As a member of a wealthy family, Callender was well educated and, according to the scholars Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf, had access to the collections of the Library Company of Philadelphia throughout her life. Both her father and her husband, Samuel Sansom, Jr. (1738/39&ndash;1824), were members of the institution, which included various architectural, gardening, and horticultural manuals in its collections.<ref>Callender attended Anthony Benezet’s Society of Friends’ girls’ school in Philadelphia and also studied under Maria Jeanne Reynier, a French school mistress. In 1762 she married Samuel Sansom, Jr., a merchant, real estate investor, and fellow Quaker from Philadelphia. Beginning in 1776, Samuel Sansom served as treasurer of the Library Company of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. The couple had five children: William (b. 1763), Sarah (b. 1764), Joseph (b. 1767), Catherine (b. 1769), and Samuel (b. 1773). Catherine died of smallpox as an infant, but all of the other Sansom children survived to adulthood. Callender 2010, 12, 14, 21, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero]. The Library Company of Philadelphia’s 1770 and 1775 catalogs, for example, include titles such as William Halfpenny, ''Useful Architecture'' (London, 1752); ''The Builder’s Dictionary'' (London, 1734); James Lee, ''An Introduction to Botany'' (London, 1760); Thomas Hitt, ''A Treatise of Fruit Trees'', 2nd ed. (London, 1757); Philip Miller, ''Gardener’s and Florist’s Dictionary'' (London: 1724); Philip Miller, ''The Gardener’s Kalendar'', 12th ed. (London: 1760); ''Hill’s Compleat Body of Gardening''; ''(William) Salmon’s English Herbal'' (London, 1710); and James Wheeler, ''Botanist’s and Gardener’s Dictionary'' (London, 1765), among many others. Several of the library’s early printed catalogs are available online, http://librarycompany.org/about/history.htm.</ref> As part of their education, upper-class women in eighteenth-century Philadelphia were encouraged to read widely and to “enhance and display” the knowledge they acquired from books “through fieldwork and critical observation of the world around them.”<ref>Sarah E. Fatherly, "'The Sweet Recourse of Reason': Elite Women’s Education in Colonial Philadelphia," ''The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 128, no. 3 (July 2004): 230, 232, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DDXUGMRR view on Zotero].</ref> Visiting country houses provided “exclusive…educational opportunities” for Callender and her companions, who were often permitted to explore the estates’ art collections, architecture, and gardens.<ref>Fatherly 2004, 251, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DDXUGMRR view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="BushHill_cite"></span>After a September 1758 visit to [[James Hamilton]]’s [[Bush Hill]], for example, Callender wrote about the “fine house and gardens, with Statues, and fine paintings,” and commented in particular upon works depicting St. Ignatius and the mythological story of the rape of Proserpine ([[#BushHill|view text]]). [[James Hamilton|Hamilton]] had amassed one of the few notable fine art collections in the Philadelphia area during this period, and, because he often welcomed visitors, his estate served as “a kind of art museum for Philadelphia’s gentry.”<ref>Reinberger and McLean 2015, 240, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5BEHWQK6 view on Zotero].</ref>
From May to June 1759, twenty-one-year-old Hannah Callender traveled to New York City and Long Island. In her diary, she notes a visit to Bowne House, the home of Samuel Bowne in Flushing, where she participated in a game of “trays-ace” in the [[orchard]].<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entry for May 26, 1759, in Vaux 1889, 441, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/STWXKSK3 view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="Bayards_cite"></span> A couple of weeks laterIn her diary, Callender wrote that she “took a walk to Bayard’s country seat” near New York and described noted the “fine [[walk]] of locust locas [''sic''] trees” that leads leading to the houseat "Boyard's [''sic''] Country seat" near New York, with “a beautiful [[wood]] on off one side , and a garden Garden for both use and ornament on the otherside.” Despite such praise, Callender championed Philadelphia’s gardens above New York’s, claiming that New York had “no gardens…which gardens…that come up to ours of Philadelphia” [P]hiladelphia” ([[#Bayards|view text]]). <span id="RichmondSeat_cite"></span> After returning to Philadelphia, Callender recorded the agricultural and ornamental uses of the land at Richmond Seat, observing that half of the sixty-acre property was covered in “a fine [[woodsWoods]],” an [[orchard]], flower and kitchen gardens, and the house and barn, while the remaining thirty acres was given over to [[meadow]] ([[#RichmondSeat|view text]]).
Hannah Callender’s diary also contains descriptions of various country houses situated along the banks of the [[Schuylkill River]]. <span id="Francis_cite"></span> In June 1762 she visited the estate of the late Tench Francis, Sr. (d. 1758), and remarked upon the “fine [[prospect]]” available behind the house, from which she could see several neighboring estates, including [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], Dr. William Smith’s Octagon, and Baynton’s House, as well as “a genteel garden, with serpentine [[walk]]s and a low [[hedge]]s.” From the garden, Callender observed, one could “descend by [slopes ] to a [[lawnLawn]]” with a [[summer house]] and then descend again “to the edge of a the hill terminated which Terminates by a [[fence|fen[c]e]] , for security” ([[#Francis|view text]]). <span id="Belmont1_cite"></span> After a visit to [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], the country [[seat]] of [[William Peters]], Callender described in great detail various features of the estate’s landscape design ([[#Belmont1|view text]]). [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]] long remained one of Callender’s favorite sites. <span id="Belmont2_cite"></span> Twenty-three years after she first described the estate, she once again recorded her impression of [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], which was now under the purview of [[Richard Peters]], lauding it as “the highest and finist [sic] situation I know, its gardens and [[walk]]s are in the King William taste, but are very pleasant” ([[#Belmont2|view text]]).
Hannah Callender married Samuel Sansom, Jr. (1738/39&ndash;1824), a merchant, real estate investor, and fellow Quaker from Philadelphia, in 1762.<ref>Beginning in 1776, Sansom also served as treasurer of the Library Company and the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. See Callender 2010, 21, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> The couple had five children: William (b. 1763), Sarah (b. 1764), Joseph (b. 1767), Catherine (b. 1769), and Samuel (b. 1773).<ref>Catherine died of smallpox as an infant, but all of the other Sansom children survived to adulthood. Callender 2010, 14, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> In July 1782 Samuel and Hannah her husband moved their primary residence from Philadelphia to Parlaville, a suburban retreat located about two and a half miles north of the city on the east bank banks of the [[Schuylkill River]], in July 1782.<ref>In the diary entry for July 4, 1785, Callender notes that "this day three years we come to live at Parlaville." Callender 2010, 298, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> As the scholars Susan E. Klepp and Karin Wulf have observed, Parlaville, in contrast to Richmond Seat, “was small, private, and quite deliberately divorced from commercial concerns.”<ref>Callender 2010, 167, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> Joseph Francis was hired This contrast between Richmond Seat as a working [[plantation]] and Parlaville as a suburban retreat mirrors a larger generational shift in Quaker attitudes toward retiring to plan the garden at Parlaville, countryside. According to Mark Reinberger and Hannah Callender evidently relished tending itElizabeth McLean, proclaiming gardening “the primitive occupation of man, <u>designed</u> by as the almighty religious motivation for a happy life!”<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entries for December 10, 1784working the land waned, country houses were typically located closer to the city and April 11, 1785, in Callender 2010, 282, 291, [https://wwwprimarily served as a "refuge.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> Callender obtained a “variety of Trees, flowers, to protect and plants” for Parlaville during the spring of 1785, including white pine that her husband improve one's physical and son Samuel procured from “nine miles up [the] [[Schuylkill River|Schuikill]]” and “two Tuby Rose roots” that an acquaintance had brought from Barbados.<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entries for April 12, 24, and 28, 1785mental health, though with less emphasis on one's spiritual health than in Callender 2010, 291, 292, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero]earlier days."</ref> In July 1786 Hannah Callender Reinberger and Samuel Sansom moved back to PhiladelphiaMcLean 2015, although they continued to maintain a secondary residence at Parlaville.<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entry for January 1, 1788, in Callender 2010, 326333, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ 5BEHWQK6 view on Zotero].</ref>
Joseph Francis was hired to plan the garden at Parlaville, and Hannah Callender evidently relished tending it, writing on one occasion that she "rose blythly to sow my seeds" and, in a separate entry, proclaiming gardening “the primitive occupation of man, <u>designed</u> by the almighty for a happy life!”<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entries for December 10, 1784, and April 14 and 11, 1785, in Callender 2010, 282, 291, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> During the spring of 1785, Callender obtained a “variety of Trees, flowers, and plants” for Parlaville, including both native and non-native species. On April 24, for example, Callender noted that her husband and son Samuel "went nine miles up [the] [[Schuylkill River|Schuikill]] for white pine trees.” Four days later she procured “two Tuby Rose [tuberose] roots” that an acquaintance had brought from Barbados.<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entries for April 12, 24, and 28, 1785, in Callender 2010, 291, 292, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> Hannah Callender and Samuel Sansom moved back to Philadelphia in July 1786, although they continued to maintain a secondary residence at Parlaville.<ref>Hannah Callender, diary entry for January 1, 1788, in Callender 2010, 326, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref> Hannah Callender’s diary remained in the possession of her family after her death in 1801. In 1889, George Vaux, a descendent descendant of Callender, published a selection of entries written by Callender between 1758 and 1762. The diary, which is now housed in the collection of the American Philosophical Society, was transcribed and published in full in 2010.<ref>Vaux 1889, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/STWXKSK3 view on Zotero]; Callender 2010, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/33F7ZBKJ view on Zotero].</ref>
--''Lacey Baradel''

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