* Jefferson, Thomas, 9 April 1786, describing the gardens at Blenheim Palace, estate of the Duke of Marlborough, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (1944: 114)
: “Rosamund’s '''bower''' was near where is now a little [[grove]], about two hundred yards from the palace. The well is near where the '''bower''' was.”
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 14 July 1787, describing Gray’s Tavern, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:275)
: “We then rambled over the Gardens, which are large—seemed to be in a number of detached areas, all different in size and form. The alleys [[alley]]s were none of them straight, nor were there any two alike. At every end, side, and corner, there were ''summer-houses'', arbors [[arbor]]s covered with vines or flowers, or shady '''bowers''' encircled with trees and flowering shrubs[[shrub]]s, each of which was formed in a different taste.”
* Anonymous, 7 June 1799, describing a property for sale near Richmond, Va. (''Virginia Argus'')
: “Valuable Property FOR Sale at the [[Bowling Green]], near Richmond, that much frequented Tavern and [[public Garden]]. . . . The garden is very extensive . . . with [[Summer HousesHouse]]s, and '''bowers''' for the accommodation of company.”
* Jefferson, Thomas, 1804, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (quoted in Nichols and Griswold 1978: 110–11)
: “At the Rocks . . . a turning Tuscan temple . . . proportions of Pantheon, . . . at the Point, . . . build Demosthenes’s lantern. . . . The [[kitchen garden ]] is not the place for ornaments of this kind. '''bowers''' and treillages suit that better, & these temples [[temple]]s will be better disposed in the [[pleasure groundsground]]s.”
* Cuming, Fortescue, 1810, describing Canons-burgh, Pa. (p. 217)
: “The most striking thing I saw here was my Landlord’s garden, which is both good and handsome, being laid out with taste, abounding in a variety of the best culinary vegetables, and having some very pleasant shady '''bowers''', where the student, or man of leisure, sheltered from the noonday sun, and inhaling the fragrance of the surrounding aromatick [''sic''] plants might luxuriantly roam into the realms of fancy.”
* Cuming, Fortescue, 1810, describing a seat in Pittsburgh, Pa. (p. 227)
: “What adds to the beauty of Mr. Tannehill’s seat is, a handsome [[grove ]] of about two acres of young black oaks, northwest of his dwelling, through the middle of which runs a long frame '''bowery''', on whose end fronting the road, is seen this motto, ‘''1808, Dedicated to Virtue, Liberty, and Independence’'' Here a portion of the citizens meet on each 4th of July, to hail with joyful hearts the day that gave birth to the liberties and happiness of their country.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1811, describing Sidney, summer retreat of Margaret Bayard Smith, near Washington, D.C. (1906: 88)
: “When Mr. Tracy, (who was an important personage on the occasion) brought the cart to the door Lytleton and all the boys jump’d in it and went to the woods [[wood]]s for boughs. L. drove furiously along to the no small delight of the boys and soon return’d like the moving wood in Macbeth. The [[Piazza ]] was soon transform’d into a '''bower''', —every hand was busy, —Mrs. Clay, Mr. Smith and all.”
* Faux, William, 1819, describing the garden of Nathaniel Russell, Charleston, S.C. (quoted in Lounsbury 1994: 41)
: “[An English visitor in Charleston] called on the venerable Nathaniel Russell, Esq., residing in a splendid mansion, surrounded by a [[wilderness ]] of flowers and '''bowers ''' of myrtles, oranges and lemons, smothered with fruit and flowers.”
* du Pont, Sophie Madeleine, 1828, describing Eleutherian Mills, estate of Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, near Wilmington, Del. (quoted in Low and Hinsley 1987: 38)
: “I thought of other Maydays; long past, when you and I were little children—of our walks[[walk]]s, and our plays—our '''bowers''', mudhouses, and forts, and the little fleet of boats we used to sail upon the pond—I [[pond]]—I could not help feeling sad when I thought of how we were changed—we, that once played together, walked together, studied our little lessons in partnership.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)
: “But the most enchanting [[prospect ]] is towards the grand pleasure [[grove ]] & [[green house ]] of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous rout [''sic''], passing in view of the fish ponds[[pond]]s, '''bowers''', rustic retreats, [[summer houseshouse]]s, fountains[[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c.”
* Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Boyd 1929: 432)
: “There are some pretty '''bowers''', [[summer houseshouse]]s, grottos [[grotto]]s and fish ponds [[pond]]s in this garden—the latter well stored with gold and silver fish.”
* Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)
: “Continuing through the winding walks[[walk]]s, shady '''bowers''', and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic seats [[seat]]s were placed, we arrived at the shell grotto[[grott]]o.”
* [[Downing, A. J.]], 1849, describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (p. 57)  : “In the environs of New Bedford are many beautiful residences. Among these, we desire particularly to notice the residence of James Arnold, Esq. There is scarcely a small place in New England, where the ''pleasure-grounds'' are so full of variety, and in such perfect order and keeping, as at this charming spot; and its winding [[walk]]s, open bits of [[lawn]], [[shrub]]s and plants grouped on turf, shady '''bowers''', and rustic [[seat]]s, all most agreeably combined, render this a very interesting and instructive suburban [[seat]].”
: “In the environs of New Bedford are many beautiful residences. Among these, we desire particularly to notice the residence of James Arnold, Esq. There is scarcely a small place in New England, where the ''pleasure-grounds'' are so full of variety, and in such perfect order and keeping, as at this charming spot; and its winding walks, open bits of lawn, shrubs and plants grouped on turf, shady '''bowers''', and rustic seats, all most agreeably combined, render this a very interesting and instructive suburban seat.”
===Citations===
: “'''BOWER'''. ''n''. s. [from ''bough'' or ''branch'', or from the verb to ''bow'' or ''bend''.]
: “1. An arbour[[arbou]]r; a sheltered place covered with green trees, twined and bent.”
* M’Mahon, Bernard, 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (p. 64)
: “In some spacious [[pleasure-grounds ground]]s various light ornamental buildings and erections are introduced, as ornaments to particular departments; such as temples[[temple]]s, '''bowers''', banquetting houses, alcoves[[alcove]]s, grottos[[grotto]]s, rural seats[[seat]]s, cottages, fountains[[fountain]]s, obelisks[[obelisk]]s, statues[[statue]]s, and other edifices; these and the like are usually erected in the different parts, in openings between the divisions of the ground, and contiguous to the terminations of grand walks[[walk]]s, &c. : “Some of these kinds of ornaments, however, being very expensive, are rather sparingly introduced; sometimes a [[temple ]] is presented at the termination of a grand [[walk ]] or opening, or sometimes a [[temple]], banqueting-house, or '''bower''' is erected in the centre of some spacious opening or grass-ground in the internal divisions; other parts present alcoves[[alcove]]s, '''bowers''', grottos[[grotto]]s, rural-seats, &c. at the termination of different walks[[walk]]s.”
* Loudon, J. C., 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (p. 809)
: “6157. . . . Light '''bowers''' formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to parterres[[parterre]]s; plain covered seats suit the general walks [[walk]]s of the shrubbery[[shrubber]]y.”
* Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (pp. 87, 88, 145–47, 149)
: “''Clematis virginica, or Virginian Virgin’s '''Bower'''''.—This is of most rapid growth, and produces, in July and August, a great abundance of white flowers, which are very fragrant; it is well calculated to cover arbours [[arbour]]s and '''bowers'''.... : “''Clematis viticella, or European Virgin’s '''Bower'''''.—This is a native of the south of Europe, and is greatly admired as a vine for covering '''bowers''', or training against the sides of houses, or in other situations where vines are wanted. . . . : “''Sweetbriar, or Eglantine''.—This delightful species of the rose family is well calculated to train against the sides of houses, or up the pillars [[pillar]]s of the piazza[[piazz]]a, or to intermingle with the vines which entwine '''bowers''', &c....
: “The Champney, Noisette, [rose] and most of the varieties, may be trained against the sides of houses, over '''bowers''', &c. to a very considerable length, although not quite so rampant in their growth as the different varieties of the Multiflora. . . .
: “The climbing, or running roses, suitable to train against buildings, or on arbours[[arbour]]s, '''bowers''', &c. are the following:—Common Multiflora, Roxburgh’s White Multiflora, Lady Banks’ Double White, Greville’s Superb, Champneys, Noisette, Boursaultian, Hybrid, Macartney’s, &c. ...”
* [[Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.)
: “'''BOW’ER''', ''n''. [Sax. ''bur'', a chamber or private apartment, a hut, a cottage; W. ''bwr'', an inclosure.]
: “1. A shelter or covered place in a garden, made with boughs of trees bent and twined together. It differs from ''[[arbor]]'' in that it may be round or [[square]], whereas an arbor is long and arched. ''Milton. Encyc.''
: “2. A bed-chamber; any room in a house except the hall. ''Spencer. Mason.''
: “3. A country [[seat]]; a cottage. ''Shenston., B. Johnson.'' : “4. A shady recess; a [[plantation ]] for shade. ''W. Brown....''
: “'''BOW’ERY''', ''a''. Covering; shading as a '''bower'''; also, containing '''bowers'''. ''Thomson''.”
: “From an article ''On the various form and character of Arbours as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register],'' we extract the following passages.
: “‘A singularly beautiful structure which may be classed with this kind of garden decoration has been made in Ireland.
: “‘A circular space of about sixty feet diameter, in the centre of dressed ground with scattered clumps [[clump]]s of evergreen shrubs[[shrub]]s, surrounded by lofty trees, is wholly enclosed by a continued arcade of iron arches[[arch]]es. . . . All the arches [[arch]]es are thickly covered with climbing plants of strong rapid growth, which proceed along the wires to the top of the pole. . . . : “‘The interior is an [[arbor ]] of great magnitude, not so closely covered as everywhere absolutely to exclude the sun, but yet so as to render it always shady and agreeable. . . .
: “‘The entire effect is good, and this may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial '''bower''' of the present day.’”
* Johnson, George William, 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (p. 98)
: “'''BOWER'''. See ''[[Arbor]]''.”
* [[Downing, A. J.]], February 1848, “Hints and Designs for Rustic Buildings” (''Horticulturist'' 2: 363–64)
: “But the more humble and simple cottage grounds, the rural walks [[walk]]s of the ''[[ferme ornée]]'', and the modest garden of the suburban amateur, have also their ornamental objects and rural buildings—in their place, as charming and spirited as the more artistical embellishments which surround the palladian villa. : “These are the seats, '''bowers''', grottoes [[grotto]]es and arbors[[arbor]]s, of [[rustic_style|rustic work—than work]]—than which nothing can be more easily and economically constructed, nor can add more to the rural or [[picturesque ]] expression of the scene.
: “Those simple buildings, often constructed only of a few logs and twisted limbs of trees, are in good keeping with the simplest or the grandest forms of nature.”
* Miller, Lewis, c. 1850, description on a drawing of an idealized scene in the ''Orbis Pictus'' (n.p.)
::“While the fish, A narrow [[vista]], carpeted with rich— green grass. invites my tread: here Showers light in golden dots. So blended, that the very air
::Seems network as i enter there. On each Side Shrinks the '''bowery''' Shade: Before me Spreads an Emerald glade.” [See Fig. 3]

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