[[File:1835.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 2, [[Robert Mills]], "Sketch of the Washington Nat'l. Monumt.," 1845.]]
In nineteenth-century America, the obelisk was utilized on a monumental scale in public landscape design. Some examples were built as hollow shafts that could be ascended by means of an internal staircase leading to interior lookout platforms or external galleries, allowing the visitor a panoramic [[view]] of the surrounding landscape.<ref name="Zukowsky_1976">John Zukowsky, John. 1976. “Monumental American Obelisks: Centennial Vistas.,” ''Art Bulletin'' 58, no.4 (December1976): 574–581. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BFPET4DT/q/zukowsky view on Zotero].</ref> [[Solomon Willard|Solomon Willard's]] [[Bunker Hill Monument]] in Boston was the earliest obelisk of this type, dating from 1825 [Fig. 1].<ref>Zukowsky argues that the American monumental obelisk was a combination of the solid obelisk and the hollow memorial column. As it developed through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the monumental obelisk was a formally unique and distinctly American monument type that had military connotations and served as an image of continental expansion and unity during the centennial era. See Zukowsky, "Monumental American Obelisks," 581.</ref> Monumental obelisks were also striking landmarks in the relatively low urban skylines of the first half of the nineteenth century. [[Robert Mills]], architect of the [[Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.)| Washington Monument]] in Washington, D.C., designed several monumental obelisks that served both as observation towers and civic displays [Fig. 2].<ref>Mills designed four monumental obelisks during his career. ; see Pamela Scott, Pamela. 1989. “Robert Mills and American Monuments.” In Monuments” in ''Robert Mills, Architect'', edited by ed. John M. Bryan, 143-177. (Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects Press. , 1989), 143-177, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NQCC9937/q/robert%20mills view on Zotero].</ref>
The obelisk's rich antique associations imbued it with symbolic significance. Its origins in Egypt, prominence in the Roman world, and, since the Renaissance, use in gardens and [[park]]s lent a vocabulary of the exotic and the historic to American landscape design. Several collected treatise citations recount the best-known examples of ancient obelisks, many of which have survived into the modern period. Excavations in Rome during the seventeenth century, for example, revealed dozens of Egyptian obelisks that were re-erected throughout the city. At the same time, modern obelisks ornamented French gardens such as Versailles. Many great gardens in Britain in the eighteenth century also featured obelisks: Castle Howard, Chiswick House, Holkham Hall, and Montacute House, to name a few.<ref>Jellicoe, Sir GeoffreyJellicoe, Susan Jellicoe, Patrick Goode, and Michael Lancaster, ed. 1986eds. , ''The Oxford Companion to Gardens''. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 408. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S392BPJ8/q/jellicoe view on Zotero].</ref> With the French invasion of Egypt in 1798, the taste for Egyptian statuary and styles increased and obelisks appeared more frequently as props in gardens.<ref>For information on the Egyptian style in America, see Carrott, Richard G. 1978. Carrott, ''The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources, Monuments, and Meaning, 1808-1858''. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. , 1978, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HC7PJUR7/q/egyptian view on Zotero].</ref> Thus the tradition of obelisks in European gardens and public spaces transmitted via literature, European designers, and American visitors abroad, was a significant influence on American garden practice. Both [[Ephraim Chambers]] (1741–43) and [[Noah Webster]] (1828) described the use of hieroglyphic inscriptions on obelisks that expressed the historic tradition from which the form derived.
[[File:1170.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, [[E.J. Pinkerton]], ''General View of Laurel Hill Cemetery'', 1844.]]
 
In America, the choice of the obelisk for political commemoration in public spaces was recorded in the revolutionary period at Williamsburg, Va., where the monument was intended to honor those who opposed the Stamp Act. The repeal of that act was celebrated by the erection of a temporary obelisk in the [[Boston Common]], as illustrated in a print by [[Paul Revere]] [<span id="Fig_6_cite"></span>[[#Fig_5|Fig. 5]]]. After the War of Independence, [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant]] specified obelisks as decorations in the new capital city that would memorialize the heroes of the Revolution. His plan of 1792 indicated these monuments embellishing the public [[square]]s of the new capital [<span id="Fig_8_cite"></span>[[#Fig_7|Fig. 7]]]. The association with republican Rome, the site of many obelisks, was a frequent iconographic reference in early federal decoration and rhetoric. The obelisk was a popular public and political monument, as <span id="Mills_cite"></span>[[Robert Mills]] argued, not only because of its association with antiquity and republicanism, but also because its surfaces allowed inscriptions that could particularize the memorial function. He described, for example, how the ornamentation on his design for the [[Bunker Hill]] obelisk symbolized the states' formation of the federal union ([[#Mills|view text]]).
The Egyptian obelisk was appropriate for the expression of early national symbolism because of the equation of the newly formed United States with another "first civilization." Freemasonry also fostered the link with ancient Egypt. The obelisk exemplified "cubic architecture" preferred by the Burlington circle of Freemason architects, derived from Palladio and [[James Gibbs]] and practiced in America by [[Thomas Jefferson]] and [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]]. It was seen as a repudiation of baroque eclecticism, as well as colonial red-brick Anglo-Dutch architecture. For American Freemasons, building took on a political cast that extended into the garden.<ref>Roger Kennedy, Roger. 1990. ''Orders from France''. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990), 431. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XIX6UD2A/q/roger%20kennedy view on Zotero].</ref> [[File:0093.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 4, [[Mary Eliza Cushman]], ''Memorial to Lt. Jacob Cushman'', c.1815-1820.]]
[[File:0093.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 4, [[Mary Eliza Cushman]], ''Memorial to Lt. Jacob Cushman'', c. 1815-1820.]]
[[Robert Mills]] pointed out that its diminishing width made the obelisk lighter and more graceful than another popular monument form, the [[column]]. <span id="Willard_cite"></span>[[Solomon Willard]] preferred the obelisk to the [[column]], the latter being too "splendid" ([[#Willard|view text]]). It was both the [[picturesque]] effect as well as the historical significance of the obelisk that motivated <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|J. C. Loudon's]] recommendation of it in the garden ([[#Loudon|view text]]).
The visual and textual evidence surrounding [[Charles Willson Peale|Charles Willson Peale's]] obelisk represents a clear correlation between usage, treatise citation, and image based on early American primary sources. Peale noted his reliance on <span id="Gregory_cite"></span>[[G. Gregory|G. Gregory's]] definition in the ''Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1806–7, 1816) in building an obelisk in his garden at [[Belfield]]. Gregory's description gave the proportions and dimensions of the "truncated, quadrangular, and slender pyramid" that [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale]] sketched in his letters and inscribed on an obelisk [<span id="Fig_11_cite"></span>[[#Fig_9|Fig. 9]]]. The emblematic significance of this obelisk was also suggested in [[Gregory]]'s treatise description of the obelisk built to memorialize Ptolemy Philadelphus, the ancient Egyptian who built the great obelisk lighthouse and library at Alexandria, and after whom [[Peale]] of Philadelphia may have been modeling himself ([[#Gregory|view text]]).
[[Jefferson]] and [[Peale]]'s garden obelisks served private but also commemorative purposes as both men planned to use the forms garden features that would eventually become their tombstones. In each case, these public figures mixed political and private associations in their choice of inscriptions. In addition to the political significance, the use of the Egyptian obelisk for funereal ornamentation was well established in America. The discussion surrounding the designs for [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] in Cambridge, Mass., conveyed the popular interest in Egyptian-style monuments and architecture in early rural cemeteries. Defenders of the plans for the cemetery called it an "architecture of the dead" because nearly all surviving Egyptian architecture or monuments had a funerary purpose.<ref>Mount Auburn Cemetery was originally to be named the "American Père Lachaise." Although the name was not given, Mount Auburn Cemetery was often compared with Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Richard Etlin recounts the history of this French cemetery as an influential landscape continued in America. He discusses the Egyptian style of much of that cemetery's architecture and monuments. See Etlin, Richard A. 1984. Etlin, ''The Architecture of Death: The Transformation of the Cemetery in Eighteenth-Century Paris''. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984), 358–368. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/G6QIFAZT/q/etlin view on Zotero].</ref> The Egyptian practice of placing the tomb "in the midst of the beauty and luxuriance of nature"<ref>Blanche Linden-Ward, Blanche. 1989. ''Silent City on a Hill: Landscapes of Memory and Boston’s Mount Auburn Cemetery''. (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1989), 261–266. , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K5AS42UI/q/linden-ward view on Zotero].</ref> was also cited as justification for this new garden type. [Fig. 4].
The obelisk had a long and continuous tradition in American landscape design that began in the colonies and lasted well into the nineteenth century. The feature was utilized in both public and private gardens ranging in scale from a few feet to the tallest edifices in American architecture until the advent of the skyscraper. Obelisks persisted over time despite changes in garden styles, finding a place within the Anglo-Dutch landscapes of Williamsburg, Va., in the mid-eighteenth century, as well as in the [[picturesque]] landscapes of rural [[cemetery|cemeteries]] one hundred years later.
===Usage===
* <div id="Callender"></div>[[Hannah Callender|Callender, Hannah]], 1762, describing [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], estate of [[Judge William Peters]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Vaux 1888: 455) <ref>George Vaux, "Extracts from the Diary of Hannah Callender," ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 12 (1888): 432–56, 432–56 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/STWXKSK3 view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Callender_cite|back up to history]]
:“A broad [[walk]] of English Cherry trees leads down to the river. The doors of the house opening opposite admit a [[prospect]] of the length of the garden over a broad gravel [[walk]] to a large handsome [[summer house]] on a [[green]]. From the windows a [[vista]] is terminated by an '''obelisk'''. On the right you enter a [[labyrinth]] of [[hedge]] of low cedar and spruce. In the middle stands a [[statue]] of Apollo. In the garden are [[statue]]s of Diana, Fame and Mercury with [[urn]]s. We left the garden for a [[wood]] cut into [[vista]]s. In the midst is a Chinese [[temple]] for a [[summer house]]. One [[avenue]] gives a fine prospect of the City. . . . Another [[avenue]] looks to the '''obelisk'''.”
<div id="Fig_5"></div>[[File:0482.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 5, [[Paul Revere]], "A View of the Obelisk erected under Liberty-Tree in Boston on the Rejoicings for the Repeal of the Stamp Act," 1766. [[#Fig_5_cite|Back up to history]]]]
* Anonymous, May 19, 1776, describing in the ''Boston Gazette'' [[Boston Common]], Boston, Mass. (quoted in Brigham 1954: 21) <ref name="Brigham_1954">Clarence Brigham, ''Paul Revere’s Engravings'' (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1954) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8QDGHC3A view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[to] be exhibited on the [[Common]], an '''Obelisk'''—A Description of which is engraved by Mr. [[Paul Revere]]; and is now selling by Edes & Gill.” [Fig. 5]
<div id="Fig_7"></div>[[File:1134.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 7, [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant]], "Plan of the City intended for the Permanent [[Seat]] of the Government of the United States...," August 1791. [[#Fig_7_cite|Back up to history]]]]
* Anonymous, May 22, 1776, describing in the ''Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter'' [[Boston Common]], Boston, Mass. (quoted in Brigham 1954: 22) <ref name="Brigham_1954"/></ref>
:“At Eleven o’clock the Signal being given by a Discharge of 21 Rockets, the horizontal Wheel on the Top of the Pyramid or '''Obelisk''' was play’d off, ending in the Discharge of sixteen Dozen of Serpents in the Air, which concluded the Shew.”
* [[William Bartram|Bartram, William]], 1789, describing settlements of the Muscogulge and Cherokee Indians (1853: 51-53) <ref name="Bartram_1853">William Bartram, "Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians, 1789, with Prefatory and Supplementary Notes by E.G. Squier," ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'', 3 (1853): 1–81, 1–81 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CWNCZI8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“PLAN OF THE ANCIENT CHUNKY-[[YARD]].
<div id="Fig_8"></div>[[File:1977_detail.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 8, [[Charles Varlé]] (artist), Francis Shallus (engraver), ''Warner & Hanna's Plan of the City and Environs of Baltimore'' [detail], 1801. [[#Fig_8_cite|Back up to history]]]]
* [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], January 4, 1792, from notes on “Plan of the City,” describing Washington, D.C. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 165) <ref> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Center of each [[Square]] will admit of [[Statue]]s, Columns, '''Obelisks''', or any other ornament such as the different States may choose to erect: to perpetuate not only the memory of such individuals whose Counsels, or military achievements were conspicuous in giving liberty and independence to this Country; but also those whose usefulness hath rendered them worthy of general imitation: to invite the youth of succeeding generations to tread in the paths of those Sages, or heroes whom their Country has thought proper to celebrate.” [Fig. 7]
* Anonymous, August 17, 1792, describing in the ''Claypole’s Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia)'' [[Belmont (Baltimore, Md.)|Belmont]], country seat of [[Charles François Adrien le Paulmier, le Chevalier d’Annemours]], Baltimore, Md. (quoted in Thompson 1906: 246) <ref>Henry F. Thompson, "The Chevalier D’Annemours," ''Maryland Historical Magazine'', 1 (1906): 241–46, 241–46 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ATM2VZQX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[The Chevalier d’Annemours built] an '''obelisk''' to honour the memory of that immortal man—Christopher Columbus . . . in a [[grove]] in one of the gardens of the villa . . . on the 3rd of August, 1792, the anniversary of the sailing of Columbus from Spain.” [Fig. 9]
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing [[New Haven Burying Ground]], New Haven, Conn. (1821: 1:192) <ref>Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', vol4 vols. 1 (New Haven: The Author, 1821), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The monuments in this ground are almost universally of marble; in a few instances from Italy; in the rest, found in this and neighbouring States. A considerable number are '''obelisks'''; others are tables; and others, slabs, placed at the head and foot of the grave. The '''obelisks''' are placed, universally, on the middle line of the lots; and thus stand in a line, successively, through the parallelograms.”
* [[Thomas Moore|Moore, Thomas]], 1804, describing Washington, D.C. (quoted in Reps 1965: 257) <ref>John W. Reps, ''The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States'' (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z3R75RFG view on Zotero].</ref>
:::“This embryo capital, where fancy sees
:::“[[Squares]] in morasses, '''obelisks''' in trees;
<div id="Fig_10"></div>[[File:0009_detail1.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 10, [[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at Belfield [detail], November 22, 1815. [[#Fig_11_cite|Back up to history]]]]
* [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], November 12, 1813, in a letter to his daughter, [[Angelica Peale Robinson]], describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 1991: 3:216) <ref name="Miller_1983-2000">Lillian B. Miller, and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Belfield Farm Years, 1810-1820'', vol. 3 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have made an '''Oblisk''' to terminate a [[Walk]] in the Garden, read in Dictionary of Arts for description of them. I made it of rough boards & white washed it with lime & allum—The allum It is said will convert the lime in time to Stone. I have put the following motto on it—on one side ‘Never return an Injury, It is a noble Triumph to overcome Evil by Good.’ another, ‘Labour while you are able it will give health to the Body—peaceful content to the mind.’ another, ‘He that will live in peace & Rest, must hear, and see, and say the best & in french ‘y voy, & te tas, si tu veux vivre en paix.’ and on another ‘Neglect no Duty.’ The distick which I have adopted is claimed by several Nations, I have put the french because it is more concise & equally expressive.” [Fig. 19]
[[File:0047.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 11, [[Anna Peale Sellers]], ''[[Belfield]] Farm'', n.d., in Robert D. Schwarz, ''A Gallery Collects Peales'', Philadelphia Collection XXXV (1987), p. 43, pl. 34.]]
* [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], November 22, 1815, in a letter to his daughter, [[Angelica Peale Robinson]], describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 1991: 3:370-371) <ref name="Miller_1983-2000"></ref>
:“The objects in sight are the road ascending to the Dwelling, Stone [[wall]] & Thorn [[hedge]] on it inclosing the Garden. The Garden [[Gate]] at the [[Fountain]], [[greenhouse|Green House]], [[summerhouse|Summer house]] a doom supported by 6 Pillars and bust of Washington crowning it – beyond that an '''Oblisk''' The Hay barracks; Barn with the wind mill on top of it to <pu> pump water for the Stock; Stables; Mantion-House Wash house and connecting [[piazza|Piaza]]; Carriage House; Spring House; [[bathhouse|Bath house]] and Cover of the [[icehouse|Ice-House]]. The whole comprehending a tolerable handsome [[View]] including Trees of various foliages…” [Fig. 10]
* [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], January 14, 1824, in a letter to his son, [[Charles Linnaeus Peale]], describing [[Belfield]], estate of [[Charles Willson Peale]], Germantown, Pa. (quoted in Rudnytzky 1986: 32) <ref>Kateryna A. Rudnytzky, "The Union of Landscape and Art: Peale’s Garden at Belfield" (unpublished Honors thesis, LaSalle University, 1986) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJK46QBZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Dear Linnius I wish you to consider whether it is not better to avoid these expenses by burying your Child in the Garden on the south side of the '''Oblisk''', a place which if I hold the farm untill my decease, I shall desire to have my body deposited. This has been my determination ever since I painted those inscriptions.”
* <div id="Mills"></div>[[Robert Mills|Mills, Robert]], March 20, 1825, in a letter to the Monument Commission, describing plans for the [[Bunker Hill Monument]], Boston, Mass. (quoted in Gallagher 1935: 204–6) <ref name="Gallagher_1935">H. M. Pierce Gallagher, ''Robert Mills, Architect of the Washington Monument, 1781-1855'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1935) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GC3NPRZJ view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Mills_cite|back up to history]]
:“I have the honor to submit for your consideration and approval, a design for the Monument you propose erecting on the spot, where the Brave General Warren and his worthy associates fell; to commemorate their valor, and the gratitude of their Country. . . .
* [[H.A.S. Dearborn|Dearborn, H.A.S.]], 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Harris 1832: 68) <ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, Mass.: E. W. Metcalf, 1832) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Among the hills, glades, and dales, which are now covered with evergreen and deciduous trees and [[shrubs]], may be selected sites for isolated graves, and tombs, and these, being surmounted with [[column|columns]], '''obelisks''', and other appropriate monuments of granite and marble, may be rendered interesting specimens of art; they will also vary and embelish the scenery embraced within the scope of the numerous sinuous [[avenue|avenues]], which may be felicitously opened in all directions and to a vast extent, from the diversified and [[picturesque]] features which the topography of the tract of land presents.”
[[File:1074.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 14, O.J. Hanks after [[James Smillie]] (artist), O.J. Hanks (engraver), “View of the Naval Monument (Central Avenue), Mount Auburn Cemetery," in [[Cornelia W. Walter]], ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' ([1847] 1850), opp. p. 22.]]* [[Nehemiah Cleaveland|Cleaveland, Nehemiah]], 1847, describing [[Greenwood Cemetery]], Brooklyn, N.Y. (p. 73) <ref>Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated: In Highly Finished Line Engraving, from Drawings Taken on the Spot/by James Smillie/With Descriptive Notices, by Nehemiah Cleaveland'' (New York: R. Martin, 1847) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JXFI68UM view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We have in this view an '''obelisk''' of considerable height, and in some respects, peculiar. The shaft is surrounded by several narrow fillets slightly raised, and connected with other ornaments. Just above the base, on the front side, is a female bust in high relief. A tablet below records the name, virtues, and premature decease of a young wife and mother. The material is brown stone, and the work is finely executed.” [Fig. 13]
* [[Cornelia W. Walter|Walter, Cornelia W.]], 1847, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, Mass. (p. 23) <ref>Cornelia Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated in a Series of Views from Drawings by James Smillie'' (New York: Martin and Johnson, 1847) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CN79BMN8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The principle '''obelisk''' represented in the opposite engraving, is a lofty cenotaph of pure white marble, ornamented on the four sides with festoons of roses in relievo, and presenting altogether a monument of good proportion, strikingly chaste and simple.” [Fig. 14]
===Citations===
* [[James Gibbs|Gibbs, James]], 1728, ''A Book of Architecture'' (description of pl. 86) <ref>James Gibbs, ''A Book of Architecture, Containing Designs of Buildings and Ornaments'' (London: Printed for W. Innys et al, 1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z8U3MQ7H view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Three Draughts of '''Obelisques''', more ornamental than the former: They keep the same Proportion with them; only that upon the left hand has four times the thickness of the '''Obelisque''' at bottom to the height of its Pedestal, because of the Ornaments upon it the top part may be made in the manner here drawn, or with other Ornaments at discretion. The Antients [''sic''] never placed their '''Obelisques''' upon moulded Bases; but ''Dominico Fontana'' and others have placed them upon Bases, which, in my opinion, is a great addition to their beauty, however that may be done or not at pleasure.” [Fig. 16]
[[File:1724.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 16, [[James Gibbs]], "Three Draughts of Obelisques," in ''Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl.86.]]
* <div id="Langley"></div>[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (pp. 195–200) <ref>Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (Originally published London: A. Bettesworth and J. Batley, etc., [1728] 1982) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MRDTAEKC view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Langley_cite|back up to history]]
:“''General'' DIRECTIONS, &c. . . .
[[File:1710.jpg|thumb|150px|Fig. 17, [[William and John Halfpenny]], "An Obelisk in the Chinese Taste," in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 24.]]
* [[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741–43, ''Cyclopaedia'' (2:n.p.) <ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . .'', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741-43) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''OBELISK*''', OBELISCUS, a quadrangular pyramid, very slender, and high; raised as an ornament, in some public place, or to shew some stone of enormous size; and frequently charged with inscriptions, and hieroglyphics. See MONUMENT.
* [[Halfpenny, William and John]], 1755, ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' ([1755] 1968: 7) <ref>William and John Halfpenny, ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (Bronx, N.Y. and London: Benjamin Blom, [1755] 1968) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9JKMEXVU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Elevation of an '''Obelisk''' 40 Feet high, proper to be situated at the Termination of a long [[Walk]], or in the Center of a large [[Square]], etc.” [Fig. 17]
* [[Bernard M'Mahon|M’Mahon, Bernard]], 1806, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' (p. 64) <ref>Bernard M’Mahon, ''The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done... for Every Month of the Year....'' (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In some spacious pleasure-grounds various light ornamental buildings and erections are introduced, as ornaments to particular departments; such as [[temple|temples]], [[bower]]s, banquetting houses, [[alcove]]s, [[grottos]], rural [[seat]]s, cottages, [[fountain]]s, '''obelisks''', statues, and other edifices; these and the like are usually erected in the different parts, in openings between the divisions of the ground, and contiguous to the terminations of grand [[walk|walks]], &c.”
* <div id="Gregory"></div>[[G. Gregory|Gregory, G.]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (2:n.p.) <ref>G. Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Gregory_cite|back up to history]]
:“'''OBELISK''', a truncated, quadrangular, and slender pyramid raised as an ornament, and frequently charged either with inscriptions or hieroglyphics.
* <div id="Loudon"></div>[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (p. 361) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al, 1826) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to history]]
:“1842. ''Monumental objects'', as '''obelisks''', [[column|columns]], [[pyramid|pyramids]], may occasionally be introduced with grand effect, both in a picturesque and historical view, of which Blenheim, Stow, Castle Howard, &c., afford fine examples; but their introduction is easily carried to the extreme, and then it defeats itself, as at Stow.”
* [[André Parmentier|Parmentier, André]], 1828, ''The New American Gardener'' (quoted in Fessenden 1828: 187) <ref>André Parmentier, “The Art of Landscape Gardening,” in ''The New American Gardener'', edited by ed. Thomas Fessenden (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3C29XRTH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Obelisks''', [[column|columns]], &c. should be placed on elevated places.”
* [[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2:n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol. 2 (New York: S. Converse, 1828) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7CI5MCGT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''OB’ELISK''', ''n''. [L. ''obeliscus''; Gr. . . .]
* [[Louisa C. Tuthill|Tuthill, Louisa C.]], 1848, ''History of Architecture'' ([1848] 1988: 399) <ref>Louisa C. Tuthill, ''History of Architecture, from the Earliest Times; Its Present Condition in Europe and the United States; with a Biography of Eminent Architects, and a Glossary of Architectural Terms, by Mrs. L. C. Tuthill'' (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, [1848] 1988) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4ACTS7DK view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Obelisk'''. A monolithic pillar of a rectangular form, diminishing from the base to the top.”

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42