BATHING HOUSE''', on a new, highly approved, extensive and elegant plan—to go into operation in the season of 1814. It will be 250 feet in circumference, built of the best materials, and in the most substantial manner, forming a beautiful structure, which (besides increasing the resources of health and pleasure) will be greatly ornamental to the city. It will contain FORTY capacitus private bathing rooms, lighted by VENETIAN windows: a large SWIMMING '''bath''' in the centre, of about 160 feet circumference: FORTY dressing CLOSETS attached to the swimming '''bath''': two spacious SITTING rooms, one for the accommodation of LADIES, and the other for GENTLEMEN.”
* Anonymous, September 18, 1813, describing in the ''City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser'' a proposed bathhouse in Charleston, S.C. (CWF)
:"A splendid Establishment. The subscriber has it in contemplation to erect at the East Bay in this city a CIRCULAR FLOATING '''BATHING HOUSE'''*Anonymous, on a newMarch 29, highly approved1815, extensive and elegant plan&mdash;to go into operation in the season of 1814. It will be 250 feet in circumference, built of the best materials, and describing a sale in the most substantial manner, forming a beautiful structureRichmond, which VA (besides increasing the resources of health and pleasure) will be greatly ornamental to the city. It will contain FORTY capacitus private bathing rooms, lighted by VENETIAN windows: a large SWIMMING ''Daily Compiler'bath''' in the centre, of about 160 feet circumference: FORTY dressing CLOSETS attached to the swimming '''bath''': two spacious SITTING rooms, one for the accommodation of LADIES, and the other for GENTLEMEN.")
:“MARBLE MANTLES FOR SALE. A number of elegant marble Mantles, from Philadelphia, at the house formerly occupied as a '''Bathing house''', on the cross street leading to Mayo’s [[Bridge]].”
* Anonymous, March 29, 1815, describing a sale in Richmond, Va. (''Daily Compiler'')
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Charleston, SC (1816: 2:"MARBLE MANTLES FOR SALE. A number 139–40)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of elegant marble MantlesNorth America in the Years 1806, from Philadelphia1807, at the house formerly occupied as a '''Bathing house'and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH/ view on the cross street leading to Mayo's [[Bridge]Zotero]."</ref>
:“The garden dignified by the name Vauxhall is also under the direction of Mr. Placide. It is situated in Broad-street, a short distance from the theatre, surrounded by a brick [[wall]], but possesses no decoration worthy of notice. It is not to be compared even with the common tea-gardens in the vicinity of London. There are some warm and cold '''baths''' on one side for the accomodation of the inhabitants. . . The heavy dews and vapours which arise from the swamps and marshes in its neighbourhood, after a hot day, are highly injurious to the constitution, particularly while it is inflamed by the wine and spirituous liquors which are drunk in the garden. It is, also, the period of the sickly season when the garden is open for public amusement, and the death of many performers and visitors may be ascribed to the entertainments given at that place.”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Charleston, S.C. (2:139–40) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH/ view on Zotero].</ref>
*Paulding, James Kirke, 1816, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), VA (later WV) (1817:"The garden dignified by the name Vauxhall is also under the direction of Mr. Placide. It is situated in Broad-street1:167, a short distance from the theatre, surrounded by a brick [[wall]]169; 2:235)<ref>James Kirke Paulding, but possesses no decoration worthy of notice. It is not to be compared even with the common tea-gardens in the vicinity of London. There are some warm and cold ''Letters from the South'baths''' on one side for the accomodation of the inhabitants, 2 vols. . . . The heavy dews and vapours which arise from the swamps and marshes in its neighbourhood(New York: James Eastburn, after a hot day1817), are highly injurious to the constitution, particularly while it is inflamed by the wine and spirituous liquors which are drunk in the garden[https://www.zotero. It is, also, the period of the sickly season when the garden is open for public amusement, and the death of many performers and visitors may be ascribed to the entertainments given at that placeorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H5XVF9WE view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“[Vol. 1]. The '''bath''' here is the most luxurious of any in the world; its temperature about that of the body, its purity almost equal to that of the circumambient air: and the fixed air plays against the skin, in a manner that tickles the fancy wonderfully. . .
* Paulding, James Kirke, 1816, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Va. (later W.Va.) (1817: 1:167, 169; 2:235) <ref>James Kirke Paulding, “The '''bath'Letters from the South''is about thirty feet in diameter, forming an octagon, walled two or three feet above the water’s edge; the bottom covered with pebbles, 2 vols. (New York: James Eastburnand the water so pure, 1817)that if it were only deeper, [https://wwwa man’s head would turn in looking down into it.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H5XVF9WE view on Zotero].</ref>
:"[Vol. 12]. There is a [[pavilion]] built over the spring, which is used for drinking, and two '''bathhouses'''—one for either sex. The spring which supplies the ladies’ '''bath''' here is one of the most luxurious of any finest I have ever seen. It bursts from a fissure in the rock in the world; its temperature about that form of a cone, much larger than the bodycrown of a hat, its purity almost equal to that of the circumambient air: and , together with the fixed air plays against the skinothers, forms a fine stream, in a manner that tickles the fancy wonderfully. . . some places six or eight yards wide.
:"The '''bath''' is about thirty feet in diameter, forming an octagon, walled two or three feet above the water's edge; the bottom covered with pebbles, and the water so pure, that if it were only deeper, a man's head would turn in looking down into it. . . .
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Bladensburg, MD (1816:"[Vol. 2]. There is a [[pavilion]] built over the spring160)<ref>David Bailie Warden, which is used for drinking, and two '''bathhouses'''&mdash;one for either sex. The spring which supplies A Chronographical and Statistical Description of the ladiesDistrict of Columbia' '''bath''' is one of the finest I have ever seen. It bursts from a fissure in the rock in the form of a cone, much larger than the crown of a hat, (Paris: Printed andsold by Smith, together with the others1816), forms a fine stream, in some places six or eight yards wide[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QF8TXC8D view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“The mineral spring is pleasantly situated on the side of the stream, near a fine [[clump]] of trees at the entrance of the village. It would not require much expense to make this an agreeable watering place. . . By means of a thermometer, which Mr. Diggs politely procured, we found the temperature of the water to be 55 1/2°. Some years ago, a public '''bath''' was constructed near the spring, but the temperature was found to be disagreeably cold, and it was entirely abandoned.”
* Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Bladensburg, Md. (p. 160) <ref>David Bailie Warden, ''A Chronographical and Statistical Description of the District of Columbia'' (Paris: Printed and sold by Smith, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QF8TXC8D view on Zotero].</ref>
:"The mineral spring is pleasantly situated on the side of the stream*Deford, William, near a fine [[clump]] of trees at the entrance of the village. It would not require much expense to make this an agreeable watering place. . . . By means of a thermometerMay 5, which Mr. Diggs politely procured1819, we found describing in the temperature of the water to be 55 1/2°. Some years ago, a public '''bath'American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser'' was constructed near the springWigwam Gardens in Norfolk, but the temperature was found to be disagreeably cold, and it was entirely abandoned."VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“''Bathing imparts new vigour and elasticity to the system—It is the grand restorative of nature.'' Public '''Bathing house'''. THE Subscriber having, at a considerable expense, and with much personal labour, put his '''BATHS''' in such order as to render them worthy of the public attention, hopes to receive that remuneration which h[i]s efforts merit, and which, he feels assured, ''a prudent regard to the preservation of their health'', will ensure to him, from his fellow citizens.
* Deford:“In his arrangements for the Season, which commenced on the 1st ins. he flatters himself, that he has neglected nothing which may be necessary to recommend his '''Baths''' for cleanliness, convenience, privacy, Williamor attendance, and Ladies and Gentlemen can be accommodated at any hour, May 5with ''Hot, 1819Cold, describing in the or Tepid '''Baths'''American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser'' Wigwam Gardens in Norfolk, Vaas may be best adapted to their health or taste. (CWF)
:"''Bathing imparts new vigour and elasticity to the system&mdash;It is the grand restorative of nature.'' Public '''Bathing house'''. THE Subscriber having, at a considerable expense, and with much personal labour, put his '''BATHS''' in such order as to render them worthy of the public attention, hopes to receive that remuneration which h[i]s efforts merit, and which, he feels assured, ''a prudent regard to the preservation of their health'', will ensure to him, from his fellow citizens.
:"In his arrangements for the Season*Anonymous, March 22, 1820, which commenced on describing in the 1st ins. he flatters himself, that he has neglected nothing which may be necessary to recommend his '''Baths''' for cleanliness, convenience, privacy, or attendance, and Ladies City Gazette and Gentlemen can be accommodated at any hour, with ''Hot, Cold, or Tepid '''Baths'''Commercial Daily Advertiser''a salt water bathing house proposal in Charleston, as may be best adapted to their health or taste." SC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“SALT WATER '''BATHING HOUSE'''. Many attempts have been made to establish a '''BATHING HOUSE''', but none of them have succeeded, and when it is recollected that in this climate, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial, it seems truly astonishing.—in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''. It depends upon the public whether his plans are carried into execution or not. Should a sufficient number of Subscribers be obtained, the work will be completed by the latter end of May: but it is not necessary that two hundred be obtained by the middle of April.
* Anonymous:“''The following is a brief sketch of the plan and situation'': The Building will be erected at the East end of Laurens street, a low water mark: the Foundation to be made of Palmetto Logs, March 2246 feet square, 1820containing 14 private '''Baths''', describing with a '''Bath''' in the centre of 20 feet diameter: the bottom of the ''City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser'baths''' to be floored: over the Dressing Room will be a salt water bathing house proposal in CharlestonPlatform and Railing, Sover which there will be a Roof.CThere will be a Bridge leading form Laurens street to the '''Bathing House'''. (CWF)
:"SALT WATER '''BATHING HOUSE'''. Many attempts have been made “Those Gentlemen who feel disposed to establish a '''BATHING HOUSE''', but none of them have succeeded, and when it is recollected that in this climate, such an Establishment would be in the highest degree beneficial, it seems truly astonishing.&mdash;in a considerable measure by this reflection, the Subscriber now issues Proposals for encourage the erection of a permanent and elegant '''BATHING HOUSE'''. It depends upon the public whether his plans undertaking are carried into execution or not. Should a sufficient number of Subscribers be obtained, the work will be completed by the latter end of May: but it is not necessary that two hundred be obtained by the middle of Aprilrequested to subscribe immediately.
:"''The following is a brief sketch of the plan and situation'': The Building will be erected at the East end of Laurens street, a low water mark: the Foundation to be made of Palmetto Logs, 46 feet square, containing 14 private '''Baths''', with a '''Bath''' in the centre of 20 feet diameter: the bottom of the '''baths''' to be floored: over the Dressing Room will be a Platform and Railing, over which there will be a Roof. There will be a Bridge leading form Laurens street to the '''Bathing House'''.
*Silliman, Martha Trumbull, September 1, 1821, describing Monte Video, property of Daniel Wadsworth, Avon, CT (quoted in Saunders and Raye 1981:"Those Gentlemen who feel disposed to encourage 20)<ref>Richard Saunders and Helen Raye, ''Daniel Wadsworth, Patron of the undertaking are requested to subscribe immediatelyArts'' (Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1981), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P8ZQIH73 view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“The place is a great deal handsomer than I expected. The buildings are all Gothic. First there is Uncles beautiful house; 2d the tower, 3d the cottage & the barns 4th the boat house & 5th the '''bathing house''' 6th a grape house 7th an ice house & 8th the bee house & a Gothic gate.”
* Silliman, Martha Trumbull, September 1, 1821, describing [[Monte Video]], property of Daniel Wadsworth, Avon, Conn. (quoted in Saunders and Raye 1981: 20) <ref>Richard Saunders and Helen Raye, ''Daniel Wadsworth, Patron of the Arts'' (Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1981), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/P8ZQIH73 view on Zotero].</ref>
*Silliman, Benjamin, 1824, describing a [[fountain]] in New Lebanon, NY (1824:"The place is 46–47)<ref>Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a great deal handsomer than I expected. The buildings are all Gothic. First there is Uncles beautiful house; 2d the towerShort Tour between Hartford and Quebec, 3d the cottage & the barns 4th the boat house & 5th in the Autumn of 1819'''bathing house''' 6th a grape house 7th an ice house & 8th the bee house & a Gothic gate(New Haven, CT: S. Converse, 1824), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B5VWTWM5 view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“This is a very remarkable [[fountain]]. Unlike most mineral waters, it issues from a high hill; the water boils up in a space of ten feet wide, by three and a half deep. . . the water discharged amounts to eighteen barrels in a minute, and not only supplies the '''baths''' very copiously, simply by running down hill to them.”
* Silliman, Benjamin, 1824, describing a [[fountain]] in New Lebanon, N.Y. (pp. 46–47) <ref>Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (New Haven, Conn.: S. Converse, 1824), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B5VWTWM5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:"This is a very remarkable *[[fountainPeale, Charles Willson]], c. Unlike most mineral waters1825, it issues from a high hill; the water boils up in a space of ten feet widedescribing New York, NY (Miller et al., eds., by three and a half deep 2000: 5:247–48)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al. , eds. the water discharged amounts to eighteen barrels in a minute, ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and not only supplies the His Family'', vol. 5, 'baths'The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' very copiously(New Haven, simply by running down hill to themCT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]."</ref>
:“Peale went to a '''bathing house''' on the north river, this building has a private as well as public bathing places, for men or women. The cost of public bathing is 12 1/2 Cts. and 25 Cents for private bathing. . .
* [[Peale:“The public '''Bath''' is extended wings on each side about 40 feet into the river on which there are a range of boxes to dress and undress, Charles Willson]]these have stairs with ropes to decend into the water on the 3 sides and at the end next the river is a sunken vessel of an oblong square, c. 1825, describing New Yorkand the debth of the water therein is about 4 feet, Nfor the accomdation of those who cannot swim.YIn the private '''baths''' they have the same kind of vessels which rise and fall with the tide. (Miller, Hart, You are furnished with a towel and Wardan oil cap for the head. They have warm '''baths''' for those who want them. The[re] is another '''bathing house''' on the same river, edswhich at present is not in order except for the accomodation of women., 2000: 5:247–48) <ref name="Miller et al"></ref>
:"Peale went to a “If there were also '''bathing houseBathing houses''' on the north east river, this building has a private as well as public bathing places, for men or women. The cost of public bathing is 12 1/2 Cts. and 25 Cents it was the custom generally for private bathing. . . the Inhabitants to make frequent use, especially during the hot seasons, it would contribute much to ward off those dreadful fevers which too oftain afflict large Cities.
:"The public '''Bath''' is extended wings on each side about 40 feet into the river on which there are a range of boxes to dress and undress, these have stairs with ropes to decend into the water on the 3 sides and at the end next the river is a sunken vessel of an oblong square, and the debth of the water therein is about 4 feet, for the accomdation of those who cannot swim. In the private '''baths''' they have the same kind of vessels which rise and fall with the tide. You are furnished with a towel and an oil cap for the head. They have warm '''baths''' for those who want them. The[re] is another '''bathing house''' on the same river, which at present is not in order except for the accomodation of women.
[[File:"If there were also 1782.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 6, Sophie Madeleine du Pont, ''Spout bath at the Warm Springs'Bathing houses''' on the east river, and it was the custom generally for the Inhabitants to make frequent use, especially during the hot seasons(Berkeley Springs), it would contribute much to ward off those dreadful fevers which too oftain afflict large Cities1837."]]
*du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, July 21, 1837, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), VA (later WV) (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 173, 179)<ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, ''Sophie du Pont, A Young Lady in America: Sketches, Diaries, & Letters, 1823–1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
* du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, July 21, 1837, describing Warm Springs (Berkeley :“Warm Springs), Va. (later W.Va.) (quoted The most abundant of these gushes from the earth in Low and Hinsley 1987: 173, 179) <ref>Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsleythe middle of a large octagonal [[basin]] of mason work covered with a wooden building having an opening at the top, & four neat & comfortable rooms on as many sides for the accommodation of bathing. This '''bath'''Sophie Du Pont, A Young Lady is thirty eight feet in America: Sketchesdiameter; & the temperature of water 96 degrees—It is one of the most curious & beautiful objects I have seen, Diariesthe water is pure & translucent to an almost dazzling degree, & Letters, 1823-1833'' (New York: Harry N. Abramsrises in ceaseless flow, 1987), [https://wwwaccompanied by showers of bright gleaming air bubbles.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U2EJBX3K view on Zotero].</ref>
:"Warm Springs. . . . The most abundant “There are several other springs of these gushes from the earth same kind in the middle of a large octagonal [[basinmeadow]] of mason work covered —round one a platform is built with a wooden building having an opening at benches, under shady trees, for those who drink the topwater, which notwithstanding its odour of half spoiled eggs & four neat & comfortable rooms on as many sides for its warmth, is not very nauseous to the accommodation of bathing. This taste—Another '''bathhouse''' contains four small '''baths''', into one of which a ''spout'' is thirty eight feet in diameter; & arranged ''for'' the temperature benefit of water 96 degrees&mdash;It is one of the most curious & beautiful objects those who are recommended to take ''douches''. I have seen, the water is pure tried this at Dr Horner’s request & translucent think it of service to an almost dazzling degreeme, & rises in ceaseless flow, accompanied by showers of bright gleaming air bubbles. . as well as the bathing. ” [Fig. 6]
:"There are several other springs of the same kind in the [[meadow]]&mdash;round one a platform is built with benches, under shady trees, for those who drink the water, which notwithstanding its odour of half spoiled eggs & its warmth, is not very nauseous to the taste&mdash;Another '''bath house''' contains four small '''baths''', into one of which a ''spout'' is arranged ''for'' the benefit of those who are recommended to take ''douches''. I have tried this at Dr Horner’s request & think it of service to me, as well as the bathing." [Fig. 6]
*Alcott, William A., August 1838, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages” (''American Annals of Education'' 8: 343)<ref>William A. Alcott, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages,” ''American Annals of Education'' 8, no. 8 (August 1838): 337–47, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5K3WRQ2I view on Zotero].</ref>
* Alcott, William A., August 1838, "Embellishment :“In all our larger cities and Improvement of Towns and Villages" (towns there should be public '''baths'American Annals of Education'' 8: 343) <ref>William A. Alcott, "Embellishment and Improvement custom should require their daily use by those who have not the means of Towns and Villages," private ones. And if we do not recommend public '''bathing houses'American Annals of Education'' 8 (August 1838): 337–47to every town and village of New England, of every size, it is because we do humbly hope our citizens will provide themselves with conveniences of the kind at their own expense, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5K3WRQ2I view on Zotero]when they can be made to feel their importance.</ref>
:"In all our larger cities and towns there should be public '''baths''', and custom should require their daily use by those who have not the means of private ones. And if we do not recommend public '''bathing houses''' to every town and village of New England, of every size, it is because we do humbly hope our citizens will provide themselves with conveniences of the kind at their own expense, when they can be made to feel their importance."
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), October 1850, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” describing a residence in Cambridge, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 16: 462)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 16, no. 10 (October 1850): 461–62, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/599Z2NAK view on Zotero].</ref>
* :“The sailing [[Charles Mason Hovey|Hoveypond]], C. M.with the exception of the [[walk]]s around the border, October 1850, "Notes on Gardens and Nurseries," describing the planting of a residence few trees on the island in Cambridgethe centre, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 16: 462) <ref>Charles Mason Hoveyhave been completed since last year, "Notes on Gardens and Nurseriesa fine boat-house," to combine a '''bathing-house'The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 16, no&c. 10 (October 1850): 461–62, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/599Z2NAK view on Zotero]was now just being finished.</ref>
:"The sailing [[pond]], with the exception of the [[walk]]s around the border, and the planting of a few trees on the island in the centre, have been completed since last year, and a fine boat-house, to combine a '''bathing-house''', &c., was now just being finished."
*Watson, John Fanning, 1857, describing Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower, Philadelphia, PA (1857: 1:411)<ref>John Fanning Watson, ''Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania in the Olden Time; Being a Collection of Memoirs, Anecdotes, and Incidents of the City and Its Inhabitants, and of the Earliest Settlements of the Inland Part of Pennsylvania, from the Days of the Founders'', 2 vols. (Philadelphia: E. Thomas, 1857), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5PTKBUW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
* Watson, John Fanning, 1857, describing :“I had long heard traditional facts concerning the rural beauty and charming scenes of Bathsheba's Bath and Bower, Philadelphia, Pa. (1:411) <ref>John Fanning Watson, ''Annals of Philadelphia 'bath''' and Pennsylvania in the Olden Time; Being a Collection of Memoirs[[bower]], Anecdotes, and Incidents of as told among the City and Its Inhabitants, and earliest recollections of the Earliest Settlements aged. They had heard their parents talk of going out over the Inland Part of Pennsylvania, from Second street [[bridge]] into the Days of country about the Founders''Society hill, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: E. Thomas, 1857), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5PTKBUW2 view on Zotero]and there making their tea—regale at the above—named spring.</ref>
:"I had long heard traditional facts concerning the rural beauty and charming scenes of Bathsheba's '''bath''' and [[bower]], as told among the earliest recollections of the aged. They had heard their parents talk of going out over the Second street [[bridge]] into the country about the Society hill, and there making their tea—regale at the above—named spring."
{{break}}
===Citations===
* [[Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–431741, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.) <ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th edned., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].</ref>
:"'''BATH''', BALNEUM, a convenient receptacle of water for persons to wash, or plunge in, either for health or pleasure. See WATER. '''''Baths''''' are either ''natural'' or ''artificial''. Natural, again, are either ''hot'' or '''cold'''....
:"'''BATHS''', BALNEA, in architecture, denote large pompous buildings among the ancients, erected for the sake of bathing.
:"'''''Baths''''' made a part of the ancient gymnasia."
* Bordley, J. B., July 1798, ''Country Habitations'' (p. 1798: 11 fn) <ref>J. B. [John Beale] Bordley, ''Country Habitations'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1798), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FQ7V6B5S view on Zotero].</ref>
:"Thus “Thus from water thrown up, every house might have ''family '''baths'''''; the most important of all building—improvements for the health and comfort of families, that can be adopted in our climate especially. You now rise from bed and wash face and hands&mdash;your hands—your tip ends. Why not rise and plunge into your wash-[[bason]]&mdash;a —a '''bath''' adjacent to your bed-chamber? instead of using a gallon vessel of water, only for hands and face! Every family in this fine climate ought to have its '''''bath'''''; and when there are servants, proper bathing places should be provided for them.
:"Bathing “Bathing moistens, soaks, washes, supples and refreshes the whole body. When the water is tepid, bathing is always safe, cleaning and refreshing; when ''cold'', or made more than blood ''warm'', it is wholesome or not according to the state of health; but is very beneficial in many cases, when well advised to use the one or the other, according to the state of health."
* [[Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 1:n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), vol. 1, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/R6R883RR view on Zotero].</ref>
:"'''B`ATH''', ''n''. [Sax. ''baeth'', ''batho'', a '''bath'''; ''bathian'', to bathe; W. ''badh'', or ''baz''; D. G. Sw. Dan. ''bad'', a '''''bath'''''; Ir. '''''bath''''', the sea; Old Phrygian ''bedu'', water. Qu. W. ''bozi'', to immerse.]
:"1“1. A place for bathing; a convenient vat or receptacle of water for persons to plunge or wash their bodies in. '''Baths''' are warm or tepid, hot or cold, more generally called ''warm'' and ''cold''. They are also ''natural'' or ''artificial''. ''Natural'' '''baths''' are those which consist of spring water, either hot or cold, which is often impregnated with iron, and called chalybeate, or with sulphur, carbonic acid, and other mineral qualities. These waters are often very efficacious in scorbutic, bilious, dyspeptic and other complaints.
:"2“2. A place in which heat is applied to a body immersed in some substance. Thus,
:"A “A ''dry'' '''bath''' is made of hot sand, ashes, salt, or other matter, for the purpose of applying heat to a body immersed in them.
:"A “A ''vapor'' '''bath''' is formed by filling an apartmentwith hot steam or vapor, in which the body sweats copiously, as in Russia; or the term is used, for the application of hot steam to a diseased part of the body. ''Encyc. Tooke.''
:"A “A ''metalline'' '''bath''' is water impregnated with iron or other metallic substance, and applied to a diseased part. ''Encyc....''
:"3“3. A house for bathing. In some eastern countries, '''baths''' are very magnificent edifices."
* Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' ([1849] ; repr., 1976: 1:33) <ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
:"Design “Design V.&mdash;Elevations—Elevations, plans, details, ground [[plot]] and scenic [[view]] of a cottage in the Tudor style, designed for a country residence on the bank of the Bronx river, in Westchester County, N. Y. The tenement comprises ten acres of ground. . . . The premises will contain a gardener's gardener’s lodge, [[summer-house]], stone [[bridge]], coach-house, '''bathhouse''', and out-buildings, screened by ornamental [[shrubbery]]." <hr>
==Images==
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath ([[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs)]]], Va. VA [detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June - September June–September 1787. "f“f. a large '''Bath ''' for swimming" swimming” and "g“g. a '''Bath ''' for Poor People".”
Image:0462.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], "Warm “Warm or [[Berkeley Springs]], in Virginia," 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June - September June–September 1787.
Image:0460.jpg|Charles Varlé, ''Project for the Improvement of the [[Square ]] and the Town of Bath'' [detail], 1809. "F“F. addition of '''Bath"'''.”
Image:0722.jpg|Anonymous, "Barrell “Barrell Farm," Pleasant Hill, 1817. "Bathing House" “Bathing House” is located just below the poplar [[grove]].
Image:1782.jpg|Sophie Madeleine du Pont, ''Spout '''bath ''' at the Warm Springs'' ([[Berkeley Springs]]), 1837.
Image:0568.jpg|William Keenan, ''Plan of the City and Neck of Charleston, S.C.'', September 1844. "“'''Bathing House" '''” at the bottom left of the plan.
Image:0487.jpg|William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.
Image:0567.jpg|Sam A. Gilbert, ''A Plan of the City of Charleston'', 1849. "“'''Bathing House" '''” at the bottom of the plan. Image:0781.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Plan and section of Villa at Oswego, New York, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 12. “'''bath-house''', L.” Image: 2288.jpg|Map of White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, Virginia, 1854.
Image:07812288_detail1.jpg|Frances Palmer, Plan and section Map of Villa at Oswego, New YorkWhite Sulphur Springs, in William H. RanlettGreenbrier County, ''The Architect'' (1851)Virginia, vol1854 [detail]. 2, pl. 12. "bath-house, L"
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0907.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Speranza, in ''Architectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux'' (1795).  Image:1781.jpg|Sophie Madeleine du Pont, Octagonal Bath at Warm Springs ([[Berkeley Springs]]), 1837.
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0703.jpg|[[Lewis Miller]], "The “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County," n.d.
Image:09082280.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Aerial View Frontal [[view]] of Park(?), Esperanzatwo [[pavilion]]s on the water for the city of Speranza, 1794-951795.
FileImage:21162281.jpg|Edwin Whitefield[[Pierre Pharoux]], ''Fountain Park near Philadelphia. Residence Aerial [[view]] of two [[pavilion]]s on the water for the city of A. McMakin Esq.''Speranza, c. 18501795.
Image:2116.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''[[Fountain]] [[Park]] near Philadelphia. Residence of A. McMakin Esq.'', c. 1850.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Water Features]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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