:“As to the walks, those that have the appearance of meanders, where the eye cannot discover more than twenty or thirty yards in length, are generally preferable to all others, and these should now and then lead into an open circular piece of grass; in the centre of which may be placed either an obelisk, statue, or fountain; and, if in the middle of the wilderness there is contrived a large opening, in the centre of which may be erected a dome or banqueting house, surrounded with a green plot of grass, it will be of a considerable addition to the beauty of the whole. From the sides of the walks and openings, the trees should rise gradually one above another to the middle of the quarters, where should always be planted the largest-growing trees, so that the heads of all the trees may appear to view, while their stems will be hid from the sight. . ..
<p></p>
:“But beside the grand walks and openings, there should be some smaller walks through themiddle of the quarters, where persons may retire for privacy; and by the sides of those private walks may also be scattered some wood flowers and plants, which, if artfully planted, will have a very good effect.”   * Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener (pp. 463–64)  :“The Walk.—A common principle is, especially where the field is small, to carry a gravel-walk completely round, so near the outward boundary as to leave only an intervening border for flowers and shrubs. As this method produces the longest tract without sharp returns, and admits many expedients for concealing the opposite boundaries, there seems no reason for departing from it, except to lead the spectator to some object that would otherwise escape him, or to keep some intractable deformity out of sight. . . . <p></p>:“the walk, by curving round them, will take that variety of direction which essentially conduces to a series of interesting effects; allowing parts without any common relation, independent scenes, and fragments of scenes, to be seen only progressively; and disclosing entire prospects at the most advantageous station.”   * Thorburn, Grant, 1817, The Gentleman & Gardener’s Kalendar (pp. 19, 33)  :“[March] Make new walks where wanted— clean and roll your gravel and grass walks.... <p></p>:“This is a good time to make grass walks. First level and roll the ground—then cut sods of equal size and thickness from a pasture, lay them neatly, and roll them well or sow grass seed very thick, and rake it in and roll the ground as soon as it is dry. Clean grass and gravel walks: the latter may be dug, turning the top to the bottom, which will destroy the weeds and moss, roll them well afterwards. Weed all your flower borders well, and prepare more for next month.”   * Loudon, J. C., 1826, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (p. 796)  :“6105. Walks. In most styles of parterres these are formed of gravel; but in the modern sort . . . which consist of turf, varied by wavy dug beds (1 and 2), and surrounded by shrubbery. . . . [Fig. 11] <p></p>:“6106. In extensive and irregular parterres, one gravel-walk, accompanied by broad margins of turf, to serve as walks by such as prefer that material, should be so contrived as to form a tour for the display of the whole garden. There should also be other secondary interesting walks of the same width, of gravel and smaller walks for displaying particular details. The main walk, however, ought to be easily distinguishable from the others by its broad margins of fine turf.”  * Prince, William, 1828, A Short Treatise on Horticulture (p. 87)  :“Dwarf Box.—This is the low growing variety, generally used for edging of garden walks and flower beds. Its growth is slow, but at very advanced age it attains to a shrub of from six to eight feet high. It is this variety which is so widely spread and well known throughout the country.”   * Webster, Noah, 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language (n.p.)  :“GRAV’EL-WALK, n. A walk or alley covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; used in gardens and malls.... <p></p>:“WALK, n. wauk. The act of walking; the act of moving on the feet with a slow pace. <p></p>:“2. The act of walking for air or exercise; as a morning walk; an evening walk. Pope. <p></p>:“4. Length of way or circuit through which one walks; or a place for walking; as a long walk;a short walk. The gardens of the Tuilerie and of the Luxemburgh are very pleasant walks. <p></p>:“5. An avenue set with trees. Milton.”   * Teschemacher, James E., 1 November 1835, “On Horticultural Architecture” (Horticultural Register 1: 410–11)  :“To these remarks for small plots of ground, we would add a few common place rules, such as, that straight lines particularly for short distances, unless terminating in bold curves, are not pleasing to the eye; narrow walks, unless winding at short intervals through woods, are by no means desirable. . . . <p></p>:“An arbor or trellis covered with the vine, or with a variety of the clematis and climbing roses or other quick growing plants, is a good termination for a walk, which should branch off close round the trellis, to appear as if it led to a continuation elsewhere, at the back a few shrubs might conceal the boundary or fence.”   * Anonymous, 1 April 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (Horticultural Register 3: 128)  :“A frequent error in landscape gardens, is a multiplicity and confusion of objects. So many things are crowded together, that the spectator does not know to which to direct his attention first. The walks are often so numerous and so intricate, that they only serve to perplex. This may be easily avoided by adopting as a rule, that there shall be but one principal or leading walk throughout the whole. It may, by easy curves, be conducted in sight of every material object of view, and return finally to the place of entrance. In this way the same scene need never be exhibited twice. From this main walk there may be branches, to exhibit different scenes in detail; but it ought to be an invariable rule, that these episodal walks should never be one half the width of the principal walk, and should always branch off nearly at right angles from it, so that a stranger may never mistake one of them for the main walk. Where flowers are introduced they should commonly be in beds near the walk, while the taller shrubs and trees should be placed back more at a distance. <p></p>:“At favorable points, and those only, should the view be left open for more distant scenes. Sometimes by a judicious arrangement, the same objects seen from different places, may be made to present quite different aspects by appearing to group differently. The walk should be so directed as not to exhibit these views except at the most advantageous points. A bend in a walk should always exist from some cause either real or apparent.”   * Sayers, Edward, 1838, The American Flower Garden Companion (p. 15)  :“The walks [of a flower garden] should if possible be wide enough for two persons to walk abreast, in order to give a social effect, which should always be the first consideration in the flower garden.”   * Buist, Robert, 1841, The American Flower Garden Directory (pp. 11, 32)  :“For perspicuity, admit that the area to be enclosed [for a flower garden] should be from one to three acres, a circumambient walk should be traced at some distance within the fence, by which the whole is enclosed; the inferior walks should partly circumscribe and intersect the general surface in an easy serpentine and sweeping manner, and at such distances as would allow an agreeable view of the flowers when walking for exercise. Walks may be in breadth from three to twenty feet, although from four to ten feet is generally adopted . . . covered with gravel, and then firmly rolled with a heavy roller. . . . <p></p>:“Grass verges for walks and borders, although frequently used, are, by no means, desirable, except where variety is required; they are the most laborious to keep in order, and at best are inelegant, and the only object in their favour is, there being everywhere accessible.”   * Loudon, Jane, 1845, Gardening for Ladies(pp. 406–9)  :“WALKS may be considered with reference to their direction, their construction, and their management. In a small garden, the direction of the main walks should generally be governed by the boundary lines; and hence, in a plot of ground which is square or oblong, the walks should be straight and rectangular; the object in such a case being to produce the beauties of regularity and symmetry. On the other hand, when the boundaries
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